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Related Resource of Resource 5926

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Result Resource Type Publication Date

Preschoolers at risk of developing concurrent academic and behavioral difficulties
Zibulsky, Jamie

A longitudinal study of the relationships between pre-reading, reading, and social skills from the fall of preschool through spring kindergarten in 1,041 children at 14 sites nationwide as part of the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research project

Reports & Papers

Spring 2009

Head Start Impact Study: Final report
Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla;

This study measures the effects of Head Start enrollment on multiple school readiness outcomes of a nationally-representative sample of nearly 5,000 low-income children. This randomized and controlled trial compares the cognitive and social-emotional development, as well as select academic, literacy, health, and behavior-related outcomes of groups of children either attending Head Start or not attending Head Start. Follow-up data was collected at either kindergarten or 1st grade from of cohorts of children who experienced a year of Head Start either at either age 3 or age 4. Analysis revealed that access to Head Start has benefits for both cohorts in the cognitive, health, and behavioral areas. Social-emotional benefits occurred for 3-year-olds only. Overall, however, the benefits of access to Head Start at age four tend to fade by first grade except in select sub-groups of children.

Reports & Papers

January, 2010

Ecological influences on emergent literacy development: The role of home and preschool experiences in the transition from language to literacy
Genone, Sophia Sarah

An examination of the relationships between measures of children's home and preschool settings and their performance on tests of emergent literacy, as well as an examination of pre-reading abilities and the factors that contribute to their growth, from longitudinal data collected by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER)

Reports & Papers

Spring 2009

The New Mexico PreK evaluation: Results from the initial four years of a new state preschool initiative: Final report
Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Goetze, Linda D.;

An evaluation of the quality, economic impact, and parent provider perceptions of New Mexico's prekindergarten program, and an examination of the influence of the program on children's academic achievements, based on data on participants in the program from the 2005-2006 through 2007-2008 academic school year

Reports & Papers

November, 2009

Implementation fidelity of MyTeachingPartner literacy and language activities: Association with preschoolers' language and literacy growth
Hamre, Bridget; Justice, Laura M.; Pianta, Robert C.; Kilday, Carolyn R.; Sweeney, Beverly; Downer, Jason T.; Leach, Allison;

An examination of association between the degree of variability in dosage, adherence, and quality of delivery of a supplemental literacy and language development classroom curriculum and children's growth in language and literacy skills across the preschool year of 154 preschool teachers and 680 children participants enrolled in their classrooms

Reports & Papers

Q3 2010

Continued impacts of New Mexico PreK on children's readiness for kindergarten: Results from the third year of implementation
Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Figueras, Alexandra;

A study of the impacts of participation in New Mexico PreK, a state-funded preschool program for four-year-old children offered through a variety of public and community-based providers, on children's receptive vocabulary, early literacy, and early math skills at kindergarten entry

Reports & Papers

September, 2009

Effectiveness of comprehensive professional development for teachers of at-risk preschoolers
Landry, Susan H.; Anthony, Jason L.; Swank, Paul R.; Monseque-Bailey, Pauline;

An investigation into the effect of the Center for Improving the Readiness of Children for Learning and Education (CIRCLE) Preschool Early Language and Literacy Training professional development intervention coupled with 4 combinations of mentoring and electronic or written feedback on teachers’ promotion of at-risk children’s development of early language and emergent literacy skills, based on samples of 262 early childhood teachers placed in one of 4 variations of the CIRCLE intervention or in a control group, and 1,786 preschool students

Reports & Papers

May 2009

The APPLES Blossom: The Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study (APPLES): Preliminary results through 2nd grade: Interim report [Executive summary]
Frede, Ellen; Jung, Kwanghee; Barnett, W. Steven; Figueras, Alexandra;

A summary of preliminary findings from a longitudinal study on the lasting effects of participation in an Abbott prekindergarten program on children’s language, literacy, and math skills in first and second grade

Executive Summary

June, 2009

The APPLES Blossom: The Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study (APPLES): Preliminary results through 2nd grade: Interim report
Frede, Ellen; Jung, Kwanghee; Barnett, W. Steven; Figueras, Alexandra;

Preliminary findings from a longitudinal study on the lasting effects of participation in an Abbott prekindergarten program on children’s language, literacy, and math skills in first and second grade

Reports & Papers

June, 2009

Effective early literacy skill development for young Spanish-speaking English language learners: An experimental study of two methods
Farver, Jo Ann M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Eppe, Stefanie;

An investigation of the effect of the Literacy Express Preschool Curriculum on the acquisition of emergent literacy skills by Spanish-speaking preschool children, based on a study of three groups of English language learners (ELL) from 10 Head Start classrooms in California where 32 children received the regular curriculum, 31 children received the intervention in English-only, and 31 children received the intervention in Spanish transitioning to English

Reports & Papers

May/June 2009

From implementation to impact: An evaluation of the South Carolina First Steps to School Readiness program
High/Scope Educational Research Foundation;

A multi-component evaluation of South Carolina First Steps to School Readiness, a comprehensive state initiative aimed at improving early childhood development, that examined: the features and quality of First Steps-funded four-year-old kindergarten (4K) classrooms, and the characteristics and outcomes of 4K participants; families receiving child care vouchers through First Steps and the features and quality improvements of child care programs receiving First Steps funding for quality enhancement activities; outcomes of children whose parents participated in First Steps parenting and family strengthening activities; and the value added by channeling funding through First Steps offices rather than directly through agencies implementing First Steps programming

Reports & Papers

2006

Effects of a pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention: A randomized experiment
Klein, Alice; Starkey, Prentice; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Iyer, Roopa;

An evaluation of the effect of the implementation of the Pre-K Mathematics curriculum and the DLM Express software package on the mathematical knowledge of low-income children in Head Start and public preschool classrooms in greater San Francisco and Buffalo, based on a study of 20 experimental and 20 control-group classrooms

Reports & Papers

2008

A study of Classroom Literacy Interventions and Outcomes in Even Start
Judkins, David R.; St. Pierre, Robert G.; Gutmann, Babette; Goodson, Barbara D.; Von Glatz, Adrienne; Hamilton, Jennifer; Webber, Ann; Troppe, Patricia; Rimdzius, Tracy;

An evaluation of the impacts of research-based, literacy-focused early childhood education and parenting education curricula in Even Start programs on child language, literacy, and social competence, parenting skills, parent literacy, and instructional practices in Even Start, including: a comparison of the impacts of preschool, parenting, and parent-child curricula with the impacts of existing Even Start services; and an examination of the value added by parenting and parent-child curricula to preschool curricula

