Related Resource of study 3804

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A longitudinal, person-centered analysis of Early Head Start mothers' parenting

This study used a person-centered approach to examine stability and change in parenting typologies across early childhood. Profiles were associated within and across time with contextual covariates, including demographic characteristics, risk factors, and Early Head Start participation. Participants were drawn from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (N = 2, 876). Parenting profiles were identified based on observed parenting dimensions at 14, 24, and 36 months, and pre-Kindergarten (pre-K). Results suggested a four-profile solution at each time point: Supportive, Lukewarm (14 & 24 months)/Sufficient (36 months and pre-K), Harsh, and Detached. Supportive was the largest, most stable, and most likely transitioned into profile while Harsh and Detached represented rare profiles with moderate to low membership stability across time. Depression and family conflict emerged as important correlates of unsupportive parenting profiles both within and across time. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for both policy and implementation practices for low-income mothers with young children. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January/February 2018

The magic of play: Low-income mothers' and fathers' playfulness and children's emotion regulation and vocabulary skills

Using data from a diverse sample of low-income families who participated in the Early Head Start Research Evaluation Project (n = 73), we explored the association between mothers' and fathers' playfulness with toddlers, toddler's affect during play, and children's language and emotion regulation at prekindergarten. There were two main findings. First, fathers' playfulness in toddlerhood was associated with children's vocabulary skills in prekindergarten whereas mothers' playfulness was related to children's emotion regulation. Cross-parental effects were found only for mothers. The association between mothers' playfulness and children's vocabulary and emotion regulation was strengthened when fathers engaged in more pretend play and when children were affectively positive during the play. These findings show that playfulness is an important source of variation in the vocabulary and emotion regulation of children growing up in low-income families. They also point to domain-specific ways that mothers and fathers promote children's regulatory and vocabulary skills, and highlight the importance of children's positive engagement in play. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

November/December 2017

Dads' Parent Interactions with Children-Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO-D): Developing an observational measure of father-child interaction

Intervention programs providing support for father parenting skills need a practical but psychometrically strong observational measure of fathers' early positive parenting interactions with children. The primary purpose of this project was to develop a valid, reliable observational measure of father-child interaction, based on research and theory, that predicts child outcomes, identifies fathers' strengths, and will be useful for home visiting practitioners. This study sought to fulfill this need by developing a new measure called Dads' Parenting Interactions with Children--Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO-D) for home visitors to use to identify fathering strengths. Developed with extant video observations of over 400 ethnically diverse, low-income fathers, 73 positive observable behavioral items of early positive father-child interaction were tested for variability, reliability, and validity. The final measure of 21 items representing four domains of positive parenting, affection, responsiveness, encouragement, and teaching, demonstrated good reliability and validity, including associations with children's language, cognitive, and social emotional outcomes into prekindergarten. Contextual influences were examined within father ethnicity and child gender groups and in a second observational setting. European and Latino American fathers had higher scores than African American fathers. Fathers had higher scores with daughters than sons. Fathers had higher scores in a semistructured play setting than in a father-choice setting. The new measure is intended for use as part of an individualized strengths-based approach for home visiting practitioners. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2012

Predicting self-regulation and vocabulary and academic skills at kindergarten entry: The roles of maternal parenting stress and mother-child closeness

We examined the indirect relations between maternal parenting stress when children were 15months of age and children's vocabulary and academic skills when they were about to enter kindergarten, testing for potential mediation by mother-child closeness and children's self-regulation skills. Participants had been involved in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project and included 1760 European American, African American, and Hispanic low-income mother-child dyads. Structural equation modeling revealed that mothers' parenting stress when children were 15 months old was inversely related to children's vocabulary and academic skills just prior to kindergarten, and that mother-child closeness at 25 months and children's pre-kindergarten self-regulation skills consecutively mediated these associations in a three-path mediation model. The findings highlight the benefits of mother-child closeness in toddlerhood, and negative implications of maternal parenting stress. The discussion focuses on how maternal parenting stress is related to later maternal behavior, ultimately shaping child outcomes. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2016

Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSRE)

The Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, a rigorous, large-scale, random-assignment evaluation of Early Head Start, was designed to carry out the recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers for a strong research and evaluation component to support continuous improvement within the Early Head Start program and to meet the 1994 reauthorization requirement for a national evaluation of the new infant-toddler program. The Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project was funded in three waves. The Congressionally-mandated Birth to Three Phase (1996-2001) included an Implementation Study, an Impact Evaluation that investigated program impacts on children and families through their time in the program, and local research projects. In 2001, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) funded the Pre-Kindergarten Follow-up Phase (2001-2004) to build upon the earlier research and follow the children and families who were in the original study from the time they left the Early Head Start program until they entered kindergarten. In 2005, ACF funded the Elementary School Follow-up Phase (2005-2010) to again build upon earlier research and follow the children and families from the original study while the children are in fifth grade, or attending their sixth year of formal schooling.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

