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Related Resource of Resource 9140

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Result Resource Type Publication Date

ACF/OPRE report: Head Start children go to kindergarten
West, Jerry; Malone, Lizabeth M.; Hulsey, Lara; Aikens, Nikki; Tarullo, Louisa B.;

A profile of the development, families, and home and school environments of kindergarten children who had entered Head Start in the fall of 2006, based on data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2006 (FACES 2006)

Reports & Papers

December, 2010

ACF-OPRE report: A second year in Head Start: Characteristics and outcomes of children who entered the program at age three
Tarullo, Louisa B.; Aikens, Nikki; Moiduddin, Emily M.; West, Jerry;

A profile of the development, families, and home environments of children participating in their second year of Head Start who had entered the program at age 3 in the fall of 2006, based on spring 2008 data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2006 (FACES 2006)

Reports & Papers

December, 2010

ACF-OPRE report: A year in Head Start: Children, families and programs
Aikens, Nikki; Tarullo, Louisa B.; Hulsey, Lara; Ross, Christine; West, Jerry; Xue, Yange;

A profile of the characteristics of Head Start children and families and their home and Head Start classroom environments from fall 2006 through spring 2007, including children's cognitive, physical, and socioemotional development, and Head Start classroom curricula and activities, based on data collected from a sample of 60 Head Start programs, 135 centers, 410 classrooms, 365 teachers, and 3,315 children and their parents

Reports & Papers

October, 2010

Children's classroom engagement and school readiness gains in prekindergarten
Chien, Nina C.; Howes, Carollee; Burchinal, Margaret; Pianta, Robert C.; Ritchie, Sharon; Bryant, Donna M.; Clifford, Richard M.; Early, Diane Marie; Barbarin, Oscar;

A study of the relationship between child engagement in public prekindergarten classrooms and school readiness gains, based on data from 2,751 children from the Multi-State Study of Pre-Kindergarten and the State-Wide Early Education Programs Study (SWEEP)

Reports & Papers

September/October 2010

The effect of extending the pre-kindergarten school day on literacy and language development for English language learners
deVezin, Jeanne

A study of the relationship between extended-day bilingual preschool participation and both language and reading levels as well as reading gains in both Spanish and English of 41 bilingual prekindergarten children and a second study of the relationship of extended-day bilingual preschool participation and both receptive and expressive language skills at the end of prekindergarten for 121 children in a large suburban school district in Texas

Reports & Papers

March 04, 2010

Los Angeles Universal Preschool programs, children served, and children's progress in the preschool year: Final report of the First 5 LA Universal Preschool Child Outcomes Study: Final report
Love, John M.; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Vogel, Cheri; Aikens, Nikki; Xue, Yange; Mabutas, Maricar; Carlson, Barbara Lepidus; Sama Martin, Emily; Paxton, Nora; Caspe, Margaret; Sprachman, Susan; Sonnenfeld, Kathy;

An inquiry into the academic, developmental, and health related outcomes of the children enrolled in the universal prekindergarten program of Los Angeles County, California, based on direct assessments and interviews with parents and teachers

Reports & Papers

24 June, 2009

Reliability and validity of child outcome measures with culturally and linguistically diverse preschoolers: The First 5 LA Universal Preschool Child Outcomes Study spring 2007 pilot study
Vogel, Cheri; Aikens, Nikki; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Sama Martin, Emily; Caspe, Margaret; Sprachman, Susan; Love, John M.;

A pilot study identifying culturally and linguistically appropriate child developmental measures to be used in the Los Angeles Universal Preschool Child Outcomes Study, a study of children enrolled in Los Angeles Universal Preschool

Reports & Papers

March 28, 2008

The Chicago Program Evaluation Project: A picture of early childhood programs, teachers, and preschool-age children in Chicago: Final external report
Ross, Christine; Moiduddin, Emily M.; Meagher, Cassandra; Carlson, Barbara Lepidus;

A study of four-year-old children and their experiences in early childhood education programs in Chicago in the 2006-2007 school year, including children's characteristics and developmental levels, characteristics of early childhood program teachers and classrooms, and children's development over the course of the school year and its relationship to family and classroom characteristics, based on child assessments, teacher interviews, and classroom observations in a representative sample of children and classes

Reports & Papers

December, 2008

Evaluation of the North Carolina More at Four pre-kindergarten program: Performance and progress in the seventh year (2007-2008): Year 7 report (July 1, 2007-June 30, 2008)
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.;

A statewide evaluation of the 2007-2008 program year of the North Carolina More at Four pre-kindergarten program, a state-funded initiative to provide high-quality educational experiences to at-risk four-year-olds, that examined program characteristics, classroom quality, and participant outcomes, based on monthly program reports, classroom observations and child assessments

Reports & Papers

2008

A profile of kindergarten readiness in East Yakima: Fall 2007
Boller, Kimberly; Paulsell, Diane; Aikens, Nikki; Potamites, Liz; Kovac, Martha C.; Carlson, Barbara Lepidus;

The first year of analyses from a multi-year kindergarten readiness study, one of four components in an overall evaluation, of the East Yakima Early Learning Initiative, part of a 10-year strategy to improve children's school readiness in Washington State, that describe the school readiness and family characteristics of children entering kindergarten in fall 2007 in East Yakima, Washington, based on parent interviews, home observations, direct child assessments, and teacher reports of children's skills and behavior

Reports & Papers

02 July, 2008

A profile of kindergarten readiness in White Center: Fall 2007
Boller, Kimberly; Paulsell, Diane; Aikens, Nikki; Potamites, Liz; Kovac, Martha C.; Carlson, Barbara Lepidus;

The first year of analyses from a multi-year kindergarten readiness study, one of four components in an overall evaluation, of the White Center Early Learning Initiative (WCELI), part of a 10-year strategy to improve children's school readiness in Washington State, that describe the school readiness and family characteristics of children entering kindergarten in fall 2007 in White Center, Washington, based on parent interviews, home observations, direct child assessments, and teacher reports of children's skills and behavior

Reports & Papers

02 July, 2008

Changes in the characteristics, services, and performance of preschoolers with disabilities from 2003-04 to 2004-05: Wave 2 overview report from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS)
Carlson, Elaine; Daley, Tamara; Shimshak, Amy; Riley, Jarnee; Keller, Brad; Jenkins, Frank; Markowitz, Joy;

Findings from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS), a nationally representative longitudinal study of three-, four-, and five-year-old children with disabilities, the services they receive, and their transition to and performance in school, from the study's first and second waves during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 school years

Reports & Papers

2008

Evaluation of the North Carolina More at Four pre-kindergarten program year 6 report (July 1, 2006-June 30, 2007): Children's longitudinal outcomes and program quality over time (2003-2007)
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.;

A longitudinal follow-up in their kindergarten year of two cohorts of participants (starting the program in 2003-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively) in the North Carolina More at Four pre-kindergarten program, a state-funded initiative to provide high-quality educational experiences to at-risk four-year-olds, that evaluated classroom quality and participant outcomes, based on classroom observations and child assessments

Reports & Papers

February, 2008

Ready to learn?: Children's pre-academic achievement in pre-kindergarten programs
Howes, Carollee; Burchinal, Margaret; Pianta, Robert C.; Bryant, Donna M.; Early, Diane Marie; Clifford, Richard M.; Barbarin, Oscar;

An evaluation of the effects of program structural and process quality, materials, effective teaching, and teacher-child relationships on academic and social skills outcomes in a sample of 2800 children from state-funded pre-kindergarten programs in eleven states

Reports & Papers

February, 2008

National Reporting System Child Assessment
United States. Administration for Children and Families;

Instruments

2003

Preschoolers with disabilities: Characteristics, services, and results: Wave 1 overview from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS)
National Center for Special Education Research;

An overview of data collected during the first year of the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS), a national study of 2,906 preschool children with special needs, including data on: characteristics of children, families, services, and providers; transitions; and school-related readiness and behavior

Reports & Papers

2006

Spanish-speaking children's social and language development in pre-kindergarten classrooms
Chang, Florence; Crawford, Gisele M.; Early, Diane Marie; Bryant, Donna M.; Howes, Carollee; Burchinal, Margaret; Barbarin, Oscar; Clifford, Richard M.; Pianta, Robert C.;

A discussion of the Spanish and English language interactions that Spanish-speaking children experience in the pre-K classroom in relation to their social and cognitive outcomes, based on data from 345 Spanish-speaking students in pre-K programs

Reports & Papers

2007

Evaluation of the North Carolina More at Four pre-kindergarten program: Year 5 report (July 1, 2005-June 30, 2006): Children's outcomes & program quality in the fifth year
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; More at Four Evaluation Team;

An evaluation of the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 years of the North Carolina More at Four program, a state-funded initiative to provide high-quality educational experiences to at-risk four-year-olds, that addresses characteristics of local programs, quality of services provided, and participant outcomes, based on monthly program reports, classroom observations, and child assessments

Reports & Papers

February, 2007

Evaluation of the North Carolina More at Four pre-kindergarten program: Children's longitudinal outcomes and classroom quality in kindergarten
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Maris, Catherine L.; More at Four Evaluation Team;

A longitudinal follow-up at kindergarten of participants in the 2003-2004 year of the North Carolina More at Four pre-kindergarten program, a state-funded initiative to provide high-quality educational experiences to at-risk four-year-olds, that evaluated classroom quality and participant outcomes, based on classroom observations and child assessments

Reports & Papers

August, 2006

Evaluation of the North Carolina More at Four pre-kindergarten program: Year 3 report: July 1, 2003-June 30, 2004
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Maris, Catherine L.; More at Four Evaluation Team;

An evaluation of the statewide North Carolina More at Four program, a state-funded initiative to provide high-quality educational experiences to at-risk four-year-olds, that addresses characteristics of local programs, quality of services provided, parent satisfaction, and participant outcomes, based on monthly program reports, classroom observations, parent surveys, and child assessments

Reports & Papers

2005

National evaluation of Early Reading First: Final report
National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance;

An evaluation of the Early Reading First component of the No Child Left Behind Act, a grant program providing funding to preschools serving children from low-income families to improve language and literacy development, comparing child outcomes and teacher practices in funded programs versus programs that had applied for but not received funding, based on child assessments, classroom observations, and teacher surveys

Reports & Papers

May 2007

Pre-literacy skills in Hispanic Head Start children: A comparison within and between languages
Lopez, Lisa M.