Reports & Papers

September, 2008

Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness: Report from the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research initiative
Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium;

The final report from the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research initiative, which conducted multi-site experimental evaluations of 14 preschool curricula's impacts on child outcomes (including behavior and early language, literacy, and math skills) at the end of preschool and in kindergarten, and on preschool classroom outcomes (including classroom quality, teacher-child interactions, and instructional practices)

Reports & Papers

July, 2008

Longitudinal effects of the Arkansas Better Chance program: Findings from kindergarten and first grade
Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee;

A study of the relation of participation in Arkansas Better Chance (ABC), a state-funded child care and early education program for preschool-age children from low-income families, to the literacy, language, and math development of children at the beginning and end of kindergarten and at the end of first grade, and a study of classroom quality in the ABC program

Reports & Papers

May, 2008

An experimental study evaluating a state-funded pre-kindergarten program: Bringing together subsidized childcare, public school, and Head Start
Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Anthony, Jason L.; Assel, Michael A.; Gunnewig, Susan B.; McManis, Lilla D.;

An experimental two-year study of the impacts of a state-mandated, research-based early care and education model for use in child care, Head Start, and prekindergarten classrooms in Texas on teachers' instructional practices and children's school readiness

Reports & Papers

Effects of five state prekindergarten programs on early learning
Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Wong, Vivian C.; Cook, Thomas D.; Lamy, Cynthia Esposito;

A study of the impact of state prekindergarten programs in Michigan, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and West Virginia on children's vocabulary, math, and print awareness skills by comparing children who had completed a year of prekindergarten with nonparticipants who had missed the enrollment age cut-off and were about to start prekindergarten

Reports & Papers

October, 2007

An effectiveness-based evaluation of five state pre-kindergarten programs
Wong, Vivian C.; Cook, Thomas D.; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee;

A comparison of the pre-kindergarten programs in Michigan, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and West Virginia, including an examination of the math, reading, and vocabulary scores of participating children, and an exploration of the relationship between program quality and outcomes

Reports & Papers

Winter 2008

Assessing the role of book reading practices in Indian bilingual children's English language and literacy development
Kalia, Vrinda;

An examination of the impact of Indian bilingual parents’ book reading practices on the development of their children’s English oral language, narrative, and literacy skills, testing the skills of 24 bilingual children from two preschools in Bangalore, India

Reports & Papers

October 2007

The effects of the New Mexico PreK Initiative on young children's school readiness
Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Pew Charitable Trusts;

A study of the effects of the New Mexico PreK initiative on the receptive vocabulary, early literacy, and early math skills of children entering kindergarten, using data from a sample of 886 children from across New Mexico

Reports & Papers

August, 2007

An effectiveness-based evaluation of five state pre-kindergarten programs using regression-discontinuity
Wong, Vivian C.; Cook, Thomas D.; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee;

A study of the impact of state prekindergarten programs in Michigan, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and West Virginia on children's vocabulary, math, and print awareness skills by comparing children who had completed a year of prekindergarten with nonparticipants who had missed the enrollment age cut-off and were about to start prekindergarten

Reports & Papers

June, 2007

An experimental validation of a preschool emergent literacy curriculum
DeBaryshe, Barbara Diane; Gorecki, Dana M.;

An evaluation of a pilot version of Learning Connections, an emergent literacy and mathematics enrichment curriculum for preschool children, focusing on the resulting language and literacy skills of participating children enrolled in full day Head Start classrooms

Reports & Papers

2007

The Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study (APPLES): Interim report
Frede, Ellen; Jung, Kwanghee; Barnett, W. Steven; Lamy, Cynthia Esposito; Figueras, Alexandra;

The interim results through kindergarten of a longitudinal study of the impact of participation in the New Jersey Abbott Preschool Program, a publicly-funded, high-quality preschool program for children in high-poverty school districts, based on classroom observations and direct child assessments

Reports & Papers

June, 2007

National evaluation of Early Reading First: Final report
National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance;

An evaluation of the Early Reading First component of the No Child Left Behind Act, a grant program providing funding to preschools serving children from low-income families to improve language and literacy development, comparing child outcomes and teacher practices in funded programs versus programs that had applied for but not received funding, based on child assessments, classroom observations, and teacher surveys

Reports & Papers

May 2007

Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten
Blair, Clancy; Razza, Rachel Peters;

An analysis of the correlation between self-regulation in preschool and academic outcomes in kindergarten, among a sample of 141 low income 3- to 5-year-olds attending Head Start programs in rural and non-urban locations

Reports & Papers

March/April 2007

The effects of the Arkansas Better Chance program on young children's school readiness
Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Thomas, Jessica;

A study of the effects of Arkansas Better Chance, a state-funded child care and early education program for preschool-age children from low-income families, on the literacy, language, and math development of children entering kindergarten

Reports & Papers

January, 2007

Effects of an emergent literacy intervention for children with language impairments from low-income environments
Ziolkowski, Robyn A.

An examination of the effectiveness of an emergent phonological and print awareness intervention conducted three times a week during shared book reading sessions with low income preschool children with and without language impairments

Reports & Papers

2004

Contexts for facilitating emergent literacy in typically developing preschoolers
Wilhjelm, Karen N.

An examination of the effects of a combined intervention approach (dialogic reading and phonological awareness) on the emergent literacy skills of preschoolers as compared with the effects of only teaching dialogic reading

Reports & Papers

2004

Estimated impacts of number of years of preschool attendance on vocabulary, literacy and math skills at kindergarten entry
Barnett, W. Steven; Lamy, Cynthia Esposito;

An analysis of the effects of years of preschool attendance on vocabulary, literacy, and math skills at kindergarten entrance based on direct child assessments

Reports & Papers

2006

The effects of state prekindergarten programs on young children's school readiness in five states
Barnett, W. Steven; Lamy, Cynthia Esposito; Jung, Kwanghee;

A study on the effects of state-funded preschool programs on the school readiness of children from New Jersey, Illinois, Michigan, Oklahoma, South Carolina and West Virginia

Reports & Papers

December, 2005

The effects of the Michigan School Readiness Program on young children's abilities at kindergarten entry
Lamy, Cynthia Esposito; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee;

A study on the effects of the Michigan School Readiness Program on language, early literacy and early math skills in children entering kindergarten, part of a larger study on school readiness

Reports & Papers

2005

The effects of New Jersey's Abbott Preschool Program on young children's school readiness
Lamy, Cynthia Esposito; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee;