1996

Maternal responsivity to infants in the "High Chair" assessment: Longitudinal relations with toddler outcomes in a diverse, low-income sample

Infant-parent interactions occur across many situations, yet most home-based assessments of parenting behaviors are conducted under conditions of low stress, such as free play. In this study, low-income mothers from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project were observed at home interacting with their 14-month-olds in the mildly stressful "High Chair" assessment (n = 1718 dyads). This methodological study tested whether High Chair maternal responsiveness and detachment predicted later toddler cognitive and emotion outcomes, over and above equivalent maternal predictors during free play. High Chair responsiveness and detachment were significant, although modest, predictors of child cognitive and emotion outcomes, over and above maternal responsiveness and detachment during free play; except High Chair responsiveness did not predict the emotion outcome. There were no significant differences between ethnic groups in prediction of outcomes. Results are discussed in terms of the methodological value of assessing parenting behaviors across diverse situations and populations. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2017

Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP): 1996-2010 measures compendium

Early Head Start (EHS) is a two-generation program for pregnant women and families with infants or toddlers. Offered to those with limited incomes, its goal is to enhance children's development and health and to strengthen family and community partnerships. The Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (ACF), was designed to answer questions about the overall impact of EHS programs and services on children and families and reveal how specific types of programs and services affect children and families that have different characteristics and life circumstances. Mathematica Policy Research led the rigorous evaluation, which was launched at about the same time the EHS program was authorized in 1995. In this data compendium, we provide a single source for information about the measures used throughout the EHSREP. We begin with an overview of the EHSREP design and then report the sample, data collection instruments, and response rates for each of three EHSREP data collection phases (birth to age 3, prekindergarten, and grade 5). Next, we describe the various data sets and documentation that are available to data users, and we provide a general description of how we have organized the more detailed information on the measures we used to create variables and scores for the public use data files. Appendix A contains detailed descriptions of the measures, including measure citations, publisher psychometrics and permissions, the wave or waves in which each measure was used, and information on the scales or variables in the EHSREP data set that were derived from these measures. (author abstract)

Other

November, 2016

Who does the reading, who the talking?: Low-income fathers and mothers in the US interacting with their young children around a picture book

Bookreading is known to benefit young children's language and literacy development. However, research has demonstrated that how adults interact around a book with a child is probably even more important than reading the complete text. Dialogic or interactive reading strategies can promote children's language development more specifically. Little is known about how fathers engage in bookreading with their children. This study examined the differences and similarities in interaction style during bookreading among low-income fathers and mothers in the US at child ages two and three, in particular focusing on immediate and non-immediate talk. Results demonstrated that fathers used more non-immediate talk, or talk not directly related to the book, than mothers did, at both child ages. Fathers also used more engagement strategies than mothers did. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2016

Family and social risk, and parental investments during the early childhood years as predictors of low-income children's school readiness outcomes

Using data from the National Early Head Start (EHS) Research and Evaluation Project (N= 1851), the current study examined relations among cumulative family and social risk, assessed during infancy and the preschool years, and children's prekindergarten achievement, self-regulatory skills, and problematic social behavior, testing if these associations were mediated through two sets of family processes--responsive parenting practices and the provision of language stimulation and literacy practices. Structural equation modeling results highlight the significance of the timing of children's experience of risk in predicting school readiness competencies. Risk exposure during infancy was observed to be most detrimental for children's school readiness skills and was partially mediated by risk exposure during the preschool years and family processes, assessed during toddlerhood and the preschool years. Moderation analyses revealed no difference in the strength of relationships among the study variables by EHS assignment or by race/ethnicity. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2010

Modeling parenting stress trajectories among low-income young mothers across the child's second and third years: Factors accounting for stability and change

This study investigated parenting stress trajectories among low-income young mothers and the factors that are associated with change and stability of parenting stress as children aged from 14 to 36 months old. With a sample of 580 young mothers who applied to the Early Head Start Program, growth mixture modeling identified 3 trajectory classes of parenting stress: a chronically high group (7% of the sample), an increasing group (10% of the sample), and a decreasing group (83% of the sample). Maternal personal resources distinguished between the increasing and decreasing classes, whereas maternal personal resources, child characteristics, and contextual influences explained differences between the chronically high and decreasing trajectory classes. Findings suggest that for interventions to be effective, programs need to assess maternal, child, and contextual factors to better address the particular unique needs of young mothers. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2007