An investigation of the relationship between phonological awareness and oral language proficiency of a sample of Spanish speaking, Hispanic Head Start children in Florida

Reports & Papers

2001

Pre-LAS
Duncan, Sharon E.; De Avila, Edward A.;

Instruments

1986

Nonparental caregivers, parents, and early academic achievement among children from Latino/a immigrant households
Pivnick, Lilla

Drawing on ecological systems and social capital perspectives, this study uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to investigate links between early nonparental caregiver beliefs about early academic skills and children's math and reading achievement in kindergarten with special attention to the children from Latino/a immigrant households. Regression analyses revealed that nonparental caregiver beliefs were associated with academic achievement at kindergarten entry and that types of alignment or misalignment between nonparental caregiver and parental beliefs were differentially associated with math achievement but not reading. Notably, the association between nonparental caregiver beliefs and children's academic achievement was more consequential for children from Latino/a immigrant households. Results suggest that having nonparental caregivers with low early academic skills beliefs may be especially detrimental for children from Latino/a immigrant households. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2019

Effect of classroom language diversity on Head Start ELL and non-ELL children’s social-emotional development
Meng, Christine

This study used the FACES 2009 cohort to examine the effect of classroom language diversity on the social-emotional development (defined as social skills, approaches to learning, and behavior problems) of the ELL and non-ELL children. A three-level hierarchical linear modeling in which time was nested within the child and the child was nested within the classroom was conducted. The children’s ELL status was determined based on their home language and English proficiency. Results showed that the non-ELL children demonstrated a decline in the developmental trajectory of social skills in the classrooms with high language diversity. On the other hand, the ELL children with English proficiency demonstrated a low trajectory of social skills in the classrooms with low language diversity. These findings suggest that the effect of classroom language diversity on the children’s social-emotional development depends on the children’s language status. Implications and future research are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July, 2020

The relations between American children's Head Start experience and pre-academic skills: A comparison with children from a community group
Zhang, Chenyi; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

This study used data from Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and examined the relations between children's Head Start exposure and their early academic skills (i.e., language, literacy, and math skills) in the United States. Two groups of children who shared similar socioeconomic status and disability status but received different types of early child care services (i.e., Head Start programs vs. any other arrangement) were identified from the ECLS-B dataset. Multiple regression analyses identified unique relations between the length of time that children experienced Head Start programs and their early academic skills after controlling for child and family characteristics. The results showed that children's Head Start enrollment duration was a significant, positive predictor of their early receptive language, literacy, and math skills. No significant relation was found between Head Start enrollment and children's expressive language skills. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research were discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October-December 2019

Can center-based care reduce summer slowdown prior to kindergarten?: Exploring variation by family income, race/ethnicity, and dual language learner status
McCormick, Meghan P.; Pralica, Mirjana; Guerrero-Rosada, Paola; Weiland, Christina; Hsueh, JoAnn; Condliffe, Barbara; Sachs, Jason; Snow, Catherine;

This study examines growth in language and math skills during the summer before kindergarten; considers variation by family income, race/ethnicity, and dual language learner status; and tests whether summer center-based care sustains preschool gains. Growth in skills slowed during summer for all children, but the patterns varied by domain and group. Non-White and dual language learner students showed the largest drop-off in language skills during summer. Lower-income students demonstrated slower summer growth in math skills than their higher-income peers. Students enrolled in summer center-based care had faster growth in math skills than those who did not attend care. Yet lower-income students who attended center-based care showed slower growth in language skills during summer than similar nonattenders. Implications are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2020

Assessing classroom quality for Latino dual language learners in Head Start: DLL-specific and general teacher-child interaction perspectives
White, Lisa J.; Fernandez, Veronica A.; Greenfield, Daryl B.;

Research Findings: The increase in young Latino Dual Language Learners (DLLs) attending early care and education (ECE) programs has led to a focus on assessing classroom quality for DLLs, to evaluate the quality and impact of their early educational experiences. Experts have advocated for the use of multiple classroom observation tools (i.e., DLL-specific and general quality) to comprehensively understand ECE contexts for young DLLs. This study used two classroom quality tools to examine 37 Head Start classrooms serving Spanish and English-speaking DLLs, from both a DLL-specific and general teacher-child interaction quality perspective. Children (N = 411) were assessed in the fall and spring on language, cognitive, and academic domains. Classroom observations were conducted in the winter to measure DLL-specific quality and general teacher-child interaction quality, respectively. Results revealed low to moderate correlations between the two observation measures. Additionally, findings from both tools demonstrated a range of associations with children’s outcomes, with the Supports for Home Language domain (measured by the DLL-specific tool) demonstrating the most consistent relationships with child outcomes across domains. Practice or Policy: Findings are discussed in the context of current ECE research to support young DLLs and provide additional evidence to describe the impact of early educational experiences on young Latino DLLs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May/June 2020

Time well spent: Home learning activities and gains in children's academic skills in the prekindergarten year
McCormick, Meghan P.; Weissman, Amanda Ketner; Weiland, Christina; Hsueh, JoAnn; Sachs, Jason; Snow, Catherine;

Parental engagement in home-based learning activities is linked to children's academic skills. Yet, interventions that try to enhance parental engagement—sometimes targeted to families with low levels of education— have small effects. This study aimed to inform supports for families by examining how different types of home-based learning activities influence academic skills during prekindergarten. We created four measures that assessed the frequency with which parents (N 307) engaged in unconstrained and constrained language/literacy and math activities at home. Unconstrained language activities predicted gains in children's language skills, and unconstrained math activities were associated with gains in math skills. Both associations were larger for families with lower versus higher levels of parental education. Engagement in constrained activities did not predict gains in skills. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

April, 2020

Classroom language contexts as predictors of Latinx preschool dual language learners' school readiness
Limlingan, Maria Cristina; McWayne, Christine M.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Lopez, Michael;

The present study examined the relations between teacher-child interactions, teachers' Spanish use, classroom linguistic composition, and the school readiness skills of low-income, Latinx, Spanish-speaking dual language learners (DLLs), controlling for home and teacher background characteristics, with a national probability sample of Head Start children (i.e., from the Family and Child Experiences Survey [FACES, 2009]). Findings revealed that Head Start classrooms with higher concentrations of DLLs had teachers who reported lower average levels of children's cooperative behavior. In addition, DLL students in classrooms where teachers used more Spanish for instruction and demonstrated more emotionally supportive teacher-child interactions were found to have higher average scores on measures of approaches to learning. Implications and directions for future research related to classroom language contexts are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2020

Screening approaches for determining the language of assessment for dual language learners: Evidence from Head Start and a universal preschool initiative
Aikens, Nikki; West, Jerry; McKee, Kelsey; Moiduddin, Emily M.; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Xue, Yange;

This study conducted analyses that examined the performance of the Preschool Language Assessment Scale (preLAS) and the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT-3: SBE), a conceptually scored vocabulary measure, for determining dual language learner (DLL) children's language path through a direct assessment battery. We draw on data from two studies of programs serving linguistically-diverse children, the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) and the Universal Preschool Child Outcomes Study (UPCOS), both of which used the preLAS for routing. Several key findings should inform future language routing procedures. Findings suggested that, beyond use for language screening purposes, the preLAS could be used to help differentiate DLL children's scores on other measures of development. In addition, the items are not ordered in terms of difficulty, which has implications for how preLAS scores should be used. We also find that language of response on the EOWPVT-3: SBE signals Spanish-English DLLs’ readiness to respond to language-specific assessments in English. This research suggests that, when using the preLAS to route children appropriately, assessment procedures should consider using total rather than consecutive errors. It also suggests that other assessment measures, such as the EOWPVT-3: SBE, can be considered for use in language routing specifically with Spanish-English DLLs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q2 2020

Factors associated with early school readiness profiles for Black girls
Iruka, Iheoma U.; Curenton, Stephanie M.; Sims, Jacqueline; Blitch, Kimberly; Gardner, Shari L.

This study used pre-academic and socioemotional data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth (ECLS-B) Cohort to examine the profiles of Black girls' school readiness skills from preschool through kindergarten. In addition to examining profiles that emerged, analyses were conducted to determine whether family socio-economic status (SES), parenting, parental functioning, community social support, neighborhood quality, and early education experiences predicted the likelihood of being in a particular profile. Three profiles emerged: (1) Consistent Learner, (2) Struggling Learner, and (3) Excelling Learner. There was heterogeneity within these prekindergarten-to-kindergarten learning profiles; however, a relatively large group showed low achievement and aggression during these early years. Family demographics, parenting, parental functioning, and early education experiences predicted likelihood of being in a particular profile. Implications of how to support Black girls' learning and adjustment from preschool through kindergarten are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q2 2020

Children's outcomes through second grade: Findings from year 4 of Georgia's Pre-K Longitudinal Study
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Van Manen, Karen; Mokrova, Irina L.; Burchinal, Margaret;

The 2016-2017 Georgia's Pre-K Program Evaluation focuses on the results of the fourth year of this longitudinal study, through second grade. The purpose of this evaluation study was to examine longitudinal outcomes for children related to key academic and social skills as well as the quality of their classrooms from pre-k through second grade. The primary evaluation questions included: 1) What are the learning outcomes through second grade for children who attended Georgia's Pre-K Program?, 2) What factors predict better learning outcomes for children?, and 3) What is the quality of children's instructional experiences from pre-k through second grade? (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

August, 2019

Preparing the future workforce: Early care and education participation among children of immigrants
Greenberg, Erica; Rosenboom, Victoria; Adams, Gina;

Children of immigrants will make up a critical share of our nation's future workforce, but they are less likely than other children to participate in early education programs known to support school readiness and long-term productivity. This study describes the characteristics and enrollment of children of immigrants using the most current and comprehensive dataset available: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11. We find that children of immigrants tend to have fewer resources and greater need than children of US-born parents but lower rates of enrollment in center-based preschool. However, programs such as Head Start and state prekindergarten, as well as public kindergarten programs, are making progress in closing gaps in access. These findings suggest that current investments in early education are helping prepare the future workforce for success in 2050 and that expanded investments are warranted. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

March, 2019

A year in Head Start: Findings from FACES 2014 on children's progress toward school readiness during the 2014-2015 program year
Klein, Ashley Kopack; Aikens, Nikki; Malone, Lizabeth M.; Tarullo, Louisa B.;

The purpose of this brief is to describe child and family characteristics and children's development and progress during the Head Start program year. We find that Head Start children and families have a wide range of strengths and needs. These findings provide insight on areas that could be targeted for support and improvement. This includes areas where children do not make progress during the program year. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

August, 2018

Effects of child care subsidy on school readiness of young children with or at-risk for special needs
Sullivan, Amanda L.; Thayer, Andrew J.; Farnsworth, Elyse M.; Susman-Stillman, Amy R.;

Children with special needs are now a population of special interest under federal child care policy. Findings on the effects of child care subsidy for the general population are mixed, but no studies have considered the effects for children with or at-risk for special needs. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the average effects of child care subsidies on school readiness of children with or at-risk for special needs. Using data for 1250 participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we applied propensity score matching and regression analyses to estimate subsidy's effects on kindergarten academic and behavioral competencies of children with or at-risk for special needs who came from low-income families. Results indicated that for the average recipient, subsidized child care had significant negative effects on early literacy (d = 0.21) and numeracy (d = 0.18), and no significant effects on communication, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and prosocial behavior. These findings add to a growing number of largescale analyses showing negative or null effects of subsidized care on early childhood outcomes and highlight the need for continued attention to the appropriateness and effectiveness of subsidized child care, particularly for children with or at-risk for special needs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q2 2019

Examining an executive functioning and bilingual advantage among Latino DLL children in Head Start: A strength-based approach
White, Lisa J.;

Young Spanish-speaking Latinos in the U.S., most of whom are from low-income backgrounds, perform below their English-speaking peers at kindergarten entry. This achievement gap is concerning considering the rising number of Latino children in the U.S. living in poverty. Despite this risk, a large body of research highlights the positive effects of learning two languages. Latino DLLs attending Head Start, compared to their monolingual peers, were recently found to have higher executive functioning (EF), a set of domain-general cognitive skills that robustly predict academic achievement. This emerging evidence is encouraging, however, there is still a lack of research on how this bilingual-EF advantage contributes to young DLLs' school readiness in the context of early education classrooms. To better understand these factors, this study examined bilingual language, EF, and science achievement across the year in a sample of 424 Latino preschool DLLs across 38 Head Start classrooms. Children were assessed in the fall and spring on all measures, and observations of Spanish and English support in the classroom were conducted in the winter. Results from a cross-lag model demonstrated a significant bidirectional relationship between bilingual ability and EF across the year, and also indicated positive effects of both constructs on children's science at the end of the year. Spanish and English support in the classroom did not influence the cross-lag paths between bilingual ability and EF across the year, however, English support appeared to moderate children's EF from fall to spring, and Spanish support predicted both bilingual ability and EF at the end of the year. Results from this study help inform the mechanisms behind the bilingual-EF relationship and demonstrate positive effects on achievement. Additionally, findings highlight the importance of supporting English and Spanish. Additionally, findings highlight the importance of supporting English and Spanish for DLLs in the early childhood classroom. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2017

Intervention fidelity of Getting Ready for School: Associations with classroom and teacher characteristics and preschooler's school readiness skills
Marti, Maria; Melvin, Samantha A.; Noble, Kimberly G.; Duch, Helena;

Getting Ready for School (GRS) is a new school readiness intervention for teachers and parents, designed to help children develop early literacy, math, and self-regulation skills. GRS was implemented in 19 Head Start classrooms. In the present study we examined variability in different aspects of intervention fidelity including dosage, adherence, and child engagement. In addition, we studied the association among classroom, teacher and student characteristics and fidelity, and whether measures of fidelity were associated with children's growth in math, early literacy, and self-regulation skills across the preschool year. Findings indicate that on average teachers reported completing almost 80% of the activities assigned, and that they were observed to adhere fairly well to the lessons. Child engagement was observed to be moderate to high across classrooms. Classroom quality, as measured by the CLASS, and age of children were positively associated with adherence. Teachers that had participated in GRS for two years were more likely to complete more activities. Different components of fidelity were associated with child outcomes. Percentage completion of math and literacy activities were positively associated with growth in math and literacy skills. Children in classrooms in which teachers adhered more faithfully to the curriculum made significantly greater gains in literacy, math, and self-regulation skills. Child engagement was positively associated with a measure of executive function. Results highlight the importance of examining implementation fidelity. Implications for preschool teachers are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q3 2018

School readiness among children of Hispanic immigrants and their peers: The role of parental cognitive stimulation and early care and education
Padilla, Christina M.; Ryan, Rebecca M.