A study on the effects of attending the New Jersey Abbott Preschool Program on language, early literacy and early math skills in children entering kindergarten, part of a larger study on school readiness

Reports & Papers

December, 2005

The effects of Oklahoma's Early Childhood Four-Year-Old Program on young children's school readiness
Lamy, Cynthia Esposito; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee;

A study on the effects of attending Oklahoma's Early Childhood Four-Year-Old Program on language, early literacy and early math skills in children entering kindergarten, part of a larger study on school readiness

Reports & Papers

2005

The effects of South Carolina's early childhood programs on young children's school readiness
Lamy, Cynthia Esposito; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee;

A study on the effects of South Carolina’s early education programs on language, early literacy and early math skills in children entering kindergarten, part of a larger study on school readiness

Reports & Papers

2005

The effects of West Virginia's Early Education Program on young children's school readiness
Lamy, Cynthia Esposito; Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee;

A study of the impact of West Virginia's Early Education Program regarding entering kindergarten student's language, early literacy, and early math skills

Reports & Papers

2005

Giant steps for the littlest children: Progress in the sixth year of the Abbott preschool program: Year three initial update, 2004-2005
Lamy, Cynthia Esposito; Frede, Ellen; Seplocha, Holly; Strasser, Janis; Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Juncker, Jo Ann; Wolock, Ellen;

An annual report evaluating the quality of Abbott School District preschool classrooms in New Jersey and measuring Abbott preschoolers' academic performance

Other

2005

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing
Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.;

Instruments

1999

Children and caregivers' exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACES): Association with children's and caregivers' psychological outcomes in a therapeutic preschool program
Ziv, Yair; Sofri, Inbar; Capps Umphlet, Kristen L.; Olarte, Stephanie; Venza, Jimmy;

Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver's and the child's exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver's outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP). Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control) and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver's exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

April, 2018

Identifying differences in early literacy skills across subgroups of language-minority children: A latent profile analysis
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Goodrich, J. Marc; Farver, Jo Ann M.;

Despite acknowledgment that language-minority children come from a wide variety of home language backgrounds and have a wide range of proficiency in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages, it is unknown whether differences across language-minority children in relative and absolute levels of proficiency in L1 and L2 predict subsequent development of literacy-related skills. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of language-minority children and evaluate whether differences in level and rate of growth of early literacy skills differed across subgroups. Five-hundred and twenty-six children completed measures of Spanish and English language and early literacy skills at the beginning, middle, and end of the preschool year. Latent growth models indicated that children's early literacy skills were increasing over the course of the preschool year. Latent profile analysis indicated that language-minority children could be classified into nine distinct groups, each with unique patterns of absolute and relative levels of proficiency in L1 and L2. Results of three-step mixture models indicated that profiles were closely associated with level of early literacy skills at the beginning of the preschool year. Initial level of early literacy skills was positively associated with growth in code-related skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness) and inversely associated with growth in language skills. These findings suggest that language-minority children are a diverse group with regard to their L1 and L2 proficiencies and that growth in early literacy skills is most associated with level of proficiency in the same language. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

April, 2018

State prekindergarten effects on early learning at kindergarten entry: An analysis of eight state programs
Barnett, W. Steven; Jung, Kwanghee; Friedman-Krauss, Allison; Frede, Ellen; Nores, Milagros; Hustedt, Jason T.; Howes, Carollee; Daniel-Echols, Marijata

State-funded prekindergarten (preK) programs are increasingly common across the country. This study estimated the effects of eight state-funded preK programs (Arkansas, California, Michigan, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and West Virginia) on children's learning using a regression discontinuity design. These programs vary with respect to the population served, program design, and context. Weighted average effect sizes from instrumental variables analyses across these states are 0.24 for language (vocabulary), 0.44 for math, and 1.10 for emergent literacy. Differences in effect sizes by domain suggest that preK programs should attend more to enhancing learning beyond simple literacy skills. State preK programs appear to differ in their effects. We offer recommendations for more rigorous, regular evaluation. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

April-June 2018

Long-term effects of a system of high-quality universal preschool education in the United States
Barnett, W. Steven; Frede, Ellen;

A large body of evidence suggests that public provision of quality preschool education can be an effective way to enhance the lives of children in disadvantaged families and to decrease inequality in educational, economic, and social outcomes (for an overview, see Yoshikawa et al. 2013). However, there are few well-documented examples of large-scale successes along with some well-known failures (Barnett 2011a). We maintain that most public programs fail to invest sufficiently in the necessary quality and intensity to reproduce either the experiences or outcomes of successful models. We describe and analyze the outcomes of New Jersey's Abbott preschool system as a counterexample for the consequences of a sufficient investment. In doing so, we clarify the nature of the public investment required if preschool is to have a substantial effect on inequality. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2017

Preschool attendance and school readiness for children of immigrant mothers in the United States
Lee, RaeHyuck; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne;

We examined the associations between preschool attendance and academic school readiness at kindergarten entry among 5-year-old children of immigrant mothers in the United States using data from a US nationally representative sample (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort, N = 1650). Comparing children who were in preschool (Head Start, prekindergarten, or other center-based preschool) to children being cared for exclusively at home, analyses using both ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls and with propensity score weighting consistently showed that attending preschool was associated with higher reading and math skills. Analyses focused on specific type of preschool revealed that children attending prekindergarten (but not Head Start and other center-based preschool) had higher reading and math skills than those in parental care. Analyses focused on hours of preschool attendance indicated that children's reading skills benefited from attending more than 20 hours per week of Head Start or prekindergarten. Attending preschool, especially for full days, increases the school readiness of children of immigrants. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

June, 2018

Inhibitory control of Spanish-speaking language-minority preschool children: Measurement and association with language, literacy, and math skills
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Darcey M.; Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Phillips, Beth M.;

Children's self-regulation, including components of executive function such as inhibitory control, is related concurrently and longitudinally with elementary school children's reading and math abilities. Although several recent studies have examined links between preschool children's self-regulation or executive function and their academic skill development, few included large numbers of Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Among the fastest growing segments of the U.S. school-age population, many of these children are at significant risk of academic difficulties. We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores on this last measure were lower for children for whom it was administered in Spanish. For both English and Spanish outcomes, those scores were significantly and uniquely associated with higher scores on measures of phonological awareness and math skills but not vocabulary or print knowledge skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July/August 2017