Child care and community services: Characteristics of service use and effects on parenting and the home environment

My dissertation provides three independent studies that, taken together, examine the different mechanisms through which the center-based care environment interacts with parents to provide services and parental involvement activities, and how comprehensive parent components impact the home environment or are associated with child development. The specific research questions answered in this dissertation are: (1) To what extent are parents utilizing services and supports offered or referred by center-based early childhood programs? (2) What characteristics of parents predict usage of supports and services offered through center-based early childhood programs and the community? (3) What characteristics of parents predict parental involvement in children's center-based early childhood programs? (4) To what extent is parental involvement in center-based early childhood programs associated with children's school readiness skills and later development? (5) To what extent is parents' participation in center-based early childhood programs associated with parenting practices? (6) To what extent do the services and supports provided or referred to parents from center-based early childhood programs affect the home environment and parenting practices? (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2014

Multivariate models for normal and binary responses in intervention studies

Use of multivariate analysis (e.g., multivariate analysis of variance) is common when normally distributed outcomes are collected in intervention research. However, when mixed response--a set of normal and binary outcome--are collected, standard multivariate analyses are no longer suitable. While mixed responses are often obtained in intervention studies and analysis models that can simultaneously include such outcomes are available, we found very limited use of these models in intervention research. To encourage greater use of multivariate analysis for mixed outcomes, this article highlights the benefits and describes important features of models that can incorporate a mix of normal and binary outcomes. Models for intervention research are then fit using Mplus and results interpreted using data from an evaluation of the Early Head Start program, a randomized trial designed to improve child outcomes for an at-risk population. The models illustrated estimate treatment effects for mixed responses in standard and multilevel experimental designs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

June, 2016

Home visit quality variations in two Early Head Start programs in relation to parenting and child vocabulary outcomes

Home-visiting programs aiming to improve early child development have demonstrated positive outcomes, but processes within home visits to individual families are rarely documented. We examined family-level variations in the home-visiting process (N = 71) from extant video recordings of home visits in two Early Head Start programs, using an observational measure of research-based quality indicators of home-visiting practices and family engagement, the Home Visit Rating Scales (HOVRS). HOVRS scores, showing good interrater agreement and internal consistency, were significantly associated with parent- and staff-reported positive characteristics of home visiting as well as with parenting and child language outcomes tested at program exit. When home-visiting processes were higher quality during the program, home visit content was more focused on child development, families were more involved in the overall program, and most important, scores on measures of the parenting environment and children's vocabulary were higher at the end of the program. Results showed that home visit quality was indirectly associated with child language outcomes through parenting outcomes. Observation ratings of home visit quality could be useful for guiding program improvement, supporting professional development, and increasing our understanding of the links between home-visiting processes and outcomes. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May/June 2016

Adolescent motherhood and developmental outcomes of children in Early Head Start: The influence of maternal parenting behaviors, well-being, and risk factors within the family setting

This longitudinal study examined the influence of parenting behaviors, well-being, and risk factors of low-income adolescent mothers on the cognitive and language abilities of children from infancy to age 3. Participants consisted of 1,240 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Data were collected using structured interviews with the mothers and from videotaped mother-child interactions during play activities when children were approximately 14 months old and again at 36 months of age. Positive parenting behaviors exhibited toward the 14-month-old children predicted gains in both cognitive and language abilities more so than did maternal well-being, risk factors within the family setting, and demographic risk factors. Gains in cognitive abilities from infancy to age 3 were predicted by supportive parenting, higher family resources, and lower family conflict when children were infants. Gains in language abilities were predicted by supportive parenting, support for language and learning in the home environment, and higher family resources when children were infants. Finally, path analyses showed that maternal age had an indirect effect on child cognitive and language abilities at age 3 through effects on parenting behaviors. Older mothers were more likely to be supportive during play at age 14 months, which in turn promoted enhanced developmental outcomes at age 3. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

April, 2011

Sociodemographic and programmatic moderators of Early Head Start: Evidence from the national Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

This secondary analysis of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, a randomized study of program participation of children and families in Early Head Start (that is, enrolled in programming prior to children's first birthdays) investigated sociodeniographic (race and ethnicity, income level, and maternal education level) and program type (mixed programs or center- and home-based) moderators of child cognitive and parenting outcomes. Results found significant race by program type interactions, favoring African American and Hispanic families participating in center- and home-based programs, on both child cognitive and parenting outcomes. On the other hand, positive cognitive outcomes clustered in children with mothers who had not completed high school. Implications for social work research and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July, 2008