The present study estimated the independent and joint influence of early home and education contexts on three school readiness outcomes for children with Hispanic immigrant parents. These associations were compared to those for children whose parents differed by ethnicity and immigration status -- children of non-Hispanic immigrants and children of Hispanic native-born parents -- to determine if associations were distinct for children of Hispanic immigrants. Data were drawn from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 (ECLS-K: 2011) (N [is approximately equal to] 3480). Outcome measures at kindergarten entry included direct assessments of math and reading skills, as well as teacher reports of approaches to learning (ATL). Results indicated that parental provision of cognitive stimulation and center-based ECE both predicted outcomes among children of Hispanic immigrants and their peers, with some variation in patterns by developmental domain and subgroup. Specifically, participation in center-based care predicted math and reading scores for children of Hispanic immigrant and Hispanic native-born parents, but not children of non-Hispanic immigrants. Furthermore, center-based care participation predicted ATL scores more strongly for children of Hispanic immigrants than their peers. Some trend-level evidence of moderation of early home and education environments emerged, again with patterns varying by outcome and subgroup. Findings highlight the importance of policies that seek to enhance both the home and ECE environments for young children with Hispanic immigrant parents and their peers. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q3 2020

Psychometric analyses of child outcome measures with American Indian and Alaska Native preschoolers: Initial evidence from AI/AN FACES 2015: Technical report
Malone, Lizabeth M.; Bernstein, Sara; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Xue, Yange;

The purpose of this technical report is to present findings from analyses of how preschool cognitive and social-emotional measures performed in AI/AN FACES 2015. We examined the internal consistency of measures when administered to AI/AN children, reviewed descriptive statistics as context of difference in mean ability across groups in the AI/AN FACES 2015 and FACES 2014 samples, conducted analyses of differential item functioning (DIF) within cognitive measures to compare the performance of AI/AN children and White children (including data from FACES 2014), and examined the strength of bivariate correlations between measures of similar constructs and different constructs to assess evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity. The findings, therefore, provide initial evidence on the reliability and validity of the measures for AI/AN preschoolers. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2018

Descriptive data on Region XI Head Start children and families: AI/AN FACES fall 2015-spring 2016 data tables and study design
Bernstein, Sara; Malone, Lizabeth M.; Klein, Ashley Kopack; Bush, Charles; Feeney, Kathleen; Reid, Maya; Lukashanets, Serge; Aikens, Nikki;

AI/AN FACES 2015 is the first national study of Region XI AI/AN Head Start children and their families, classrooms, and programs. This set of tables presents data on the demographic backgrounds and developmental outcomes of children enrolled in Region XI AI/AN Head Start programs during the 2015-16 Head Start year. The tables also detail aspects of their home environment and family life. Data on children's classrooms, teachers, centers, and programs, including aspects of classroom quality and practice, teacher and director characteristics, and characteristics of the center and program environments, provide context for children's experiences. We also provide information on the AI/AN FACES 2015 study methodology and collaborative design process, sample, and measures. The study design, implementation, and dissemination has been informed by extensive collaboration with a workgroup comprised of Head Start directors from Region XI programs, early childhood researchers with experience working with tribal communities, Mathematica researchers, and federal government officials. The AI/AN FACES 2015 child sample was selected to represent all children enrolled in Region XI Head Start in fall 2015, drawing on participants from 21 randomly selected Region XI programs from across the country. AI/AN FACES 2015 includes a battery of child assessments across many developmental domains; surveys of children's parents, teachers, and program managers; and classroom observations. The study is conducted by Mathematica Policy Research and its partner--Educational Testing Service--under contract to the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

March, 2018

Early bilingualism through the looking glass: Latino preschool children's language and self-regulation skills
Melzi, Gigliana; Schick, Adina R.; Escobar, Kelly

During the early years, children's language skills are developing rapidly. For bilingual children, the development of both languages is highly sensitive to environmental input. Thus, capturing bilingualism in the early years poses a great challenge for researchers, especially those interested in examining how bilingualism might relate to other developmental areas, such as self-regulation. Traditionally, child development researchers have operationalized bilingualism as a categorical variable, most often relying on the use of self-reported data. In the present study, we compared various ways of capturing childhood bilingualism and demonstrated how these different measures privileged divergent aspects of children's bilingual experience, as well as how they were differentially related to children's self-regulation skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2017

Preschool attendance and school readiness for children of immigrant mothers in the United States
Lee, RaeHyuck; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne;

We examined the associations between preschool attendance and academic school readiness at kindergarten entry among 5-year-old children of immigrant mothers in the United States using data from a US nationally representative sample (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort, N = 1650). Comparing children who were in preschool (Head Start, prekindergarten, or other center-based preschool) to children being cared for exclusively at home, analyses using both ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls and with propensity score weighting consistently showed that attending preschool was associated with higher reading and math skills. Analyses focused on specific type of preschool revealed that children attending prekindergarten (but not Head Start and other center-based preschool) had higher reading and math skills than those in parental care. Analyses focused on hours of preschool attendance indicated that children's reading skills benefited from attending more than 20 hours per week of Head Start or prekindergarten. Attending preschool, especially for full days, increases the school readiness of children of immigrants. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

June, 2018

Transitioning across systems: Head Start and elementary school coordination efforts to enhance low-income children's academic and social success in kindergarten
Cook, Kyle Demeo;

Children moving from early education programs into elementary schools face a critical transition, making it important for both systems to coordinate to better serve our youngest children. Yet, there is limited research on coordination around the transition to school. The objectives of this dissertation were to: 1) describe the coordination efforts used by Head Start programs to smooth children's transitions to kindergarten, 2) examine the association between coordination and children's outcomes in kindergarten, 3) test whether there is an interaction between Head Start coordination efforts and elementary school-based transition practices, 4) test interactions between coordination and child/family characteristics, and 5) understand the benefits and challenges to coordinating across systems. This study included two phases. Phase I examined coordination efforts between Head Start programs and elementary schools in a nationally representative sample of Head Start children (N=2,019). Findings suggest that Head Start programs are engaging in a variety of activities to coordinate with elementary schools. Results of regression analyses found that coordination was positively related to children's language and mathematics skills in kindergarten for children enrolled in elementary schools engaging in limited activities to support the transition to school. Phase II involved interviews with sixteen Head Start directors. Results showed multiple ways they coordinate with elementary schools to share information about individual children and general program practices, as well as the ways they serve as a bridge between families and elementary schools. Findings suggest that coordination may benefit children through improved practices by Head Start and elementary schools, as well as increases in parental readiness and involvement. Overall this study shows that Head Start programs are engaging in multiple activities to coordinate with elementary schools. Although direct relationships between coordination practices and child outcomes were limited, interviews with Head Start directors pointed to indirect pathways by which coordination efforts may benefit children. These findings suggest the importance of coordination practices, and stress the need for additional research to explore these pathways. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2017

School absenteeism through the transition to kindergarten
Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M.;

Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 Cohort (n = 2,798), this study examined patterns of absenteeism and their consequences through the transition to kindergarten. Overall, children were less likely to be absent in kindergarten than from Head Start at ages 3 and 4. Absenteeism was fairly stable across these early years, but children who experienced two years of Head Start were less likely to be absent in kindergarten than their classmates who only attended the program for one year. Ultimately, absenteeism at both ages 3 and 4 was associated with lower math and literacy achievement. However, children who experienced two years of Head Start and were more frequently absent demonstrated greater language development through the end of kindergarten as compared with children who only attended the program for one year. Policy implications are discussed in light of the complexity of early childhood education attendance in the United States. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2018

Academic development of Head Start children: Role of dual language learning status
Choi, Ji Young; Rouse, Heather L. Cohen; Ryu, Dahyung

Using a large longitudinal dataset including children who attended Head Start over two years, this study examined academic growth trajectories during the period between Head Start entry and kindergarten (2.5 years), and whether those growth trajectories differ by children's dual language learning status. Analyses comparing three groups of children (i.e., Spanish-English bilinguals, Spanish-English emergent bilinguals [EBs], and English monolinguals) showed three noteworthy findings. First, bilinguals entering Head Start with English proficiency showed similar developmental trajectories in vocabulary and math to those of monolinguals. Second, EBs entering Head Start with limited English proficiency presented the lowest baseline skills in vocabulary and math. Whereas the initial vocabulary gaps generally persisted over time, gaps in math between EBs and monolinguals narrowed by kindergarten. Third, no difference was found between bilinguals and EBs in their Spanish vocabulary development. Results highlight needs for additional instructional support and resources for EBs especially in their vocabulary development. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May/June 2018

Descriptive data on Head Start children and families from FACES 2014: Fall 2014 data tables and study design
Aikens, Nikki; Klein, Ashley Kopack; Knas, Emily; Reid, Maya; Esposito, Andrea M.; Manley, Mikia; Malone, Lizabeth M.; Tarullo, Louisa B.; Lukashanets, Serge; West, Jerry;

This report includes key information on the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2014 (FACES 2014) study design and a set of data tables that presents descriptive statistics on the demographic backgrounds and developmental outcomes of children enrolled in Head Start in fall 2014. The tables also detail aspects of their home environment and family life. Data are drawn from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2014). (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2017

Child and family outcomes during the Head Start year: FACES 2014-2015 data tables and study design
Aikens, Nikki; Klein, Ashley Kopack; Knas, Emily; Hartog, Jacob; Manley, Mikia; Malone, Lizabeth M.; Tarullo, Louisa B.; Lukashanets, Serge;

This report includes key information on the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2014 (FACES 2014) study design and a set of data tables that presents descriptive statistics on the demographic backgrounds and developmental outcomes of children enrolled in Head Start in fall 2014 and were still enrolled in spring 2015. The tables also detail aspects of their home environment and family life. Data are drawn from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2014). (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2017

A cross-lagged analysis of teacher-child language interactions and receptive vocabulary of non-ELL and ELL children
Meng, Christine