Determining responsiveness to Tier 2 intervention in response to intervention: Level of performance, growth, or both
Milburn, Trelani F.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.;

This response to intervention study examined agreement between classification methods of preschool children's responsiveness to Tier 2 intervention using level of performance (25th percentile), growth (equivalent to small and medium effect sizes), and both level of performance and growth in a dual-discrepancy approach. Overall, 181 children identified as making inadequate progress within high-quality Tier 1 instruction in 1 or more early literacy domains (language, print knowledge, phonological awareness) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a business-as-usual control group. All children were classified as responsive or not, and although greater proportions of children were classified as responsive after intervention compared with the control groups, agreement between methods of classifying responsiveness varied across the 3 early literacy domains and the single measures within each domain. These results indicated that depending on which of these methods was used, different children were classified as responsive. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2017

A latent change score modeling approach to investigating developmental relations between phonological awareness and decoding ability in early readers
Spencer, Mercedes;

The present study investigated the dynamic developmental relations between phonological awareness and decoding ability in two groups of 3- and 4-year-old children (N = 2,513) from the Head Start Impact Study (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2002-2006) who were followed through the end of kindergarten. Children were randomly assigned to either receive Head Start or not. Using latent change score modeling methods, I tested several hypotheses regarding developmental influences among these literacy skills: (1) phonological awareness and decoding skills are developmentally correlated but do not influence one another; (2) phonological awareness influences decoding ability; (3) decoding ability influences phonological awareness; or (4) phonological awareness and decoding ability simultaneously influence one another. Results indicated that decoding ability predicted change in phonological awareness for 3- and 4-year-old children. The same trend emerged when the 3- and 4-year-olds were examined separately. Mixture modeling suggested no evidence for more than one latent class for both Head Start participants and controls, indicating an absence of differing developmental trajectories. The implications of these findings are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2016

A structural model of early indicators of school readiness among children of poverty
Gullo, Dominic F.

Factors that affect children's school readiness potential are evident even from birth. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses that certain factors related to gender, approaches to learning, age at school entry, family income, and the health status of the child at birth have an effect on low-socioeconomic status (SES) children's readiness for school. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) was used to test the hypotheses. Included in the sample were 1700 children of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. All the children were in the lowest SES quintile of the children making up the ECLS-B cohort. The hypothesized model suggested that there were both direct and indirect influences on children's school readiness performance. Potential risk factors and implications for ameliorating negative influences were identified. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

March, 2018

Impacts of a literacy-focused preschool curriculum on the early literacy skills of language-minority children
Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, Jo Ann M.;

Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) children are at an elevated risk of struggling academically and display signs of that risk during early childhood. Therefore, high-quality research is needed to identify instructional techniques that promote the school readiness of Spanish-speaking LM children. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that utilized an experimental curriculum and two professional development models for the development of English and Spanish early literacy skills among LM children. We also evaluated whether LM children's proficiency in one language moderated the effect of the intervention on early literacy skills in the other language, as well as whether the intervention was differentially effective for LM and monolingual English-speaking children. Five hundred twenty-six Spanish-speaking LM children and 447 monolingual English-speaking children enrolled in 26 preschool centers in Los Angeles, CA participated in this study. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving LM children's code-related but not language-related English early literacy skills. There were no effects of the intervention on children's Spanish early literacy skills. Proficiency in Spanish did not moderate the effect of the intervention for any English early literacy outcomes; however, proficiency in English significantly moderated the effect of the intervention for Spanish oral language skills, such that the effect of the intervention was stronger for children with higher proficiency in English than it was for children with lower proficiency in English. In general, there were not differential effects of the intervention for LM and monolingual children. Taken together, these findings indicate that high-quality, evidence-based instruction can improve the early literacy skills of LM children and that the same instructional techniques are effective for enhancing the early literacy skills of LM and monolingual children. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q3 2017

Early physical health conditions and school readiness skills in a prospective birth cohort of U.S. children
Kull, Melissa A.; Coley, Rebekah Levine;

Rationale: Extant research identifies associations between early physical health disparities and impaired functioning in adulthood, but limited research examines the emergence of these associations in the early years of children's lives. Objective: This study draws on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; N = 5900) to assess whether a host of early health indicators measured from birth to age five are associated with children's cognitive and behavioral skills at age five. Results: After adjusting for child and family characteristics, results revealed that children's neonatal risks (prematurity or low birth weight) and reports of poor health and hospitalizations were associated with lower cognitive skills, and neonatal risks and poor health predicted lower behavioral functioning at age five. Some of the association between neonatal risks and school readiness skills were indirect, functioning through children's poor health and hospitalization. Analyses further found that associations between early physical health and children's school readiness skills were consistent across subgroups defined by family income and child race/ethnicity, suggesting generalizability of results. Conclusions: Findings emphasize the need for more interdisciplinary research, practice, and policy related to optimizing child well-being across domains of physical health and development in the early years of life. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2015

Development and transfer of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish-speaking language minority preschool children
Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kleuver, Cherie G.; Farver, Jo Ann M.;

In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N= 96, mean age = 54.51 months, 54.3% male; Sample 2: N= 116, mean age = 60.70 months, 56.0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2016

Examining the predictive relations between two aspects of self-regulation and growth in preschool children's early literacy skills
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Darcey M.; Phillips, Beth M.;

There is strong evidence that self-regulatory processes are linked to early academic skills, both concurrently and longitudinally. The majority of extant longitudinal studies, however, have been conducted using autoregressive techniques that may not accurately model change across time. The purpose of this study was to examine the unique associations between 2 components of self-regulation, attention and executive functioning (EF), and growth in early literacy skills over the preschool year using latent-growth-curve analysis. The sample included 1,082 preschool children (mean age = 55.0 months, SD = 3.73). Children completed measures of vocabulary, syntax, phonological awareness, print knowledge, cognitive ability, and self-regulation, and children's classroom teachers completed a behavior rating measure. To examine the independent relations of the self-regulatory skills and cognitive ability with children's initial early literacy skills and growth across the preschool year, growth models in which the intercept and slope were simultaneously regressed on each of the predictor variables were examined. Because of the significant relation between intercept and slope for most outcomes, slope was regressed on intercept in the models to allow a determination of direct and indirect effects of the predictors on growth in children's language and literacy skills across the preschool year. In general, both teacher-rated inattention and directly measured EF were uniquely associated with initial skills level; however, only teacher-rated inattention uniquely predicted growth in early literacy skills. These findings suggest that teacher ratings of inattention may measure an aspect of self-regulation that is particularly associated with the acquisition of academic skills in early childhood. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January, 2017