The transition from early child care to preschool: Emerging toddler skills and readiness for group-based learning

National policy today is on the brink of defining preschool experiences as essential for children's academic success. Indeed, many children's classroom experience begins as they transition from infant/toddler care to a preschool classroom. This study examined developmentally relevant skill domains among 36-month-olds (effortful control, social engagement, and language abilities) and tested their organization in a latent factor model of skills hypothesized to promote classroom adaptation. Assessments of low-income children interacting with a parent and examiner from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project were utilized (n = 1,814). The data included observations of mother-child interactions during semistructured activities at home and child behavior assessments. Results indicated that the interrelated structure of children's skills was best defined in a 2-factor, latent variable model: effortful control and social communication. These learning skills were related to but separate from general cognitive ability. Practice or Policy: Home-visiting programs for infants and toddlers are expected to promote children's school readiness, yet little research has focused on the skills that facilitate children's transition to the large-group learning environment at age 3. Implications of this model for early prevention efforts and early childhood teacher training to promote children's readiness for group-based learning are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2015

Children's negative emotionality moderates influence of parenting styles on preschool classroom adjustment

This investigation utilized a subsample from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (N=1101) to examine how profiles of maternal behaviors at 36-months were associated with children's classroom aggression and teacher-child relationship quality in pre-kindergarten. Based upon observed behaviors, we identified three distinct profiles of parenting categorized as sensitive, harsh, and detached. Results revealed significant main effects of the detached parenting profile on both dimensions of children's classroom functioning in pre-kindergarten. These main effects were not moderated by child sex. The main effects were moderated by child negative emotionality, suggesting a promotive effect of sensitive parenting for children with low negative emotionality. Children exposed to detached parenting had the poorest teacher-child relationships, regardless of emotionality. These findings demonstrate through use of a person-centered approach how parenting behaviors relate to contextual risks and characteristics, and to children's later relationships with teachers and classmates in prekindergarten. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July/August 2015

Examining long-term effects of an infant mental health home-based Early Head Start program on family strengths and resilience

Infant Mental Health based interventions aim to promote the healthy development of infants and toddlers through promoting healthy family functioning to foster supportive relationships between the young child and his or her important caregivers. This study examined impacts of an Infant Mental Health home-based Early Head Start (IMH-HB EHS) program on family functioning. The sample includes 152 low-income families in the Midwestern United States, expectant or parenting a child younger than 1 year of age, who were randomly assigned to receive IMH-HB EHS services (n = 75) or to a comparison condition (n = 77). Mothers who received IMH-HB EHS services reported healthier psychological and family functioning, outcomes that are consistent with the IMH focus, when their children were between the ages of 3 and 7 years of age. Specifically, mothers in the IMH-HB EHS group reported healthier family functioning and relationships, better coping skills needed to advocate for their families, and less stress in the parenting role versus those in the comparison condition. The study also examined support seeking coping, some of which changed differently over time based on program group assignment. Overall, findings suggest that the gains families achieve from participating in IMH-HB EHS services are maintained after services cease. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July/August 2015

Theories of change and outcomes in home-based Early Head Start programs

Programs to promote children's early development are based on a set of assumptions, explicit or implicit, about intended outcomes and how the program will effect change. The "theories of change" were examined in ten home-based programs in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP), using data collected through multiple interviews with program staff. All home-based programs indicated that parenting outcomes were among their highest three priorities, while only 4 of 10 programs said that child outcomes were in their top priorities. The pattern of outcome differences between randomly-assigned program and control group participants reflected the programs' theories of change in several ways. Early Head Start home-based programs showed positive impacts on 9 of 9 parenting outcomes, including parental supportiveness, home language and learning supports, emotional responsiveness, and family conflict when children were 24 months of age. Significant program impacts on child cognitive skills (Bayley MDI scores) and social behavior (observed child engagement of parent during play) were found when children were 36 months of age. Mediation analyses showed that the 54% of the program impact on 36-month child cognitive scores was mediated by 24-month program impacts on parental supportiveness, language and learning support, emotional responsiveness, and family conflict, and 47% of the program impact on 36-month child engagement of parent was mediated by 24-month impacts on parental supportiveness, language and cognitive stimulation, and emotional responsiveness. Results from mediation analyses were consistent with these home-based programs' theories of change, supporting the efficacy of focusing on parent change as a mechanism for child outcomes in home visiting programs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2014

Road to readiness: Pathways from low-income children's early interactions to school readiness skills

