In response to a requirement in the Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-134), ACF initiated this project in 2008 to develop a report on limited English proficient (LEP) children and their families participating in Head Start programs. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., assisted ACF in compiling and analyzing existing data to develop a report for Congress. Throughout the study, we use the term "dual language learners" (DLLs) to encompass "limited English proficient" (LEP), as defined in the Head Start Act. Data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), the Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (Baby FACES), and the Head Start Program Information Report (PIR) were analyzed to describe the characteristics and well-being of children and families who speak a language other than English at home enrolled in Head Start programs and the services they receive as a result of their participation.