Early physical health problems as developmental liabilities for school readiness: Associations with early learning contexts and family socioeconomic status
Kull, Melissa A.;

Emerging research suggests that children's physical health may account for some of the variability in developmental competencies at school entry, which are the cognitive, learning, and behavioral skills necessary for long-term academic achievement. Most studies on children's health find that neonatal risks, like low birth weight and premature birth, impair children's early functioning, but little is known about other domains of children's health, like global health or acute and chronic conditions, which may be associated with functioning at school entry. Moreover, it is unclear what role physical health may play in children's access to and engagement in home and early childhood education center-based learning contexts, which may function as pathways linking early health disparities with later development. This dissertation tested direct associations between a range of childhood health problems and school readiness skills at kindergarten entry, as well as indirect and interacted associations with early learning contexts. Given the well-established socioeconomic gradient in both health and development, analyses also explored whether associations linking health and development were conditional on family socioeconomic status. Data were drawn from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (Birth Cohort; N = 5,900), which follows a cohort of children born in 2001 from infancy through kindergarten entry. Linear regressions and path analyses revealed that four of five health conditions were associated with lower school readiness skills, most consistently in the domains of cognitive and learning skills. Neonatal risks, poor health, and hospitalization functioned directly to predict lower cognitive and learning skills, where as asthma diagnosis predicted heightened learning skills. Only poor health functioned indirectly through more restricted home learning activities. Children's time in ECE functioned in a compensatory role to attenuate associations between hospitalization and lower school readiness skills. Across all models, there was no evidence that measured associations varied across the family socioeconomic spectrum. Findings highlight the importance of interdisciplinary research on child well-being and draw attention to potential avenues for prevention and intervention. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2015

Relative effects of a comprehensive versus reduced training for Head Start teachers who serve Spanish-speaking English learners
Solari, Emily J.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.

With increased demand for improved early childhood education services, it is important to better understand the essential professional development resources that have the greatest impact on both teacher and child outcomes. This study compared the effectiveness of two teacher-training models in bilingual Migrant and Seasonal Head Start and Head Start classrooms. Both conditions included the use of a technology-based student progress-monitoring tool. The progress monitoring provided detailed feedback on students' progress 15 across the academic year and helped organize instructional groupings. The comprehensive treatment condition included biweekly professional development sessions, in-class mentoring, and provision of classroom materials, whereas the treatment- control condition included only the provision of a limited set of classroom materials. Across multiple sites in Texas, 49 pretest and posttest teacher observations and bilingual child assessments were collected on a subsample of students (n = 387). Research Findings: Improvements in teaching behaviors were observed in both experimental conditions; no significant differences were observed between teachers across conditions. Three measures of child language and literacy growth differed significantly, favoring the comprehensive treatment model, but most outcomes did not differ significantly between groups. Practice or Policy: Implications of these mixed findings and future research directions are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2016

Comparing public, private, and informal preschool programs in a national sample of low-income children
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Collins, Melissa A.; Cook, Kyle Demeo;

Recent research has found that center-based early education and care (EEC) programs promote gains in cognitive skills for low-income children, but knowledge is limited concerning diverse types of EEC arrangements. This paper contrasts the primary EEC arrangements (Head Start, public centers, private centers, and home care) attended by economically disadvantaged children in the US with data on 4250 low-income children from the nationally-representative ECLS-B cohort. Results found public centers and Head Start programs provided children with the most educated and highly trained teachers and with the most enriching learning activities and global quality, with private centers showing moderate levels and home EEC very low levels of quality. Nonetheless, after adjusting for differential selection into EEC through propensity score weighting, low-income children who attended private EEC centers showed the highest math, reading, and language skills at age 5, with children attending Head Start and public centers also showing heightened math and reading skills in comparison to children experiencing only parent care. No differences were found in children's behavioral skills at age five in relation to EEC type. Results support enhanced access to all center preschool programs for low-income children, and suggest the need for greater understanding of the processes through which EEC affects children's school readiness skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q3 2016

The role of parent education and parenting knowledge in children's language and literacy skills among White, Black, and Latino families
Rowe, Meredith L.; Denmark, Nicole Marie; Harden, Brenda Jones; Stapleton, Laura M.;

This study investigated the role of parenting knowledge of infant development in children's subsequent language and pre-literacy skills among White, Black and Latino families of varying socioeconomic status. Data come from 6,150 participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Mothers' knowledge of infant development was measured when children were 9 months old, and child language and pre-literacy skills were measured during the fall of the preschool year prior to Kindergarten when children were approximately four years old. Mothers' knowledge of infant development was uniquely related to both maternal education and race/ethnicity. Reported sources of parenting information/advice also varied by education and race/ethnicity and were related to parenting knowledge. Further, controlling for demographic factors, parenting knowledge partially mediated the relation between parent education and child language and pre-literacy skills, and this relation differed by race/ethnicity. One way to eliminate socioeconomic status achievement gaps in children's early language and literacy skills may be to focus on parents' knowledge of child development, particularly in Latino families. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

March/April 2016

Independent contributions of mothers' and fathers' language and literacy practices: Associations with children's kindergarten skills across linguistically diverse households
Sims, Jacqueline; Coley, Rebekah Levine

Home language and literacy inputs have been consistently linked with enhanced language and literacy skills among children. Most studies have focused on maternal inputs among monolingual populations. Though the proportion of American children growing up in primarily non-English-speaking homes is growing and the role of fathers in early development is increasingly emphasized, less is known about these associations in primarily non-English-speaking households or how mothers and fathers independently contribute to children's skills. Using a subsample of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N = 5,450), this study assessed the frequency of maternal and paternal inputs during early childhood and their prospective connections with children's English language and literacy skills at age 5 across White, Mexican, and Chinese children from linguistically diverse households. Analyses revealed significant differences in inputs by ethnic/language group membership and significant associations between both maternal and paternal inputs and children's skills. These associations did not differ across ethnic/language group membership. Practice or Policy: These results point to the importance of promoting rich home language and literacy environments across diverse households regardless of the language in which they take place or the parent from which they derive. (author abstact)

Reports & Papers

May, 2016

Kindergarten readiness impacts of the Arkansas Better Chance state prekindergarten initiative
Hustedt, Jason T.; Jung, Kwanghee; Barnett, W. Steven; Williams, Tonya;