This study utilized data from the Michigan component of the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study to examine toddlers' joint attention at 14 months (parent report measure of toddlers' initiating behaviors, e.g., extends arm to show you something he or she is holding, reaches out and gives you a toy he or she has been holding, and points at something interesting) as a mediator of the relations between early mother-child interactions (e.g., mother and child behaviors in response to one another's cues) and later school readiness skills in a low-income sample (N = 127 mother-child dyads). Understanding relations between early parent-child interactions, joint attention, and later school readiness skills is critical to identifying developmental paths of economically at-risk children. Results showed that toddlers' joint attention behaviors at 14 months partially mediated the path between mother-child interaction at 14 months and later school readiness, measured by children's emotion regulation, social-cognition, language development, and literacy and mathematics academic outcomes, at approximately 5 years of age. Results suggest the important roles of early mother-child interactions in low-income families and joint attention in promoting school readiness skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July-September 2014

The effect of Early Head Start on child welfare system involvement: A first look at longitudinal child maltreatment outcomes

The high societal and personal costs of child maltreatment make identification of effective early prevention programs a high research priority. Early Head Start (EHS), a dual generational program serving low-income families with children prenatally through age three years, is one of the largest federally funded programs for infants and toddlers in the United States. A national randomized trial found EHS to be effective in improving parent and child outcomes, but its effectiveness in reducing child maltreatment was not assessed. The current study used administrative data from state child welfare agencies to examine the impact of EHS on documented abuse and neglect among children from seven of the original seventeen programs in the national EHS randomized controlled trial. Results indicated that children in EHS had significantly fewer child welfare encounters between the ages of five and nine years than did children in the control group, and that EHS slowed the rate of subsequent encounters. Additionally, compared to children in the control group, children in EHS were less likely to have a substantiated report of physical or sexual abuse, but more likely to have a substantiated report of neglect. These findings suggest that EHS may be effective in reducing child maltreatment among low-income children, in particular, physical and sexual abuse. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July, 2014

Family participation and involvement in Early Head Start home visiting services: Relations with longitudinal outcomes

A study of the relationship of family involvement in Early Head Start home visiting services to child and family status during preschool and elementary school, based on data from the longitudinal Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

Reports & Papers

Identification of disabilities and service receipt among preschool children living in poverty

This study examined the prevalence of indicators of disability or potential disability among preschool-aged children enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Longitudinal Follow-Up. Three categories of indicators were established: received Part B services, developmental risk, and biological risk. The majority of participating children (62%) were classified into at least one category. Children living in poverty from birth through preschool and of minority status were among those most likely to be classified; these children were likely to have received a variety of services. The majority of children who received Part C services (79.8%) received Part B services as preschoolers, but 33% of the children with a developmental risk identified before age 3 continued to have a developmental risk during preschool yet did not receive specialized services. Results highlight the importance of understanding the relations among child and family characteristics and service receipt to inform policy and practice. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2013

What makes a difference?: Early Head Start evaluation findings in a developmental context [Special issue]

A special issue of the Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development focusing on the impacts of Early Head Start on child and family outcomes, including children's socioemotional and cognitive development and families' well-being and home environments, based on data for 3,001 randomly-assigned low income families

Other

February, 2013

Preschool center quality and school readiness: Quality effects and variation by demographic and child characteristics

An examination of the relationship between preschool center quality and children's school readiness, and the moderating roles of child entry demographic background, cognitive skills, attention skills, and problem behaviors on that relationship, based on data from approximately 6,250 3- to 5-year-olds from four large-scale child care studies

Reports & Papers

July/August 2013

Child Care and Community Services: Characteristics of Service Use and Effects on Parenting

The study aims to improve the field's understanding of the features of child care services that are most critical to support children's development and identify family-level processes that might be influenced by child care. Specific research questions are: (1) What characteristics of parents predict usage of supports and services offered through the child care center and the community?; (2) What types of services and supports do parents use?; (3) Do the services and supports provided or referred to parents from the child care or preschool setting positively affect the home environment and parenting practices? To address these questions three national data sets (Head Start Impact Study, National Evaluation of Early Head Start, and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development) are being analyzed. The results of the study can further inform the field of the parental characteristics related to service take-up and whether the services have a positive effect on the home, in addition to providing practitioners and policymakers with evidence to design early child care and education programs that improve the environments and relationships vital for children's academic and social development.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

2012

A person-oriented approach to understanding dimensions of parenting in low-income mothers

An identification, at multiple time points, of groups of parents that share similar profiles of parenting, and an examination of the relationship between those group differences and other individual, family, and context characteristics, based on data from a sample of 2,631 low income Early Head Start mothers from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2012