The present study investigated whether the bidirectional cross-lagged paths between teacher-child language interactions and receptive vocabulary would be significantly different between English language learner (ELL) and non-ELL children. The FACES 2009 cohort was used to address the research goals. Cross-lagged analysis was conducted with the individual paths tested to compare across three groups of children: non-ELLs, ELLs with limited English proficiency, and ELLs with English proficiency. Results showed that Time 1 teacher-child language interactions significantly predicted Time 2 receptive vocabulary, but not vice versa. When equality constraints were placed on the specific paths, differences and similarities were found among the three groups of children. Future research directions and study implications are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2019

Profiles of classroom engagement in Head Start children: Associations with academic readiness
Clopet, Tracy M. Carter;

Head Start has the strategic opportunity to address the school readiness needs of children from low-income families and to narrow the national achievement gap. Research suggests that targeting domain-general skills during preschool is effective in increasing readiness across multiple domains. Children's classroom engagement, or how children interact with teachers, peers and tasks in the classroom, is recognized as one such malleable and domain-general skill serving a critical foundation to supporting academic development. However, children enter the classroom with unique sets (or profiles) of competencies and needs in their ability to engage successfully in the classroom. Research is needed to examine children's engagement profiles so teachers have tools to identify the children in greatest need of intervention before they transition to kindergarten. This study used observations of 527 children's engagement with teachers, peers and tasks to identify their membership in engagement profiles. Specifically, this study used a latent profile approach to analyze data collected through a larger University-Head Start partnership research project. This study extends prior work in several important ways. First, by using a child-centered analytic approach to identify profiles of children's classroom engagement within a culturally and linguistically diverse sample of Head Start children. Second, by examining whether children's patterns of classroom engagement changed across a year in Head Start and whether child- and classroom-level factors were associated with that change. Finally, by examining differential associations between patterns of engagement and gains in academic skills. Results revealed three unique profiles of children's classroom engagement, positively engaged, independently engaged, and negatively engaged, that remained stable across the year (structural stability). A majority of children in the sample (60%) remained in qualitatively similar profiles across the year, whereas 40% transitioned to qualitatively different profiles. Most children ended the year in the independently engaged profile. Child age, sex, ethnicity and classroom emotional and instructional support were significant predictors of children's transition pattern membership; remaining in the negatively engaged profile across the year was associated with greater academic difficulty. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2015

More than words: The relations between teacher-child interactions, classroom context, and Latino DLLs' school readiness
Limlingan, Maria Cristina;

Increasingly, studies have shown that early childhood education programs are an effective way to promote young children's school readiness and long-term outcomes. However, there is still debate in the field about what constitutes a high-quality preschool experience for DLLs to foster their optimal positive development. To better serve DLLs, research needs to focus on how having access to two languages uniquely affects their learning. This dissertation examined the relations between teacher-child interactions, a consistently cited feature of high-quality preschools, characteristics of classroom context, and DLLs' school readiness skills. The three studies in this dissertation used multiple methods but all focused on low-income Latino DLLs. Study 1 utilized the latest Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), a secondary data set representing the population of children who entered Head Start in the U.S. for the first time in fall 2009. In Study 2 and 3, data were taken from a local Head Start program that consisted of 11 classrooms where more information was collected on DLLs' initial English and Spanish skills and teacher language ideologies.The first set of findings discussed the positive associations between teachers' speaking Spanish and students' socio-emotional skills but not language outcomes. The second set of findings show how higher concentrations of DLLs were linked to lower language and socio-emotional outcomes. Implications for preschool programs and teacher professional development are discussed as well as potential directions for future research. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2016

Peer play as a context for identifying profiles of children and examining rates of growth in academic readiness for children enrolled in Head Start
Bell, Elizabeth R.;

Head Start has a unique opportunity to alleviate the negative effects of poverty in young children prior to entry into formal schooling. Research has shown that early interventions are most successful when they have a comprehensive focus that is individualized to children's needs. In order to maximize children's early experiences in Head Start, research must identify what types of early learning experiences work best for specific groups of children. The present study employed a child-centered approach to identify profiles, or subgroups, of children displaying early patterns of peer play behaviors in an ethnically and linguistically diverse Head Start program and examined the academic trajectories of these children during one school year. Four profile groups of children were identified with most children represented in a group of children who engaged in behaviors that facilitated quality interactions with peers. Children in this profile had the highest academic skills throughout the school year. Interestingly, children in a profile characterized by a combination of play interaction skills and play disruption had the second highest academic skills throughout the year compared to children in a profile characterized by below average play interaction skills but little disruptive behavior during play. A small number of children were represented in a profile characterized by high problems interacting with peers; these children had the lowest academic skills throughout the year. The associations between the profiles of peer play behaviors and academic skills were present at the beginning of the year and remained stable across the year (i.e., all children displayed the same rates of growth). These findings have implications for future research and educational practice surrounding the utility of play in the Head Start classroom to improve academic learning. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2013

Children's outcomes through first grade: Findings from year 3 of Georgia's Pre-K Longitudinal Study
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Mokrova, Irina L.; Anderson, Treshawn;

The 2015-2016 Georgia's Pre-K Program Evaluation focuses on the results of the third year of this longitudinal study, through first grade. The purpose of this evaluation study was to examine longitudinal outcomes for children related to key academic skills as well as the quality of their classrooms from pre-k through first-grade. The primary evaluation questions included: 1) What are the learning outcomes through first grade for children who attended Georgia's Pre-K Program?, 2) What factors predict better learning outcomes for children?, and 3) What is the quality of children's instructional experiences from pre-k through first grade? (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2017

Foundations of Science Literacy: Efficacy of a preschool professional development program in science on classroom instruction, teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, and children's observations and predictions
Gropen, Jess; Kook, Janna F.; Hoisington, Cindy; Clark-Chiarelli, Nancy

Young children are able to benefit from early science teaching but many preschool teachers have not had opportunities to deepen their own understanding of science or to develop their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in relation to specific science topics and concepts. This study presents the results of efficacy research on Foundations of Science Literacy (FSL), a comprehensive professional development program designed to support teachers' knowledge of early childhood science; their PCK around 2 physical science topics (water, and balls and ramps); and their abilities to plan, facilitate, and assess young children's learning during inquiry-based science explorations. Research Findings: In a randomized trial with 142 preschool teachers and 1,004 4-year-old children, FSL teachers demonstrated significantly higher quality science teaching in general and greater PCK in the 2 physical science topics than did teachers in comparison classrooms. Furthermore, children in FSL classrooms performed significantly better than children in comparison classrooms on tasks involving floating and sinking, and an instrumental variable analysis suggests that the quality of classroom science instruction mediated the relationship between teacher participation in FSL and student outcomes. Practice or Policy: Findings support the use of comprehensive early science professional development programs designed to bolster teacher knowledge and PCK. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July, 2017

Absenteeism in Head Start and children's academic learning
Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M.;

Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort (n = 2,842), this study examined the implications of 3- and 4-year-old's absences from Head Start for their early academic learning. The findings from this study revealed that children who missed more days of school, and especially those who were chronically absent, demonstrated fewer gains in areas of math and literacy during the preschool year. Moreover, excessive absenteeism was found to detract from the potential benefits of quality preschool education and was especially problematic for the early learning of children who entered the Head Start program with a less developed skill set. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July/August 2018

Early physical health conditions and school readiness skills in a prospective birth cohort of U.S. children
Kull, Melissa A.; Coley, Rebekah Levine;

Rationale: Extant research identifies associations between early physical health disparities and impaired functioning in adulthood, but limited research examines the emergence of these associations in the early years of children's lives. Objective: This study draws on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; N = 5900) to assess whether a host of early health indicators measured from birth to age five are associated with children's cognitive and behavioral skills at age five. Results: After adjusting for child and family characteristics, results revealed that children's neonatal risks (prematurity or low birth weight) and reports of poor health and hospitalizations were associated with lower cognitive skills, and neonatal risks and poor health predicted lower behavioral functioning at age five. Some of the association between neonatal risks and school readiness skills were indirect, functioning through children's poor health and hospitalization. Analyses further found that associations between early physical health and children's school readiness skills were consistent across subgroups defined by family income and child race/ethnicity, suggesting generalizability of results. Conclusions: Findings emphasize the need for more interdisciplinary research, practice, and policy related to optimizing child well-being across domains of physical health and development in the early years of life. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2015

Improving school readiness: A multi-systemic examination of early childhood education
Sabol, Terri J.;

The present dissertation takes a multi-systemic approach to examining early childhood education, focusing on the child, classroom, and policy features in early childhood education settings that have the strongest potential to prepare children for school entry. Study 1 examines the extent to which a person-oriented approach to conceptualizing and assessing school readiness forecasts development in elementary school. Study 1 finds that six distinct profiles of 54-month school readiness patterns predict outcomes in 5th grade with indications of cross-domain association between 54-month performance and later functioning. Study 2 examines the relations between preschool classroom quality, measured by the ECERS-R, and child outcomes, and the extent to which there is a threshold in which the relation becomes stronger or weaker. Using a large, nationally representative dataset, Study 2 detects few direct relations or evidence for thresholds in the association between ECERS-R and age 5 outcomes. The association between quality and reading outcomes is stronger for children with sociodemographic risk. Study 3 examines relations between program quality and outcomes within a policy context. More specifically, Study 3 assesses the validity of Virginia's QRIS, the Virginia Star Quality Initiative (VSQI), by examining associations between 71 targeted pre-kindergarten programs in the VSQI and growth in pre-literacy skills. Findings indicate that children in higher-rated pre-kindergarten programs have sharper literacy growth in the preschool year compared to children in lower rated programs. Collectively, the studies in this proposal are complementary in that they each contribute to the larger question of how to improve children's readiness for school; however, they vary in study design, measures, and the focus within the early childhood system. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

August, 2011

Children's pre-k experiences and outcomes in the North Carolina pre-kindergarten program: 2014-2015 statewide evaluation
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Garwood, Justin D.; Mokrova, Irina L.;

The purpose of the 2014-2015 NC Pre-Kindergarten (NC Pre-K) Evaluation study was to examine the characteristics and quality of the program and the outcomes for children during pre-k, along with comparisons to previous years. Since the inception of the statewide pre-k program in North Carolina in 2001-2002, the evaluation has been conducted by the FPG Child Development Institute at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. See Table 1 for a list of previous reports for further information about prior years, including studies of classroom quality and longitudinal and comparison studies of children's outcomes. The primary research questions addressed by this evaluation included: 1) What were the outcomes of children attending the NC Pre-K Program and what factors were associated with better outcomes?, 2) What was the quality of the NC Pre-K classrooms attended by children and what factors were associated with better quality?, and 3) What were the key characteristics of the local NC Pre-K programs? (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2016

Year 1 Massachusetts Preschool Expansion Grant (PEG) evaluation report
Checkoway, Amy; Goodson, Barbara D.; Grindal, Todd; Hofer, Kerry G.; Lamoreau, Renee; Sarna, Maureen; Watt, Rian; Yudron, Monica; Douglass, Anne L.;

This report describes the first year of implementation of the PEG program in Massachusetts and provides an initial assessment of the extent to which PEG programs are meeting the objective of providing high-quality preschool to underserved children. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

05 December, 2016

Children's outcomes and classroom quality from pre-k through kindergarten: Findings from year 2 of Georgia's Pre-K Longitudinal Study
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Garwood, Justin D.; Mokrova, Irina L.;