Enrollment in state-funded pre-K programs prior to kindergarten entry has become increasingly common. As each state develops its own model for pre-K, rigorous studies of the impacts of state-specific programs are needed. This study investigates impacts of the Arkansas Better Chance (ABC) initiative at kindergarten entry using a regression-discontinuity design. In this approach, study selection criteria are known and modeled, rather than simply comparing children who attended ABC with potentially dissimilar children who did not attend. Statistically significant impacts of ABC pre-K participation were found across three key academic domains related to children's kindergarten readiness--vocabulary, mathematics, and print awareness skills. These results suggest that the ABC pre-K program is effective and thus that it provides a potential model for expansion of large-scale public pre-K initiatives in other states. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2015

Evaluation of the utility of the Revised Get Ready to Read! for Spanish-speaking English-language learners through differential item functioning analysis
Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Farver, Jo Ann M.; McDowell, Kimberly D.;

Children who are Spanish-speaking English-language learners (ELLs) comprise a rapidly growing percentage of the population in U.S. schools. To determine which of these children have weaker emergent literacy skills and are in need of intervention, it is necessary to assess emergent literacy skills accurately and reliably. In this study, 1,318 preschool children were administered the Revised Get Ready to Read! (GRTR-R), and item-response theory analyses were used to evaluate and compare the item-level characteristics of the measure. Results of differential item functioning (DIF) analysis identified significant DIF for seven items. Correlational analysis demonstrated that ELL children's scores on the GRTR-R were more strongly related to oral language skills than were non-ELL children's scores. These results support the use of the GRTR-R as a screening tool for identifying ELL children who are at risk for developing reading problems. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2015

Auditory processing in noise: A preschool biomarker for literacy
White-Schwoch, Travis; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Thompson, Elaine C.; Anderson, Samira; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R.; Zecker, Steven G.; Kraus, Nina;

Learning to read is a fundamental developmental milestone, and achieving reading competency has lifelong consequences. Although literacy development proceeds smoothly for many children, a subset struggle with this learning process, creating a need to identify reliable biomarkers of a child's future literacy that could facilitate early diagnosis and access to crucial early interventions. Neural markers of reading skills have been identified in school-aged children and adults; many pertain to the precision of information processing in noise, but it is unknown whether these markers are present in pre-reading children. Here, in a series of experiments in 112 children (ages 3-14 y), we show brain-behavior relationships between the integrity of the neural coding of speech in noise and phonology. We harness these findings into a predictive model of preliteracy, revealing that a 30-min neurophysiological assessment predicts performance on multiple pre-reading tests and, one year later, predicts preschoolers' performance across multiple domains of emergent literacy. This same neural coding model predicts literacy and diagnosis of a learning disability in school-aged children. These findings offer new insight into the biological constraints on preliteracy during early childhood, suggesting that neural processing of consonants in noise is fundamental for language and reading development. Pragmatically, these findings open doors to early identification of children at risk for language learning problems; this early identification may in turn facilitate access to early interventions that could prevent a life spent struggling to read. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July, 2015

Effects of web-mediated teacher professional development on the language and literacy skills of children enrolled in prekindergarten programs
Downer, Jason T.; Pianta, Robert C.; Fan, Xitao; Hamre, Bridget; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Justice, Laura M.;

As early education grows in the United States, in-service professional development in key instructional and interaction skills is a core component of capacity building in early childhood education. In this article, we describe results from an evaluation of the effects of MyTeachingPartner, a web-based system of professional development, on language and literacy development during prekindergarten for 1,338 children in 161 teachers' classrooms. High levels of support for teachers' implementation of language/literacy activities showed modest but significant effects for improving early language and literacy for children in classrooms in which English was the dominant language spoken by the students and teachers. The combination of web-based supports, including video-based consultation and web-based video teaching exemplars, was more effective at improving children's literacy and language skills than was only making available to teachers a set of instructional materials and detailed lesson guides. These results suggest the importance of targeted, practice-focused supports for teachers in designing professional development systems for effective teaching in early childhood programs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2011

Consultation for teachers and children's language and literacy development during pre-kindergarten
Mashburn, Andrew J.; Downer, Jason T.; Hamre, Bridget; Justice, Laura M.; Pianta, Robert C.;

MyTeachingPartner (MTP) is a teacher professional development program designed to improve the quality of teacher-child interactions in pre-kindergarten classrooms and children's language and literacy development. The program includes language/literacy activities and two Web-based resources--video exemplars of effective interactions and individualized consultation--designed to support teachers' high quality implementation of these activities. This study examined the impacts of the MTP Web-based resources on the language and literacy development of 1,165 children during pre-kindergarten. Children whose teachers were randomly assigned to receive access to both the video exemplars and participated in consultation (MTP Consultancy n=65) made greater gains in receptive language skills during pre-kindergarten compared to children whose teachers were randomly assigned to receive access to the video exemplars only (MTP Video Library n=69). Further, among MTP Consultancy teachers, more hours of participating in the consultation process was positively associated with children's receptive language development, and more hours implementing the language/literacy activities was positively associated with children's language and literacy development. Implications for improving children's school readiness and promoting teachers' participation in professional development programs are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2010

Response to instruction in preschool: Results of two randomized studies with children at significant risk of reading difficulties
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.;

Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This article presents results of 2 studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially delayed in the acquisition of early literacy skills despite exposure to high-quality, evidence-based classroom instruction. Study 1 included 93 children ([mean] age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.62) attending 12 Title I preschools. Study 2 included 184 children ([mean] age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.38) attending 19 Title I preschools. The majority of children were Black/African American, and about 60% were male. In both studies, eligible children were randomized to receive either 11 weeks of need-aligned, small-group instruction or just Tier I. Tier II instruction in Study 1 included variations of activities for code- and language-focused domains with prior evidence of efficacy in non-RTI contexts. Tier II instruction in Study 2 included instructional activities narrower in scope, more intensive, and delivered to smaller groups of children. Impacts of Tier II instruction in Study 1 were minimal; however, there were significant and moderate-to-large impacts in Study 2. These results identify effective Tier II instruction but indicate that the context in which children are identified may alter the nature of Tier II instruction that is required. Children identified as eligible for Tier II in an RTI framework likely require more intensive and more narrowly focused instruction than do children at general risk of later academic difficulties. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January, 2016

Increases in maternal education and low-income children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes
Harding, Jessica F.;