Buffering boys and boosting girls: The protective and promotive effects of Early Head Start for children's expressive language in the context of parenting stress

An examination of the relationship between parenting stress and language development of boys and girls, the mediating role of Early Head Start participation, and variation by gender in that relationship, based on data from 3,001 study participants in the national Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) study, and a detailed examination of a subset of 146 participants from a dataset associated with one EHSRE site

Reports & Papers

Q4 2012

Early Head Start and African American families: Impacts and mechanisms of child outcomes

A study of the effects of participation in Early Head Start (EHS) for both African American children at age 3 and their parents across developmental and parenting domains, and an examination of the mediating roles of parental cognitive stimulation, warmth, supportiveness, parental distress, and harshness on those effects, based on data from 778 African American families participating in the Early Head Start evaluation

Reports & Papers

Q4 2012

Early Head Start home visitation: The role of implementation in bolstering program benefits

Home visitation has emerged as a key strategy for promoting child and family well-being in the current policy context. This article examines the effectiveness of the Early Head Start (EHS) home-based program for children and families at the end of the program and 2 years later, with a particular focus on the role of program implementation in the impacts of the EHS home-based program on child and family outcomes. There was a pattern of broad, modest effects of EHS home visiting for both children and parents, which were strengthened if the programs were fully implemented according to federal guidelines. In particular, impacts for children in the cognitive and language domain were documented. Implications of these findings for policy and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2012

Does the quality of stimulation and support in the home environment moderate the effect of early education programs?

A study of the moderating influences of maternal emotional warmth and aspects of the home environment on the relationship between Early Head Start participation and measures of children's cognitive and psychosocial development at ages 3 and 5, based on data from 3,001 children

Reports & Papers

November/December 2011

Classroom dimensions predict early peer interaction when children are diverse in ethnicity, race, and home language

A study of the relationship between children's behaviors with peers and dimensions of the classroom as well as teacher-child relationship quality, based on data from children from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds that are part of the National Evaluation of Early Head Start

Reports & Papers

Q4 2011

Testing maternal depression and attachment style as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on parenting

A study of the moderating influences of both maternal depression and attachment style on the relationship between Early Head Start participation and maternal supportiveness, intrusiveness, spanking, and perceived negative interactions, based on data collected from 947 mothers

Reports & Papers

January, 2011

Social outcomes associated with media viewing habits of low-income preschool children

A study of the relationships between both television viewing hours and inappropriate media viewing and hyperactivity, aggression, and social skills of preschoolers, based on data from home and preschool observations of 95 children at two rural preschools

Reports & Papers

March, 2011

Developmental pathways to integrated social skills: The roles of parenting and early intervention

A study of the effect of Early Head Start participation on children's self-regulation, and a study of the roles of family risks, parenting-related stresses, and parent-child interactions in the acquisition of self-regulatory skills, based on data from the National Early Head Start Evaluation Study, 3,001 families with young children measured at 14, 24, and 36 months

Reports & Papers

March/April 2011

Leading the way: Characteristics and early experiences of selected Early Head Start programs: Volume III: Program implementation

An analysis of the levels of implementation and child care quality achieved in the early stages of the evolution of 17 programs participating in the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project in fall 1997 in terms of the revised Head Start Program Performance Standards

Reports & Papers

December, 2000

Leading the way: Characteristics and early experiences of selected Early Head Start programs: Volume II: Program profiles

A detailed overview of each of the 17 center-based, home-based, and mixed approach programs participating in the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project in fall 1997, with information about enrollment, services, program improvement efforts, and local research studies

Reports & Papers

December, 1999

Who's reading to children in low-income families?: The influence of paternal, maternal and child characteristics

A search for family characteristics associated with the frequency of both maternal and paternal book reading sessions at different stages of children's toddlerhood, based on data from a self-selected subsample of 766 families from a larger study of Early Head Start participants

Reports & Papers

2011

Neurocognitive perspectives in language outcomes of Early Head Start: Language and cognitive stimulation and maternal depression

A study of the relationships between child vocabulary and socioeconomic status, Early Head Start participation, and caregiver variables, based on data collected from 2,948 children and their primary caregivers at 17 locations across the country from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study

Reports & Papers

September/October 2010

The impact of maternal mental health on parenting quality and child outcomes in Early Head Start

A study of the relationship between maternal depression, parenting quality and a variety of child development outcomes and an examination of the relationship between participation in Early Head Start and maternal depression, parenting, and a variety of child development outcomes from a secondary analysis of data from Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study