The current report focuses on the results of the second year of this longitudinal study--the 2014-2015 Georgia's Pre-K Program Evaluation. The purpose of this evaluation study was to examine initial longitudinal outcomes related to school readiness for children and the quality of their classrooms from pre-k through kindergarten. The primary evaluation questions addressed included: - What are the learning outcomes through kindergarten for children attending Georgia's Pre-K Program? - What factors predict better learning outcomes for children? - What is the quality of children's experiences in pre-k and kindergarten? To address these questions, the evaluation study included a sample of 1,169 children (139 Spanish-speaking dual language learners/DLLs) attending a random sample of 199 Georgia's Pre-K classrooms in year 1, and 1,034 of these children (118 Spanish-speaking DLLs) who were attending kindergarten in year 2. Researchers conducted individual child assessments near the beginning and end of each year to examine growth in children's skills. The assessment measures covered multiple domains of learning, including language, literacy, math, and general knowledge, and teacher ratings of behavior skills. For the DLL subsample, parallel assessments were conducted in both English and Spanish. Researchers also conducted observations of the quality of teacher-child instructional interactions using the CLASS in both pre-k and kindergarten classrooms attended by this sample. In addition, information about characteristics of the classrooms, teachers, and children was gathered from teacher and parent surveys and from existing statewide pre-k program data. Child/family characteristics, classroom/teacher characteristics, and classroom quality were examined as moderators of children's growth in skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July, 2016

Racial/ethnic differences in kindergartners' reading and math skills: Parents' knowledge of children's development and home-based activities as mediators
Sonnenschein, Susan; Sun, Shuyan

Despite the growing body of research on parents' beliefs and practices, relatively little is known about the relations between parents' knowledge of children's development, home-based activities, and children's early reading and math skills. This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to examine the differences in Asian, Black, Latino, and White children's early reading and math skills at kindergarten entry and whether parents' knowledge of children's development and home-based activities mediate the relation. Parents' knowledge of children's development was assessed when children were 9 months. Home-based activities, including home literacy and enrichment, were assessed when children were preschool age. Asian and White children started kindergarten with significantly higher reading and math scores than Black or Latino children. There also were significant differences across groups in the frequency of engagement in home literacy and enrichment activities. Associations between race/ethnicity and reading/math scores were mediated by parents' knowledge of children's development and home literacy activities. Discussion addresses the importance of parents' knowledge of educationally relevant activities and how to engage in such activities to foster children's reading and math skills and to close racial/ethnic gaps. Highlights - This paper examined racial/ethnic difference in children's reading and math skills in kindergarten and explores whether parents' knowledge of children's development and home-based activities mediate the relation between race/ethnicity and children's reading and math skills. - By using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort, this study found that there were systematic racial/ethnic differences in parents' knowledge of children's development, home-based activities, and children's reading and math skills at the start of kindergarten. - Parents' knowledge of children's development and home-based activities were found to mediate the association between race/ethnicity and children's reading and math skills for all groups. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September/October 2017

Validity of the first two subtests of the Preschool Language Assessment Scale as a language screener for Spanish-speaking preschool children
Rainelli, Stefano; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Fernandez, Veronica A.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Lopez, Michael

Large-scale early childhood studies use the first two subscales of the Preschool Language Assessment Scale, "Simon Says" and "Art Show" (PreLAS2000; Duncan & De Avila, 1998) to guide decisions about the most appropriate language (or languages) researchers should use when directly assessing the academic skills of dual language learner (DLL) children. Large-scale studies use a cut-score derived from a total score on the two PreLAS subscales in English and/or Spanish in combination with parent or teacher reports of children's language abilities, to route children into the most appropriate language of assessment. However, limited research exists to support the use of these cut-scores as part of a language routing procedure with Spanish-speaking DLL preschool children from low-income backgrounds. The current study examined the validity of the two English PreLAS subscale scores for a local sample of children enrolled in Head Start (N = 872) and Hispanic children from the national FACES 2006 sample (N = 935). Rasch and DIF analyses supported the invariance of item difficulty values across the three- and four-year-old age groups in the overall sample. For a subsample of Spanish-speaking DLL children, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses identified the most appropriate cut-scores on the PreLAS screener for both age groups. Findings provided evidence to support the validity of the use of the English PreLAS language screener score as part of a more comprehensive language routing procedure. Implications for policy, practice, and measurement development are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q1 2017

Early Achievers standards validation study: Final report
Soderberg, Janet; Joseph, Gail E.; Stull, Sara; Hassairi, Nail;

The Statewide Internal Standards Validation Study of Early Achievers addressed whether elements of Washington State's Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) for early care and education are associated with measurable gains in children's outcomes across developmental domains. With this validation study, Washington joins a handful of other states that have attempted to examine whether sites that receive higher ratings are actually producing better outcomes in terms of child development (Karoly, 2014). The University of Washington Childcare Quality & Early Learning Center for Research & Professional Development (CQEL) conducted this study from June 2014 through December 2015 in partnership with the Washington State Department of Early Learning (DEL). (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2016

Preschool and academic school readiness among young children of Asian and Hispanic immigrant mothers
Lee, RaeHyuck;

Preschool is an important developmental context for children of immigrants that can help them succeed in later life. In this study, we examine the association between preschool and academic school readiness among young children of Asian or Hispanic immigrant mothers. A secondary data analysis was conducted using data (n [is approximately] 1,550) collected in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Results show that attending preschool (mostly prekindergarten or other center-based care) was associated with better academic school readiness at the year of participation among children of both Asian and Hispanic immigrant mothers; such beneficial associations were found at kindergarten entry among Asian children, but not Hispanic children. Furthermore, more-pronounced beneficial influences of preschool on academic school readiness were found at the year of participation among children of home language mothers in both groups, but such more-pronounced benefits were gone at kindergarten entry in both groups. These findings suggest that the differences between the two groups in maintaining the benefits from preschool may be associated with different home environments. Future research is needed to look specifically at the mechanisms of how attending preschool is related to academic school readiness among children of immigrants. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2016

Pre-K classroom-economic composition and children's early academic development
Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; McQuiggan, Meghan; Shaw, Alyssa

There are currently 2 principal models of publicly funded prekindergarten programs (pre-K): targeted pre-K, which is means-tested, and universal pre-K. These programs often differ in terms of the economic characteristics of the preschoolers enrolled. Studies have documented links between individual achievement in school-age children and the economic composition of classroom peers, but little research has revealed whether these associations hold in pre-K classrooms. Using data from 2,966 children in 709 pre-K classrooms, we examined whether classroom-economic composition (i.e., average family income, standard deviation of incomes, and percentage of students from low-income households) relates to achievement in preschool. Furthermore, this study investigated whether associations between classroom-economic composition and achievement differed depending on initial academic skill level. Increased economic advantage in pre-K classrooms positively predicted spring achievement. Specifically, increasing aggregate classroom income between $22,500 and $62,500 was related to improvements in math scores. Increases in the proportion of children from low-income households in the classroom were negatively related to both math and literacy and language skills when increases occurred between 52.5% and 72.5% and 25% and 45%, respectively. There was limited evidence that links between classroom-economic composition and achievement differed depending on initial skill level. Results suggest that economically integrated pre-K programs may be more beneficial to preschoolers from low-income households' achievement than classrooms targeting economically disadvantaged children. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2017

Comparing public, private, and informal preschool programs in a national sample of low-income children
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Collins, Melissa A.; Cook, Kyle Demeo;

Recent research has found that center-based early education and care (EEC) programs promote gains in cognitive skills for low-income children, but knowledge is limited concerning diverse types of EEC arrangements. This paper contrasts the primary EEC arrangements (Head Start, public centers, private centers, and home care) attended by economically disadvantaged children in the US with data on 4250 low-income children from the nationally-representative ECLS-B cohort. Results found public centers and Head Start programs provided children with the most educated and highly trained teachers and with the most enriching learning activities and global quality, with private centers showing moderate levels and home EEC very low levels of quality. Nonetheless, after adjusting for differential selection into EEC through propensity score weighting, low-income children who attended private EEC centers showed the highest math, reading, and language skills at age 5, with children attending Head Start and public centers also showing heightened math and reading skills in comparison to children experiencing only parent care. No differences were found in children's behavioral skills at age five in relation to EEC type. Results support enhanced access to all center preschool programs for low-income children, and suggest the need for greater understanding of the processes through which EEC affects children's school readiness skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q3 2016

The role of parent education and parenting knowledge in children's language and literacy skills among White, Black, and Latino families
Rowe, Meredith L.; Denmark, Nicole Marie; Harden, Brenda Jones; Stapleton, Laura M.;

This study investigated the role of parenting knowledge of infant development in children's subsequent language and pre-literacy skills among White, Black and Latino families of varying socioeconomic status. Data come from 6,150 participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Mothers' knowledge of infant development was measured when children were 9 months old, and child language and pre-literacy skills were measured during the fall of the preschool year prior to Kindergarten when children were approximately four years old. Mothers' knowledge of infant development was uniquely related to both maternal education and race/ethnicity. Reported sources of parenting information/advice also varied by education and race/ethnicity and were related to parenting knowledge. Further, controlling for demographic factors, parenting knowledge partially mediated the relation between parent education and child language and pre-literacy skills, and this relation differed by race/ethnicity. One way to eliminate socioeconomic status achievement gaps in children's early language and literacy skills may be to focus on parents' knowledge of child development, particularly in Latino families. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

March/April 2016

Spanish and English early literacy profiles of preschool Latino English language learner children
Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Saenz, Laura M.; Soares, Denise A.; Davis, Heather S.; Resendez, Nora; Zhu, Leina

The purpose of this study was to examine within-group individual differences in the code-related and oral language abilities of an economically stressed Spanish-speaking English language learner (ELL) preschool sample and to evaluate the predictive relationship of these differences to later listening comprehension. Latent class analysis was used to identify similarities in both the latent and outcome variables to form classes of students with similar profiles on the measured variables. Our 1st finding confirmed the existence of 4 distinct psychometrically validated profiles: (a) Low English Language, Average Spanish Language, Mixed Spanish Code-Related (prevalence 19.4%); (b) Average English Language, Strengths in Spanish Language and Spanish Code-Related (24.2%); (c) Mixed English and Spanish Language, Low Spanish Code-Related (prevalence 34%); and (d) High English Language, Average Spanish Language, Mixed Spanish Code-Related (prevalence 22%). The resulting profiles demonstrated that English and Spanish code- and language-related domains of emergent literacy developed unevenly across the Spanish-speaking ELL preschoolers. Relative strengths and weaknesses in code- and language-related skills were also found to be meaningfully related to end-of-year listening comprehension-- a precursor to reading comprehension. Finally, profiles yielded meaningful variability along sociodemographic variables. Practice or Policy: Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2016

Independent contributions of mothers' and fathers' language and literacy practices: Associations with children's kindergarten skills across linguistically diverse households
Sims, Jacqueline; Coley, Rebekah Levine

Home language and literacy inputs have been consistently linked with enhanced language and literacy skills among children. Most studies have focused on maternal inputs among monolingual populations. Though the proportion of American children growing up in primarily non-English-speaking homes is growing and the role of fathers in early development is increasingly emphasized, less is known about these associations in primarily non-English-speaking households or how mothers and fathers independently contribute to children's skills. Using a subsample of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N = 5,450), this study assessed the frequency of maternal and paternal inputs during early childhood and their prospective connections with children's English language and literacy skills at age 5 across White, Mexican, and Chinese children from linguistically diverse households. Analyses revealed significant differences in inputs by ethnic/language group membership and significant associations between both maternal and paternal inputs and children's skills. These associations did not differ across ethnic/language group membership. Practice or Policy: These results point to the importance of promoting rich home language and literacy environments across diverse households regardless of the language in which they take place or the parent from which they derive. (author abstact)

Reports & Papers

May, 2016

Impact of California's transitional kindergarten program, 2013-14
Manship, Karen; Quick, Heather; Holod, Aleksandra; Mills, Nicholas; Ogut, Burhan; Chernoff, Jodi Jacobson; Blum, Jarah Michelle Moreira; Hauser, Alison; Anthony, Jennifer; Gonzalez, Raquel;

