Data previously available from Research Connections are now available from the Child & Family Data Archive. Child care and early education research, publications and other resources remain on Research Connections.

For the best experience, please use Chrome, Firefox, Safari, or Edge.



Research Connections Web Accessibility Efforts: Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act requires that individuals with disabilities, who are members of the public seeking Federal electronic information or services, have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to that provided to the public who are not individuals with disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed. The Research Connections website has been built to meet the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0, level AA.

If you use assistive technology (such as a Braille reader, a screen reader, TTY, etc.) and the format of any material on our website interferes with your ability to access the information, please contact us, by sending an e-mail to To enable us to respond in a manner most helpful to you, please indicate the nature of your accessibility problem, the preferred format in which you would like to receive the material, the Web address of the requested material, and your contact information.

For additional information on Section 508, please visit

Copyright and Terms of Use

Copyright © 2018 Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

All content included on this site, such as text, graphics, logos, button icons, images, audio clips, video clips, and software, is the property of Research Connections, its affiliates, or its content suppliers and is protected by U.S. and international copyright laws.

The compilation (meaning the collection, arrangement, and assembly) of all content on this site is the exclusive property of Research Connections and its affiliates and is protected by U.S. and international copyright laws.

All software used on this site, including all HTML code, is the property of Research Connections, its affiliates, or its software suppliers and is protected by U.S. and international copyright laws.

Terms of Use

Copyrighted works that are part of this website are being used under the terms of "fair use." This service is provided with the understanding that all materials are provided solely for the user's personal, professional, scholarly, research, or educational use. Research Connections reserves the right to refuse to electronically distribute an article if, in its judgment, such distribution would involve violation of copyright law. Research Connections is not responsible for any inaccuracies, errors, or omissions in the materials stored on this website, or for any damages arising from any of the foregoing. By using the materials on this website (, you agree to abide by these terms and conditions.

Privacy Policy

Thank you for visiting the Research Connections website and for reviewing our Privacy Policy. We collect no information about you, other than information automatically collected and stored when you visit our website, unless you choose to provide that information to us.

Information Automatically Collected and Stored

When you browse through any website, certain personal information about you and your visit can be collected. We automatically collect and store the following information about your visit:

We use this information for statistical purposes and to help us make our site more useful to visitors. Unless it is specifically stated otherwise, no additional information will be collected about you.

Personally Provided Information

You do not have to give us personal information in order to visit our website. If you choose to provide us with additional information about yourself through an e-mail message, form, survey, etc., we will only maintain the information as long as needed to respond to your question or to fulfill the stated purpose of the communication.

However, all communications addressed to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary or to the HHS Webmaster are maintained, as required by law, for historical purposes. These communications are archived on a monthly basis, but are also protected by the Privacy Act which restricts our use of them, yet permits certain disclosures.


Research Connections does not disclose, give, sell, or transfer any personal information about our visitors, unless required for law enforcement or by statute.

Persistent Web Cookies

Consistent with the HHS policy for the Usage of Persistent Cookies, "persistent" Web cookies are not used on this website. "Persistent" Web cookies are defined as Web cookies that can track the activities of users over time and across different websites.

Systems of Records

Information originally collected in traditional paper systems can be submitted electronically. Electronically submitted information is maintained and destroyed pursuant to the Federal Records Act and in some cases may be subject to the Privacy Act. If information that you submit is to be used in a Privacy Act system of records, there will be a Privacy Act Notice provided.