Reports & Papers

April 15, 2010

Center-based Early Head Start and children exposed to family conflict

A randomized trial of 305 families that received Early Head Start program services and 305 families that did not to test the effects of high-quality center care on the aggression and emotion regulation among children exposed to family conflict in childhood

Reports & Papers

November, 2009

Mixed approach programs in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project: An in-depth view

An examination of challenges faced by providers in the service delivery to families of 6 mixed approach programs, parent reported variety and intensity of service receipt over time and across program approaches, and the impact of the type and timing of receipt of Early Head Start services on child and family outcomes at 36 months through a secondary analysis of data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project of 1,392 families respondents to at least one of three parent interviews on service intensity

Reports & Papers

November, 2009

Low-income children's school readiness: Parent contributions over the first five years

A study of the association of both home environment and parental support of play measured at 14 months and school readiness skills measured at kindergarten and a study of the association between parenting changes during the first 5 years of life and school readiness based on data collected as part of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project with a sample of 1,273 child and parent assessments

Reports & Papers

November, 2009

Cognitive skill performance among young children living in poverty: Risk, change, and the promotive effects of Early Head Start

An examination of the association between risk factors and the cognitive performance in children 1 to 3 years of age living in poverty and an investigation of the effects of Early Head Start on children's cognitive skill performance, based on data from the Early Head Start (EHS) Research and Evaluation Project, a prospective study of 3,001 children and families living in poverty

Reports & Papers

Q3 2009

Parental involvement, parenting behaviors, and children's cognitive development in low-income and minority families

A longitudinal study of the effects of parental participation in Head Start parenting classes, group socialization, or support groups on child cognitive and linguistic outcomes in several populations of low income and ethnic/linguistic minority families, based on data collected from an experimental group of 1,503 families and a control group of 1,474 families between 1996 and 2001

Reports & Papers

Spring 2009

It takes time: Impacts of Early Head Start that lead to reductions in maternal depression two years later

A study of the effect of Early Head Start participation on levels of maternal depression at the time of school entry, based on data collected at 17 Early Head Start programs nationwide

Reports & Papers

March/April 2007

Guide to datasets for research and policymaking in child care and early education

An annotated bibliography of existing large-scale datasets that provide useful information to policymakers, researchers, and others in the field of child care and early education in the United States

Other

January 2009

Predictors and outcomes of low-income fathersÂ’ reading with their toddlers

A study of the parental predictors and child outcomes associated with the frequency of book reading sessions between of low-income fathers and their toddlers

Reports & Papers

Q3 2008

Who drops out of Early Head Start home visiting programs?

An examination of the timing, factors, and predictors of the discontinuance of participation in Early Head Start home-based programs, based on a sample of 564 families

Reports & Papers

2008

The joint influence of mother and father parenting on child cognitive outcomes at age 5

An assessment of the association between both maternal and paternal supportiveness during toddlerhood and young children?s math and language achievement at age 5 in a sample of 200 low-income two-parent homes participating in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

Reports & Papers

Q4 2007

Child care for low-income children with disabilities: Access, quality, and parental satisfaction

A comparison of child care use, quality, parental satisfaction, and maternal employment and education activities among low-income families of young children with and without disabilities, based on data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

Reports & Papers

2006

Mother-child bookreading in low-income families: Correlates and outcomes during the first three years of life

An investigation of the impact of mother-child book reading on low income young children's cognitive and language development as well as an examination of book reading in relation to the Early Head Start intervention using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

Reports & Papers

July/August 2006

The infant-toddler HOME in the 2nd and 3rd years of life

A description of the development of subscales of the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Infant and Toddler version using data from three large scale national studies

Reports & Papers

2004

Involvement in Early Head Start home visiting services: Demographic predictors and relations to child and parent outcomes

One strand of home visiting research investigates efficacy while another investigates under what conditions programs achieve outcomes. The current study follows the latter approach. Using a within-program design in a sample of 11 home-based sites in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study, this study found that three components of home visits (quantity of involvement including number of home visits, duration in the program, length of visits and intensity of service; quality of engagement including global ratings of engagement by staff and ratings of engagement during each home visit; and the extent to which home visits were child focused) represented distinguishable aspects of home visit services. Demographic variables predicted components of involvement, and home visit involvement components were differentially related to outcomes at 36 months, after controlling for demographic/family factors and earlier functioning on the same measure. Only one quantity of involvement variable (duration) predicted improvements in home language and literacy environments at 36 months. Quality of involvement variables were negative predictors of maternal depressive symptoms at 36 months. Finally, the proportion of time during the visit devoted to child-focused activities predicted children's cognitive and language development scores, parent HOME scores, and parental support for language and learning when children were 36 months of age. Implications for home visiting programs and policies are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2006