Transitional kindergarten (TK)--the first year of a two-year kindergarten program for California children who turn 5 between September 2 and December 2--is intended to better prepare young five-year-olds for kindergarten and ensure a strong start to their educational career. To determine whether this goal is being achieved, American Institutes for Research (AIR) is conducting an evaluation of the impact of TK in California. The goal of this study is to measure the success of the program by determining the impact of TK on students' readiness for kindergarten in several areas. Using a rigorous regression discontinuity (RD) research design, we compared language, literacy, mathematics, executive function, and social-emotional skills at kindergarten entry for students who attended TK and for students who did not attend TK. Overall, we found that TK had a positive impact on students' kindergarten readiness in several domains, controlling for students' age differences. These effects are over and above the experiences children in the comparison group had the year before kindergarten, which for more than 80 percent was some type of preschool program. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

01 December, 2015

Relationship between peer social competence and academic readiness for Head Start children: A multi-method, multi-source measurement approach
Clopet, Tracy M. Carter; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.;

Best practice in early childhood assessment supports a comprehensive multi-method, multi-source measurement approach, with tools validated for use with culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse populations (National Research Council, 2008). This study employed this approach to assess peer social competence in relation to gains in academic readiness for 527 preschool children. Canonical correlations revealed concordance between measures of teacher-reported and observed peer social competence. Path models suggested that these measures were uniquely and differentially associated with gains in direct assessments of academic readiness; with teacher-reported interactive peer play associated with greater gains in vocabulary and observed communication with peers associated with greater gains in listening comprehension. Additionally, observed conflict with peers was associated with significantly fewer gains in alphabet knowledge and mathematics. Findings support the need for a comprehensive measurement approach that includes multiple perspectives and methods for examining peer social competence with culturally and linguistically diverse preschool children from low-income backgrounds. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2016

Building a classroom community that supports English learners in preschool
Hoisington, Cindy; Young, Jessica Mercer; Anastasopoulos, Louisa; Washburn, Sue;

This study details the implementation and evaluation of a professional development (PD) intervention program in language and literacy for early childhood teachers using a mixed method, quasi-experimental study design. The program, Supporting Children with Language Differences (SPLD), was offered over a six-month period to 19 teachers in a federally-funded preschool program. The PD, incorporating instructional course sessions, classroom-based assignments, and onsite coaching, was designed to build teachers' capacity to promote the language and literacy development and learning of English Learner (EL) children in their classrooms. Results showed a significant positive effect of the intervention on preschoolers' oral language, receptive language, and pre-literacy skills. Moreover, the results of this study suggest that intentional inclusion of ELs in classroom activities and a sustained emphasis on the practices, strategies, and adaptations that support their inclusion may be the key to promoting ELs' language success in early childhood classrooms. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2015

Peer play as a context for identifying profiles of children and examining rates of growth in academic readiness for children enrolled in Head Start
Bell, Elizabeth R.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Clopet, Tracy M. Carter;

Research has shown that early interventions are most successful when they have a comprehensive focus that is individualized to children's needs. The present study employed a person-centered approach to identify profiles, or subgroups, of children displaying early patterns of peer play behaviors in an ethnically and linguistically diverse Head Start program, and examined the academic trajectories of these children during one school year. Four profile groups were identified, and analyses revealed that these profiles were invariant across ethnicity and dual language learner status. Most children were represented in a group who engaged in behaviors that facilitated peer interactions. These children had the highest academic skills across the preschool year. Interestingly, children in a profile characterized by a combination of play interaction skills and play disruption had the second highest academic skills throughout the year compared with children in a profile characterized by below-average play interaction skills but low disruptive behavior during play. A small number of children were represented in a profile characterized by low interactive, disconnected, and high disruptive behavior with peers and had the lowest academic skills throughout the year. The mean differences in academic skills across profiles of peer play behaviors remained the same across the year. These findings have implications for future research and educational practice surrounding the role of peer play in the Head Start classroom. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July, 2016

Children's pre-k outcomes and classroom quality in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2013-2014 evaluation study
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; Hildebrandt, Lisa; Pan, Yi;

The purpose of the 2013-2014 Georgia's Pre-K Program Evaluation was to examine the learning outcomes for children and the quality of their classrooms during pre-k, as the baseline year of the pre-k through third-grade longitudinal study. The primary evaluation questions addressed included: What are the learning outcomes for children attending Georgia's Pre-K Program? What factors predict better learning outcomes for children? What is the quality of children's experiences in Georgia's Pre-K classrooms? To address these questions, the evaluation study included a random sample of 199 Georgia's Pre-K classrooms and a sample of 1,169 children attending these classrooms. Researchers conducted individual child assessments near the beginning and end of the pre-k year to examine growth in children's skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2015

Improving Latino children's early language and literacy development: Key features of early childhood education within family literacy programmes
Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah (Montgomery); Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison;

Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these features relate to Latino children's early language and literacy development. Participants were 181 Latino children (3-5 years old) from low-income families enrolled in 22 ECE programmes within family literacy programmes. Teacher-child interactions were of medium quality on socioemotional support and low quality on instructional quality. Latino children spent about 20% of their day engaged in language and literacy activities. Multilevel regression analysis results showed that the length of Latino children's engagement in language and literacy activities in ECE programmes was more strongly related to their English oral language skills and alphabet knowledge than the quality of teacher-child interactions. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

June, 2016

High achieving African American boys: Factors that contribute to their excellence in the early years
Iruka, Iheoma U.; Winn, Donna-Marie C.; Harradine, Christine Coster;

Using a national data set from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study -- Birth Cohort, we examined factors associated with approximately 700 young African American boys' pre-academic skills. The factors examined included (a) family characteristics, behaviors, and beliefs; (b) nonparental care literacy activities; and (c) child health, aggression, and approaches to learning (e.g., curiosity, independence, and persistence). High achieving boys are contrasted with other boys, along the following dimensions: familial, early childhood program, child characteristics and practices and their pre-academic skills, and whether the association was moderated by achievement status. Regression analyses indicated that some aspects of family, preschool, and child characteristics were associated with African American boys' early outcomes, especially parental caretaking (e.g., bathing and brushing teeth) and approaches to learning (e.g., persistence and attention). Recommendations for educational practices and policies were offered. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2014

Spanish vocabulary-bridging technology-enhanced instruction for young English language learners' word learning
Leacox, Lindsey; Jackson, Carla Wood

This study examined preschool and kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) attending a migrant summer programme and their vocabulary word learning during both adult-read and technology-enhanced repeated readings. In a within-subject design, 24 ELLs (four to six years old) engaged in repeated readings in a control and a treatment condition. In the control condition, small groups of children listened to an adult-read storybook, reading in English with incidental vocabulary exposure. In the treatment condition, a technology-enhanced English shared reading with Spanish-bridging vocabulary instruction (TESB) was provided with adult mediation in an electronic book (e-book). TESB consisted of multiple vocabulary strategies including a preview of target vocabulary words and audio-recorded Spanish vocabulary definitions embedded throughout the e-book. Research suggests that even brief vocabulary interventions increase word learning (NICHHD, 2000), and accordingly, results have revealed that children make gains in both conditions through incidental exposure (Elley, 1989) and explicit vocabulary instruction (Biemiller and Boote, 2006). Significantly, more word learning gains were made in the TESB treatment condition than in the adult reading condition, as measured by researcher-developed tasks on English receptive knowledge and English naming performance. Significant pre- to post-test differences demonstrated modest growth. Educational implications are discussed, as even short interventions can lead to vocabulary gains using vocabulary strategies to support learning. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

June, 2014

Oral narrative skills: Explaining the language-emergent literacy link by race/ethnicity and SES
Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Iruka, Iheoma U.

Although children's early language skills have been found to predict literacy outcomes, little is known about the role of preschool oral narrative skills in the pathway between language and emergent literacy or how these associations differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The current study uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to explore how language at age 2 is associated with narrative skills at age 4 and emergent literacy outcomes at age 5 for a nationally representative sample of children. Findings demonstrate that early language is associated with narrative skills for most children. Oral narrative skills were found to mediate the pathway between early language and kindergarten emergent literacy for poor and nonpoor African American children. Implications for children's literacy development and future research are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July, 2015

Informing the performance-based contract between First 5 LA and LAUP -- Volume 2: Background and supporting analyses for the 2012-2013 study of child progress: Final report
Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Xue, Yange; Moiduddin, Emily M.; Aikens, Nikki; Cannon, Judith;

In February 2004, First 5 LA adopted a 10-year universal preschool master plan to increase the availability of high quality preschool spaces in Los Angeles County and created Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP) to implement the plan. A shared objective of First 5 LA and LAUP is to support early learning and development for the four-year-old children that have an opportunity to participate in LAUP programs. To meet this objective, First 5 LA and LAUP have begun to track the progress of children during their year in LAUP programs as an element of the performance-based contract between the two organizations. Beginning in the 2009-2010 program year, Mathematica Policy Research worked with First 5 LA and LAUP to identify the domains of development they sought to track, identify appropriate measures, and set targets for progress across the year. Those targets were applied for the first time in the 2011-2012 program year based on data collected by Mathematica as part of the fifth phase of the Universal Preschool Child Outcomes Study (UPCOS). Because LAUP has a new population of children every year, First 5 LA and LAUP have agreed to revisit the targets each year to consider whether the most recent data regarding LAUP children signal a need to change the targets or whether there are any factors within or external to LAUP that might influence what First 5 LA and LAUP want prioritized within the targets. Thus, the targets were revised for the 2012-2013 program year in a collaborative process between First 5 LA and LAUP that was facilitated by Mathematica. As part of UPCOS-6, Mathematica conducted direct child assessments to determine whether the agreed-upon targets for 2012-2013 were met. Purpose and Summary of Volume 2. This report is split into two volumes. In Volume 1, we answered the study's primary research questions: (1) what was the progress of LAUP children during the 2012-2013 program year, and (2) did LAUP meet the child progress performance targets included in its contract with First 5 LA? We also described LAUP families based on parent responses to a brief questionnaire. The primary purpose of Volume 2 is to provide information that can help extend understanding of the purpose of the study and the results presented in Volume 1--both background information about the study and results of exploratory and technical analyses based on study data. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

27 May, 2014

Informing the performance-based contract between First 5 LA and LAUP -- Volume 1: Child progress in the 2012-2013 program year: Final report
Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Xue, Yange; Moiduddin, Emily M.; Aikens, Nikki; Cannon, Judith;

In February 2004, First 5 LA adopted a 10-year universal preschool master plan to increase the availability of high quality preschool spaces in Los Angeles County and created Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP) to implement the plan. A shared objective of First 5 LA and LAUP is to support early learning and development for the four-year-old children that have an opportunity to participate in LAUP programs. To meet this objective, First 5 LA and LAUP have begun to track the progress of children during their year in LAUP programs as an element of the performance-based contract between the two organizations. Beginning in the 2009-2010 program year, Mathematica Policy Research worked with First 5 LA and LAUP to identify the domains of development they sought to track, identify appropriate measures, and set targets for progress across the year. Those targets were applied for the first time in the 2011-2012 program year based on data collected by Mathematica as part of the fifth phase of the Universal Preschool Child Outcomes Study (UPCOS). Because LAUP has a new population of children every year, First 5 LA and LAUP have agreed to revisit the targets each year to consider whether the most recent data regarding LAUP children signal a need to change the targets, or whether there are any factors within or external to LAUP that might influence what First 5 LA and LAUP want prioritized within the targets. Thus, the targets were revised for the 2012-2013 program year in a collaborative process between First 5 LA and LAUP that was facilitated by Mathematica. As part of UPCOS-6, Mathematica conducted direct child assessments to determine whether the agreed-upon targets for 2012-2013 were met. In this report, we describe children's progress from fall to spring of the program year and whether targets were met. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