Although the strong link between maternal education and children's outcomes is one of the most well-established findings in developmental psychology (Reardon, 2011; Sirin, 2005), less is known about how young, low-income children are influenced by their mothers completing additional education. In this research, longitudinal data from the Head Start Impact Study were used to explore the associations between increases in maternal education and Head Start eligible children's cognitive skills and behavioral problems in 1st grade. Propensity score weighting was used to identify a balanced comparison group of 1,362 children whose mothers did not increase their education between baseline (when children were aged 3 or 4) and children's kindergarten year, who are similar on numerous covariates to the 262 children whose mothers did increase their education. Propensity-score weighted regression analyses indicated that increases in maternal education were positively associated with children's standardized cognitive scores, but also with higher teacher-reported externalizing behavioral problems in 1st grade. The increases in externalizing behavioral problems were larger for children whose mothers had less than a college degree at baseline. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2015

Center-based preschool and school readiness skills of children from immigrant families
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Collins, Melissa A.; Miller, Portia;

Children from immigrant families are more likely than children of native parents to start school with fewer of the academic skills that are important for long-term success, although evidence on behavioral skills is mixed. Center-based early education and care (EEC) programs, which have been linked to improvements in academic functioning in disadvantaged samples, may serve as a potent resource for children from immigrant families, but important questions remain about their benefits and drawbacks for academic and behavioral outcomes across the diverse population of children from immigrant families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N [is approximately] 6,550), this study examined prospective associations between center-based EEC at age 4 and school readiness skills at age 5 among children from immigrant families. Practice or Policy: The results suggest that center-based EEC is associated with heightened math, reading, and expressive language skills and also with lower parent-rated externalizing behaviors for children of immigrants in comparison to children of native parents. Results also revealed heterogeneity in associations between center-based EEC attendance and school readiness skills among children of immigrants based on parental region of origin, household language use, and the language used in EEC settings. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2015

Inputs in the production of early childhood human capital: Evidence from Head Start
Walters, Christopher R.;

Studies of small-scale "model" early-childhood programs show that high-quality preschool can have transformative effects on human capital and economic outcomes. Evidence on the Head Start program is more mixed. Inputs and practices vary widely across Head Start centers, however, and little is known about variation in effectiveness within Head Start. This paper uses data from a multi-site randomized evaluation to quantify and explain variation in effectiveness across Head Start childcare centers. I answer two questions: (1) How much do short-run effects vary across Head Start centers? and (2) To what extent do inputs, practices, and child characteristics explain this variation? To answer the first question, I use a selection model with random coefficients to quantify heterogeneity in Head Start effects, accounting for non-compliance with experimental assignments. Estimates of the model show that the cross-center standard deviation of cognitive effects is 0.18 test score standard deviations, which is larger than typical estimates of variation in teacher or school effectiveness. Next, I assess the role of observed inputs, practices and child characteristics in generating this variation, focusing on inputs commonly cited as central to the success of model programs. My results show that Head Start centers offering full-day service boost cognitive skills more than other centers, while Head Start centers offering frequent home visiting are especially effective at raising non-cognitive skills. Head Start is also more effective for children with less-educated mothers. Centers that draw more children from center-based preschool have smaller effects, suggesting that cross-center differences in effects may be partially due to differences in counterfactual preschool options. Other key inputs, including the High/Scope curriculum, teacher education, and class size, are not associated with increased effectiveness in Head Start. Together, observed inputs explain about one-third of the variation in Head Start effectiveness across experimental sites. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2014

The role of access to Head Start and quality ratings for Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners' (DLLs) participation in early childhood education
Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Miller, Elizabeth B.;

Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 4442) were used to test for differences between Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLLs) and monolingual English-speaking children in: (1) Head Start attendance rates when randomly assigned admission; and (2) quality ratings of other early childhood education (ECE) programs attended when not randomly assigned admission to Head Start. Logistic regressions showed that Spanish-speaking DLL children randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely than monolingual-English learners to attend. Further, Spanish-speaking DLLs not randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely to attend higher-quality ECE centers than non-DLL children. Policy implications are discussed, suggesting that, if given access, Spanish-speaking DLL families will take advantage of quality ECE programs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q3 2014

Experimental evaluation of the value added by Raising a Reader and supplemental parent training in shared reading
Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Zhoe; Landry, Susan H.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.;

In an effort toward developing a comprehensive, effective, scalable, and sustainable early childhood education program for at-risk populations, we conducted an experimental evaluation of the value added by 2 family involvement programs to the Texas Early Education Model (TEEM). A total of 91 preschool classrooms that served minority populations of low socioeconomic status were randomly assigned to TEEM, TEEM plus Raising a Reader (RAR), or TEEM plus RAR augmented by Family Nights. Assessments of oral language and print knowledge were completed by more than 500 children at the beginning and end of the school year. Multilevel analyses of covariance controlled for classroom nesting and individual differences in age, ethnicity, and pretest scores. Although RAR alone demonstrated no added value, augmentation of RAR with Family Nights demonstrated significant impacts on measures of oral language (ts = 1.81-2.51, .05 < ps < .01) and print knowledge (t = 2.39, p<.01). Practice or Policy: Thus, parent training in shared reading practices appears to be necessary for children to benefit from programs that enrich the home literacy environment. That the combined program particularly benefited children who started preschool lagging behind in school readiness (ts = 1.64-2.49, ps<.05) suggests that this comprehensive model offers hope for closing the achievement gap. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2014

School readiness of children from immigrant families: Contributions of region of origin, home, and childcare
Koury, Amanda; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth;

Children from immigrant families make up a growing proportion of young children in the United States. This study highlights the heterogeneity in early academic skills related to parental region of origin. It also considers the contributions of early home and nonparental care settings to the diversity in early academic performance. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; N [is approximately equal to] 6,850), this study examines associations between parental region of origin and children's math and reading skills at age 5. It also considers whether home and nonparental care environments are pathways through which parental region of origin relates to academic achievement. There was significant heterogeneity in children's early reading and math skills related to parental region of origin. Children of Indian Asian and East Asian/Pacific Islander parents outscored children of native-born White parents and every other immigrant subgroup. Children of Mexican and Central American/Spanish Caribbean parents performed below other immigrant subgroups and native-born White children. Differences in child, socioeconomic, and family characteristics largely explained relations between parental region of origin and early academic skills. Indirect effects of early home environments and nonparental care played a modest but important role in explaining variability in academic skills related to region of origin. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2014

Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: The responsive early childhood program
Landry, Susan H.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Swank, Paul R.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Assel, Michael A.; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; De Villiers, Jill G.; De Villiers, Peter A.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice;

Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2014

Center-based child care and cognitive skills development: Importance of timing and household resources
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Koury, Amanda; Miller, Portia;

Growing evidence has linked center-based early care and education settings to improvements in children's cognitive skills. Additional research is needed to more carefully delineate when and for whom these associations are most pronounced. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 6,350; Flanagan & West, 2004), this study examined whether the beneficial effects of center-based care settings for children's cognitive skills at age 5 differ by the age at which children experience these settings and for subgroups based on household income, parental education, and quality of the home learning environment. The results suggest that center-based preschool was supportive of the math and reading skills development of the sample as a whole. However, both center- and home-based care for 2-year-olds as well as 4-year-olds were beneficial for children from lower income, less educated, and less enriching family contexts, helping to diminish the cognitive skills gap between more and less advantaged children.