Parenting and child care as predictors of language, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in young, low-income children

An examination of parenting behavior and child care type and quality as predictors of cognitive, language, and behavioral development in low-income toddlers and preschool-aged children, based on data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

Reports & Papers

2005

The effectiveness of Early Head Start for 3-year-old children and their parents: Lessons for policy and programs

A summary of the evaluated impacts of Early Head Start on child and parent outcomes near the end of program participation

Reports & Papers

2005

Fathering attitudes and practices: Influences on children's development

An investigation into the influence of fathers' parenting beliefs and level of modernity on their children's development, based on a sample of 525 biological fathers and stepfathers participating in the Early Head Start Research and Demonstration Project

Reports & Papers

2005

Early Head Start: Identifying and serving children with disabilities

A longitudinal study of the number of Early Head Start children with developmental delays examined characteristics of low income families who received supportive services as compared to families who did not

Reports & Papers

2004

Needs and aspirations of the working poor: Early Head Start program applicants

An assessment of the characteristics, needs, and goals of families applying for an Early Head Start program, based on a sample of 85 suburban, low-income families

Reports & Papers

2000

Child care quality matters: How conclusions may vary with context

An analysis of three national studies on child care quality and the impact of quality on child development

Other

2003

Links between childbearing age and observed maternal behaviors with 14-month-olds in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

A study addressing links between maternal childbearing age and parenting behaviors, based on a sample of 1,702 low-income mothers

Reports & Papers

2002

Understanding implementation in Early Head Start programs: Implications for policy and practice

Article presents findings on the utility of measures designed to assess program implementation and quality in the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

Reports & Papers

2002

Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

This project involves both a cross-site national study and local longitudinal studies of low-income families with young children in Early Head Start sites in 17 communities in the United States. The project was funded in two waves: Birth to Three (1996-2001) and Pre-Kindergarten Follow-Up (2001-2004). The five major components of the project are: an implementation study, an impact evaluation, local research studies, policy studies, and efforts toward continuous program improvement. The implementation study assessed the level and quality of implementation of EHS at each site, as well as variations across sites, with regard to five program areas: child development and health care; family partnerships; community involvement and partnerships; staff development; and program management. Results include a profile of each of the 17 research programs, their services and expected outcomes. The information gathered was critical for the development of the impact evaluation analyses and the identification of pathways to full implementation. The impact evaluation followed a random assignment, longitudinal design to examine how child, parent and family outcomes were influenced by EHS programs, as well as by variations in program approaches and community contexts, program implementation and services, and the characteristics of children and their families. The third component involves 16 local research projects conducted by 15 university-based researchers who partnered with Early Head Start research programs. Designed to investigate the unique outcomes and program functions of each Early Head Start program, these longitudinal studies continue through the second phase of the project, Pre-Kindergarten Follow-up (2001-2004). The policy studies component focuses on issues related to welfare reform, health and disabilities, child-care and fatherhood. The component of continuous program improvement consists of reports and presentations disseminating new information that can help all Early Head Start programs to increase their ability to meet the needs of families.

Major Research Projects

Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families: Summary report

An interim report of the random assignment, impact evaluation of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, analyzing child and family outcomes through the first two years of children's lives

Reports & Papers

January, 2001

Leading the way: Characteristics and early experiences of selected Early Head Start programs: Volume I: Cross-site perspectives

A description of the characteristics and early implementation experiences of the 17 research programs participating in the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project in fall 1997, with a focus on similarities and differences across programs in the characteristics of the families they serve, their goals and expected outcomes, the services they offer, and their early challenges and successes

Reports & Papers

December, 1999

Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families: Summary report

A summary of findings from the interim report of the random assignment, impact evaluation of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project

Executive Summary

January, 2001

Making a difference in the lives of infants and toddlers and their families: The impacts of Early Head Start: Volume I: Final technical report

A report of the findings from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, a large-scale, random-assignment evaluation of the impact of Early Head Start programs on the development of infants and toddlers, and the parenting and family development of low-income families across the United States

Reports & Papers

June, 2002

Making a difference in the lives of infants and toddlers and their families: The impacts of Early Head Start: Executive summary

A summary of findings from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, a large-scale, random-assignment evaluation of the impact of Early Head Start programs on the development of infants and toddlers, and the parenting and family development of low-income families in 17 diverse sites across the US. Findings when children were 36 months of age, showed a pattern of positive, modest impacts across a wide range of child, parent-child and parent outcomes.

Executive Summary

June, 2002