24 October, 2013

Center-based preschool and school readiness skills of children from immigrant families
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Collins, Melissa A.; Miller, Portia;

Children from immigrant families are more likely than children of native parents to start school with fewer of the academic skills that are important for long-term success, although evidence on behavioral skills is mixed. Center-based early education and care (EEC) programs, which have been linked to improvements in academic functioning in disadvantaged samples, may serve as a potent resource for children from immigrant families, but important questions remain about their benefits and drawbacks for academic and behavioral outcomes across the diverse population of children from immigrant families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N [is approximately] 6,550), this study examined prospective associations between center-based EEC at age 4 and school readiness skills at age 5 among children from immigrant families. Practice or Policy: The results suggest that center-based EEC is associated with heightened math, reading, and expressive language skills and also with lower parent-rated externalizing behaviors for children of immigrants in comparison to children of native parents. Results also revealed heterogeneity in associations between center-based EEC attendance and school readiness skills among children of immigrants based on parental region of origin, household language use, and the language used in EEC settings. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2015

Children's kindergarten outcomes and program quality in the North Carolina Pre-Kindergarten Program: 2013-2014 statewide evaluation
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; Hildebrandt, Lisa; Pan, Yi; Warnaar, Bethany L.;

The primary research questions addressed by this evaluation included: What are the longitudinal outcomes through kindergarten of children who attended NC Pre-K and What factors were associated with better outcomes? Secondarily, the evaluation also addressed: What were the key site, classroom, teacher, and child characteristics of the local programs? and What was the quality of a sample of NC Pre-K classrooms? (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2015

Cognitive ability at kindergarten entry and socioeconomic status
Larson, Kandyce; Russ, Shirley; Nelson, Bergen B.; Olson, Lynn M.; Halfon, Neal;

Objective: To examine how gradients in socioeconomic status (SES) impact US children's reading and math ability at kindergarten entry and determine the contributions of family background, health, home learning, parenting, and early education factors to those gradients. Methods: Analysis of 6600 children with cognitive assessments at kindergarten entry from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study. A composite SES measure based on parent's occupation, education, and income was divided into quintiles. Wald F tests assessed bivariate associations between SES and child's cognitive ability and candidate explanatory variables. A decomposition methodology examined mediators of early cognitive gradients. Results: Average reading percentile rankings increased from 34 to 67 across SES quintiles and math from 33 to 70. Children in lower SES quintiles had younger mothers, less frequent parent reading, less home computer use (27%-84%), and fewer books at home (26-114). Parent's supportive interactions, expectations for their child to earn a college degree (57%-96%), and child's preschool attendance (64%-89%) increased across quintiles. Candidate explanatory factors explained just over half the gradients, with family background factors explaining 8% to 13%, health factors 4% to 6%, home learning environment 18%, parenting style/beliefs 14% to 15%, and early education 6% to 7% of the gaps between the lowest versus highest quintiles in reading and math. Conclusions: Steep social gradients in cognitive outcomes at kindergarten are due to many factors. Findings suggest policies targeting levels of socioeconomic inequality and a range of early childhood interventions are needed to address these disparities. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2015

Living with a grandparent and parent in early childhood: Associations with school readiness and differences by demographic characteristics
Pilkauskas, Natasha V.;

Despite the increasing prevalence of 3-generation family households (grandparent, parent, child), relatively little research has studied these households during early childhood. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort (N = [approximately] 6,550), this study investigated the associations between 3-generation coresidence in early childhood and school readiness, and how the associations differed by maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, relationship status, and poverty. For the full sample of children, no associations between 3-generation coresidence and school readiness were found. Analyses by demographic characteristics found that race/ethnicity and nativity moderated the associations, whereas maternal age, relationship status, and poverty did not. The study found that 3-generation coresidence was associated with lower levels of expressive language for White, Asian, and Black children but more expressive language for Hispanic children. Coresidence was also associated with more externalizing behavior for White and American Indian/Alaskan Native children but less externalizing behavior for Hispanic and Black children. Analyses by maternal nativity found that for children of immigrant mothers, 3-generation coresidence was associated with more expressive language and less externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Interactions between race/ethnicity and nativity found that the positive associations for Hispanic children were concentrated among children of immigrant parents. No differences were found between grandmother-only and grandmother/grandfather 3-generation family households. Overall, the findings suggest there may be heterogeneity by race/ethnicity and nativity in the associations between 3-generation coresidence and school readiness. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2014

The effects of a comprehensive early literacy project on preschoolers' language and literacy skills
Xu, Yaoying; Chin, Christopher E.; Reed-Victor, Evelyn; Hutchinson, Cynthia W.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a federally funded early literacy project that aimed to promote the school readiness skills of preschool-age children from low income families. Through daily, explicit, and systematic instruction, the project targeted to improve preschoolers' oral language skills, phonological awareness, print awareness, and alphabet knowledge that aligned with the existing curriculum of the local school district. Data were collected through multiple sources at the individual child level, classroom level, and from the family/home environment. Significant gains were found between pre- and post-tests in child outcomes, classroom environments, instructional practices, parent attitudes toward early literacy, and family involvement in literacy activities. Additionally, classroom organization was identified as a significant predictor for children's receptive language skills. Limitations of the current study and implications for future research as well as instructional practices were discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2014

Peer play interactions and learning for low-income preschool children: The moderating role of classroom quality
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Clopet, Tracy M. Carter; Dietrich, Sandy L. R.

The present study examined the degree to which the association between interactive peer play and academic skills was dependent upon the level of classroom quality for a representative sample of culturally and linguistically diverse urban Head Start children (N=304 children across 53 classrooms). Peer play interactions within the classroom were assessed by teacher assistants in the fall of the year; observations of the quality of classroom instructional, emotional, and organizational support were conducted in the middle of the year; and norm-referenced direct assessments of literacy, language, and mathematics skills were administered in the spring. Findings from multilevel models indicated that disruptive and disconnected peer play behaviors early in the preschool year were associated with lower literacy and language skills regardless of classroom quality. However, interactive peer play early in the year was associated with higher mathematics outcomes when children were enrolled in classrooms characterized by high instructional support. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

August, 2014

Do standard measures of preschool quality used in statewide policy predict school readiness?
Sabol, Terri J.; Pianta, Robert C.;

In the majority of states using Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) to improve children's school readiness, the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) is a core assessment of preschool program quality and is central to QRIS metrics and incentive structures. The present study utilizes nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to examine relations between the ECERS-R and children's academic, language, and socioemotional functioning at age five years. After using a rich set of controls, we found little evidence that the ECERS-R related to children's development. Further, higher levels of quality failed to improve growth in academic, language, or socioemotional skills and behaviors for children with more exposure to sociodemographic risk. Implications of these findings are discussed with regard to recent policy initiatives and strengthening the measurement of quality in early childhood education settings. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Spring 2014

Children's outcomes and program quality in the North Carolina Pre-Kindergarten Program: 2012-2013 statewide evaluation
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; LaForett, Dore R.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; Hildebrandt, Lisa; Sideris, John; Pan, Yi;

The purpose of the 2012-2013 NC Pre-Kindergarten (NC Pre-K) Evaluation study was to examine the quality of the program and the outcomes for children, along with comparisons to previous years. Since the inception of the statewide pre-k program in North Carolina in 2001-2002, the evaluation has been conducted by the FPG Child Development Institute at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. See Table 1 for a list of previous reports for further information about prior years, including studies of classroom quality and longitudinal and comparison studies of children's outcomes. The primary research questions addressed by this evaluation included: What were the key characteristics of the local NC Pre-K programs? What was the quality of the NC Pre-K classrooms attended by children and what factors were associated with better quality? What were the outcomes of children attending the NC Pre-K Program and what factors were associated with better outcomes? To what extent have there been any changes over time in these results? To address these questions, information was gathered from multiple sources, including monthly service reports, teacher surveys, observations of classroom quality, and individual assessments of children's outcomes. The statewide monthly service report data provided information about characteristics of the program and demographic information about the children served. Observations conducted in a random sample of 99 NC Pre-K classrooms provided information about classroom quality, including global classroom quality, teacher-child instructional interactions, language and literacy environment, and sensitivity of teacher-child interactions, and teacher surveys provided information about classroom characteristics and teacher perceptions. Child outcomes data were gathered for a sample of 561 children to examine changes in language, literacy, math, general knowledge, and behavior skills over the course of the pre-k year. For 117 Spanish-speaking dual language learners (DLLs) in the sample, skills were measured in both English and Spanish using parallel measures. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2014

Hispanic immigrant children's English language acquisition: The role of socioeconomic status and early care arrangement
Bumgarner, Erin; Lin, Meiko

Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort, this study investigates whether socioeconomic status (SES) moderates the association between center-based early childhood education (ECE) and English proficiency at kindergarten entry for 1st- and 2nd-generation Hispanic immigrant children. Results show significant, positive main effects of ECE and SES on English proficiency. However, results also reveal that the association between ECE and English proficiency differs by SES. Among 1st- and 2nd generation Hispanic children from very low-SES households, the odds of being proficient in English for children who attended ECE is more than double the odds for children who did not attend ECE. In contrast, the association between ECE and English proficiency for higher SES children did not reach significance. Additional analyses reveal similar patterns for income but not maternal education. Practice or Policy: These results highlight the need for ECE programs that target the poorest Hispanic immigrant children. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2014

Effects of Georgia's Pre-K Program on children's school readiness skills: Findings from the 2012-2013 evaluation study
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; LaForett, Dore R.; Hildebrandt, Lisa; Sideris, John;

The purpose of the 2012-2013 Georgia's Pre-K Program Evaluation study was to investigate the effects of participation in the pre-k program on children's school readiness skills. This study utilized a regression discontinuity design (RDD), the strongest type of quasi-experimental research design for examining treatment effects. This study compared two groups of children based on the existing age requirement for the pre-k program: 1) the treated group--children who had completed Georgia's Pre-K Program the previous year and were just entering kindergarten in the study year, and 2) the untreated group--children who were not eligible for Georgia's Pre-K Program the previous year and were just entering pre-k in the study year. Because the families of both groups of children chose Georgia's Pre-K, the two groups were equivalent on many important characteristics; the only difference was whether the child's birth date fell before or after the cut-off date for eligibility for the pre-k program. The primary research questions addressed by this study were: Does participation in Georgia's Pre-K Program improve children's school readiness skills (language, literacy, math, general knowledge, behavior) compared to children who have not attended the program? Are the effects of Georgia's Pre-K Program on school readiness skills similar for different groups of children on the basis of family income, gender, or children's level of English language proficiency? (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

March, 2014

Predictors and outcomes of early versus later English language proficiency among English language learners
Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina C.;

The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self-control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children's growth and development. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q1 2012

Preschool to kindergarten transition patterns for African American boys
Iruka, Iheoma U.; Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Winn, Donna-Marie C.