Reports & Papers

August, 2013

Effects of divorce and cohabitation dissolution on preschoolers' literacy
Fagan, Jay

A study of the association between children's early literacy and changes in the marital and cohabitation status of their parents, with an examination of the mediating roles of changes in household income, changes in depressive symptoms, changes in maternal stimulation of child learning, and mothers' pregnancy timing, based on data from approximately 6,450 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth cohort followed at 24 and 48 months

Reports & Papers

April, 2013

Do early literacy skills in children's first language promote development of skills in their second language?: An experimental evaluation of transfer
Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, Jo Ann M.;

A study of the moderating effects of children's initial skills in one language on the impact of an intervention designed to improve those skills in a second language, based on data from 94 Spanish-speaking language minority children from 10 classes in a Head Start center in Los Angeles, California, randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions--the HighScope Preschool Curriculum alone or the HighScope Preschool Curriculum with small-group pull-out instruction, using the activities of the Literacy Express Preschool Curriculum, in either an English-only or English-to-Spanish version

Reports & Papers

May, 2013

Early academic skills and childhood experiences across the urban-rural continuum
Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth;

An examination of differences in children's academic skills at kindergarten entry across large urban, small urban, suburban, and rural areas, based on data from approximately 6,050 children and their families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort

Reports & Papers

Q2 2013

The impacts of an early mathematics curriculum on oral language and literacy
Sarama, Julie; Lange, Alissa A.; Clements, Douglas H.; Wolfe, Christopher B.;

An investigation of the effects of the Building Blocks prekindergarten mathematics curriculum on the oral language and letter recognition of children, with additional analyses of the moderating role of children's gender and ethnic group on those effects, as well as the mediating role of the classroom and teaching environment on the relationship between children's treatment group assignment and mathematics achievement, based on data from 1,305 children in 105 classrooms who participated in the Scaling-up TRIAD: Teaching Early Mathematics for Understanding with Trajectories and Technologies, a large-scale cluster randomized trial

Reports & Papers

Q3 2012

The home literacy environment and Latino Head Start children's emergent literacy skills
Farver, Jo Ann M.; Xu, Yiyuan; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Eppe, Stefanie;

An examination of children's early literacy skills in both English and Spanish at entry to preschool, and an investigation of the patterns of associations among these skills and their families' home language and literacy practices, based on data from 392 primarily Latino immigrant families and their children in 30 Head Start centers in several inner city neighborhoods of Los Angeles, California

Reports & Papers

April, 2013

Name-writing proficiency, not length of name, is associated with preschool children's emergent literacy skills
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.;

A study in two parts: (1) an investigation of the links between performance on emergent reading and writing tasks and both name-writing abilities and name length, based on data from 296 51- to 65-months-old preschoolers in north Florida; and (2) an examination of the relationship between name length and both alphabet knowledge and spelling, based on data from 104 37- to 71-month-old preschool children, from a city in western Pennsylvania

Reports & Papers

Q2 2012

Early writing deficits in preschoolers with oral language difficulties
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.;

A comparison of the emergent writing outcomes of children with and without language impairment, and an examination of the correlation between emergent writing outcomes and nonverbal IQ deficits, based on data from 293 preschool children who participated in a writing intervention in various public and private preschools and child care centers in Northern Florida

Reports & Papers

March/April 2012

Name-writing proficiency, not length of name, is associated with preschool children's emergent literacy skills
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.;

A two-part study consisting of: (1) an examination of the links between performance on emergent reading and writing tasks and both name-writing abilities and name length, based on data from 296 preschool children, 51 to 65 months old, in a moderate sized city in north Florida; and (2) an examination of the relationship between name length and both alphabet knowledge and spelling, based on data from 104 preschool children, 37 to 71 months old, from a moderate sized city in western Pennsylvania

Reports & Papers

Q2 2012

A behavior-genetic study of the legacy of early caregiving experiences: Academic skills, social competence, and externalizing behavior in kindergarten
Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris;

A behavior-genetic study of associations between early parental support and academic skills, social competence, and externalizing behavior in kindergarten, based on assessments, at 24 months and approximately age 4, of a sample of 485 same-sex twin pairs from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), born in 2001, and tracked through kindergarten

Reports & Papers

March/April 2012

Effect on preschoolers' literacy when never-married mothers get married
Fagan, Jay

An examination the relationships between children's vocabulary and family structure and a second study of possible mediators of that relationship that includes household income, quantity of maternal involvement with the child, and depressive symptoms of the primary caregiver, based on data from 2,800 mothers and their child at 9-months-old and again from both when the child was 48-months-old

Reports & Papers

October, 2011

Contributions of emergent literacy skills to name writing, letter writing, and spelling in preschool children
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk;

A study of the relationship between preschool children's emergent literacy skills and their name writing, letter writing, and spelling skills, based on data from 296 children 4- and 5-years-old at 30 private preschools and both public and private child care centers in north Florida

Reports & Papers

Q4 2011

An experimental study evaluating professional development activities within a state funded pre-kindergarten program
Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Anthony, Jason L.; Assel, Michael A.

An experimental two-year study of the impacts of a state-mandated, research-based early care and education professional development model for use in child care, Head Start, and public prekindergarten classrooms on teachers' instructional practices and English and Spanish speaking children's language and literacy outcomes, based on data from over 200 teachers and their students in 11 communities in Texas

Reports & Papers

September, 2011

Promoting the development of preschool children's emergent literacy skills: A randomized evaluation of a literacy-focused curriculum and two professional development models
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine;

A study of the impact of a literacy-focused preschool curriculum and two types of professional development on the emergent literacy skills of at-risk children, based on data from teachers and 739 children in 48 preschools

Reports & Papers

March, 2011