This study focused on the transition patterns of African American boys from preschool to kindergarten using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) dataset. Analyses were conducted to examine whether socioeconomic status, parenting (i.e., emotional support, intrusiveness), and attendance in a center-based program predicted likelihood of being in a particular transition pattern. Four patterns emerged from the data: (1) Increasing Academically, (2) Early Achiever: Declining Academically & Socially, (3) Low Achiever: Declining Academically, and (4) Consistent Early Achiever. There was heterogeneity in the school transition patterns of African American boys, with many showing stability from preschool to kindergarten. Family income and parenting practices and interactions were associated with an increased probability of being in the group that showed a significant increase in academics, suggesting the importance of parents' provision of enriching opportunities and experiences for African American boys as they transition from preschool to kindergarten. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q2 2014

Unpacking the black box of the Chicago School Readiness Project intervention: The mediating roles of teacher-child relationship quality and self-regulation
Jones, Stephanie M.; Bub, Kristen L.; Raver, C. Cybele;

Research Findings: This study examines the theory of change of the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), testing a sequence of theory-derived mediating mechanisms that include the quality of teacher-child relationships and children's self-regulation. The CSRP is a multicomponent teacher and classroom-focused intervention, and its cluster-randomized efficacy trial was conducted in 35 Head Start-funded classrooms. Practice or Policy: A series of increasingly complex and conservative structural equation models indicate that the CSRP carries its effects on children's academic and behavioral outcomes through changes in teacher-child relationship quality and children's self regulation. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2013

School readiness of children from immigrant families: Contributions of region of origin, home, and childcare
Koury, Amanda; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth;

Children from immigrant families make up a growing proportion of young children in the United States. This study highlights the heterogeneity in early academic skills related to parental region of origin. It also considers the contributions of early home and nonparental care settings to the diversity in early academic performance. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; N [is approximately equal to] 6,850), this study examines associations between parental region of origin and children's math and reading skills at age 5. It also considers whether home and nonparental care environments are pathways through which parental region of origin relates to academic achievement. There was significant heterogeneity in children's early reading and math skills related to parental region of origin. Children of Indian Asian and East Asian/Pacific Islander parents outscored children of native-born White parents and every other immigrant subgroup. Children of Mexican and Central American/Spanish Caribbean parents performed below other immigrant subgroups and native-born White children. Differences in child, socioeconomic, and family characteristics largely explained relations between parental region of origin and early academic skills. Indirect effects of early home environments and nonparental care played a modest but important role in explaining variability in academic skills related to region of origin. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2014

Beyond an "either-or" approach to home- and center-based child care: Comparing children and families who combine care types with those who use just one
Gordon, Rachel A.; Colaner, Anna C.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Melgar, Claudia;

Most research focuses on preschoolers' primary non-parental child care arrangement despite evidence that multiple arrangements are relatively common. Using the nationally-representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, we compare characteristics and outcomes of families whose 4-year olds attend both home- and center-based child care with those who attend either home- or center-based care exclusively or receive no non-parental care at all. We find that about one fifth of 4-year olds attend both home- and center-based child care. Mothers' priorities for care (getting their child ready for school, matching their families' cultural background) and perceptions of good local care options predict their combining home- and center-based care. Preschoolers score higher on reading and math assessments, on average, when they attend centers, alone or in combination with home-based child care, than when they are cared for only in homes, either by their parents or by others. Preschoolers' average socioemotional outcomes generally do not differ between families who do and who do not combine care types. Implications for research and policy are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2013

Getting ready for kindergarten: Children's progress during Head Start: FACES 2009 report
Aikens, Nikki; Klein, Ashley Kopack; Tarullo, Louisa B.; West, Jerry;

A study of the characteristics and family backgrounds of Head Start children, as well as their developmental progress from Head Start entry to exit in the domains of cognitive development, socioemotional development, health, and physical development, based on data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), 2009 Cohort, for 2,356 children who entered the program in fall 2009

Reports & Papers

June, 2013

Center-based child care and cognitive skills development: Importance of timing and household resources
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Koury, Amanda; Miller, Portia;

Growing evidence has linked center-based early care and education settings to improvements in children's cognitive skills. Additional research is needed to more carefully delineate when and for whom these associations are most pronounced. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 6,350; Flanagan & West, 2004), this study examined whether the beneficial effects of center-based care settings for children's cognitive skills at age 5 differ by the age at which children experience these settings and for subgroups based on household income, parental education, and quality of the home learning environment. The results suggest that center-based preschool was supportive of the math and reading skills development of the sample as a whole. However, both center- and home-based care for 2-year-olds as well as 4-year-olds were beneficial for children from lower income, less educated, and less enriching family contexts, helping to diminish the cognitive skills gap between more and less advantaged children.

Reports & Papers

August, 2013

Informing the performance-based contract between First 5 LA and LAUP: Child progress in the 2011-2012 program year: Final report
Xue, Yange; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Moiduddin, Emily M.;

A study of children's developmental progress from fall to spring in the Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP) program, based on fall and spring assessments for a representative sample of 586 children

Reports & Papers

25 September, 2012

Informing the performance-based contract between First 5 LA and LAUP: Child progress in the 2010-2011 program year: Final report
Moiduddin, Emily M.; Xue, Yange; Atkins-Burnett, Sally;

A study of children's developmental progress from fall to spring in the Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP) program, based on fall and spring assessments for a representative sample of 675 children

Reports & Papers

30 November, 2011

Report to Congress on dual language learners in Head Start and Early Head Start programs
United States. Administration for Children and Families;

A study that examines: the characteristics of dual language learner Head Start and Early Head Start children and their families; the services they receive; the qualifications of staff that serve them; the languages that staff use to communicate with them; and dual language learner children's developmental progress, based on Head Start Program Information Report data, Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2006 (FACES 2006) data, and Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (Baby FACES) data

Reports & Papers

Head Start participation and school readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort
Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane;

A comparison of academic skills and socioemotional well-being at kindergarten entry for populations of children who attended Head Start or other types of child care, based on data from 6,950 children, their parents, schools, and teachers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, Kindergarten sample, a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001

Reports & Papers

January, 2014

Evaluation of the North Carolina More at Four Pre-kindergarten Program: Year 8 report (July 1, 2008-June 30, 2009): A look across time at children's outcomes and classroom quality from pre-k through kindergarten
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.;

Longitudinal findings from the eighth year of an evaluation of the North Carolina More at Four Pre-kindergarten Program, a state-funded initiative to provide high-quality educational experiences to at risk 4-year-olds, that examine More at Four program characteristics, compare the quality of More at Four and kindergarten classrooms, and track participants' development from prekindergarten through kindergarten, based on monthly service reports, observations of More at Four and kindergarten classrooms, teacher surveys, and child assessments

Reports & Papers

2009

Effects of divorce and cohabitation dissolution on preschoolers' literacy
Fagan, Jay

A study of the association between children's early literacy and changes in the marital and cohabitation status of their parents, with an examination of the mediating roles of changes in household income, changes in depressive symptoms, changes in maternal stimulation of child learning, and mothers' pregnancy timing, based on data from approximately 6,450 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth cohort followed at 24 and 48 months

Reports & Papers

April, 2013

Children's growth and classroom experiences in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2011-2012 evaluation study
Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; LaForett, Dore R.;

An evaluation of Georgia's universal, publicly-funded Pre-K Program that examines children's language and literacy, math, knowledge, and behavior outcomes, predictors of those outcomes, and classroom quality, based on fall and spring assessments of 509 children and on observations of 100 classrooms

Reports & Papers

February, 2013

Early academic skills and childhood experiences across the urban-rural continuum
Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth;

An examination of differences in children's academic skills at kindergarten entry across large urban, small urban, suburban, and rural areas, based on data from approximately 6,050 children and their families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort

Reports & Papers

Q2 2013

New evidence on the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale: Results from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort
Colwell, Nicole; Gordon, Rachel A.; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders;

An examination of the factor structure of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, based on an analysis of data from a subgroup of participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort consisting of 750 2-year-olds in home-based care and 1,350 4-year-olds in center-based care

Reports & Papers

Q2 2013

Child outcomes and classroom quality in FACES 2009
Moiduddin, Emily M.; Aikens, Nikki; Tarullo, Louisa B.; West, Jerry; Xue, Yange;

A profile of the characteristics of Head Start children and families and their home and Head Start classroom environments in fall 2009 and spring 2010, including children's cognitive, physical, and socioemotional development, and Head Start classroom curricula, activities, and quality, based on fall 2009 and spring 2010 data for a sample of 370 classrooms and 3,022 children in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES)

Reports & Papers

September, 2012

Family income and early achievement across the urban-rural continuum
Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Setodji, Claude Messan;

A study of the form and magnitude of the relationship between income and early achievement across the urban-rural continuum, based on data on approximately 6,600 children from Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort

Reports & Papers

August, 2013

Evaluation of the First 5 LA Family Literacy Initiative: Final evaluation report
Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Parrish, Deborah (Montgomery); Madsen, Shannon; Lyman-Munt, Eva; Ernandes, Jessica; Rojas, Daniela; Helsel, Fiona; Howes, Carollee; Jung, Youngok;

Findings from an eight-year process and outcome evaluation of the First 5 LA Family Literacy Initiative, a comprehensive program to promote literacy among low-income families in Los Angeles County, that examines both program characteristics and quality and both child and parent school participation and literacy outcomes

Reports & Papers

12 January, 2011

Informing the performance-based contract between First 5 LA and LAUP: Assessing child progress: Spring report
Xue, Yange; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Caronongan, Pia; Moiduddin, Emily M.;

A study of children's development from fall to spring in the Los Angeles Universal Preschool program and an examination of the validity of teacher-administered child assessments, based on a full battery of direct child assessments and brief teacher-administered assessments for a sample of 875 children

Reports & Papers

10 December, 2010

An assessment of the validity of the ECERS-R with implications for measures of child care quality and relations to child development
Gordon, Rachel A.; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin;

An assessment of the response process validity, structural validity, and criterion validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, based on an analysis of data from 1,350 centers and preschools from a national longitudinal study of children

Reports & Papers

January, 2013

Instruction in Spanish in pre-kindergarten classrooms and child outcomes for English language learners
Burchinal, Margaret; Field, Samuel; Lopez, Michael; Howes, Carollee; Pianta, Robert C.;

An examination of the relationship between the language, reading, and math skills of English language learners and both the proportion of instruction in Spanish and observed quality of teacher-child interactions, based on data from 357 Spanish-speaking 4-year-old children who attended state-funded pre-kindergarten programs in 11 states

Reports & Papers

Q2 2012

Head Start children, families, and programs: Present and past data from FACES
Hulsey, Lara; Aikens, Nikki; Kopack, Ashley; West, Jerry; Moiduddin, Emily M.; Tarullo, Louisa B.;

A profile of the characteristics of Head Start children and families and their home and Head Start classroom environments in fall 2009, including children's cognitive, physical, and socioemotional development, and Head Start classroom curricula and activities, and a comparison to profiles from 2000, 2003, and 2006, based on data collected in fall 2009 from a sample of 60 Head Start programs, 129 centers, 486 classrooms, and 3,349 children

Reports & Papers

December, 2011

A behavior-genetic study of the legacy of early caregiving experiences: Academic skills, social competence, and externalizing behavior in kindergarten
Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris;

A behavior-genetic study of associations between early parental support and academic skills, social competence, and externalizing behavior in kindergarten, based on assessments, at 24 months and approximately age 4, of a sample of 485 same-sex twin pairs from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), born in 2001, and tracked through kindergarten

Reports & Papers

March/April 2012

Effect on preschoolers' literacy when never-married mothers get married
Fagan, Jay

An examination the relationships between children's vocabulary and family structure and a second study of possible mediators of that relationship that includes household income, quantity of maternal involvement with the child, and depressive symptoms of the primary caregiver, based on data from 2,800 mothers and their child at 9-months-old and again from both when the child was 48-months-old

Reports & Papers

October, 2011

Early mathematics achievement trajectories: English-language learner and native English-speaker estimates, using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey
Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty;

A study of differences in the kindergarten through fifth grade mathematics achievement trajectories of children from English and non-English speaking households and children from different socioeconomic backgrounds, based on a secondary analysis of a set of longitudinal data collected from thousands of children

Reports & Papers

July, 2011