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What happens next?: Follow-up from the Children's Toddler School program
Akshoomoff, Natacha; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Corsello, Christina; Mahrer, Nicole E.;

A longitudinal study outcomes of autistic children participating the inclusive Children's Toddler School for 1 year in the areas of functioning, service utilization, classroom placement, and parent stress across time, based on the entry, exit, and follow-up data of 20 attendees diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) at age 2

Reports & Papers

October, 2010

Developmental stimulation in child care centers contributes to young infants' cognitive development
Albers, Esther M.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina;

A study of the relationship between the cognitive development of infants in the first year of life and sensitivity, stimulation, and attention provided by their primary child care center carers, based on data collected from 64 dyads of infants and primary child care staff in the Netherlands

Reports & Papers

December 2010

Effects of mothers' employment on toddlers' cognitive development: A study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan
Meherali, Salima Moez; Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis

A study of the relationships between toddlers' cognitive development and maternal employment, mothers' education, socioeconomic status and child care arrangements, based on a convenience sample of 100 children between 24 and 36 months of age and their mothers in Karachi, Pakistan

Reports & Papers

2011

The instructional and emotional quality of parent-child book reading and Early Head Start children's learning outcomes
Cline, Keely D.;

A study of the relationships among infants' and toddlers' cognitive, expressive, and auditory communication scores and score change over 8 months and both extra-textual talk and emotional qualities of parent behavior during shared book reading and a study of the statistical interactions between emotional quality, extra-textual talk, and differences observed in families speaking English and Spanish based on data from 81 parents and their children in home-based Early Head Start programs in rural counties in the Midwest

Reports & Papers

April, 2010

Keeping kids on track: Impacts of a parenting-focused Early Head Start program on attachment security and cognitive development
Roggman, Lori A.; Boyce, Lisa K.; Cook, Gina A.

A study of the effect of the program at the Bear River Early Head Start on the development of attachment security and cognitive skills of infants and toddlers from low-income families in northern Utah and southern Idaho, based on data from 161 families randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions

Reports & Papers

November 2009

Mixed approach programs in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project: An in-depth view
Robinson, JoAnn; Klute, Mary M.; Faldowski, Richard A.; Pan, Barbara A.; Rector-Staerkel, Edna J. (Fredi); Summers, Jean Ann; Wall, Shavaun;

An examination of challenges faced by providers in the service delivery to families of 6 mixed approach programs, parent reported variety and intensity of service receipt over time and across program approaches, and the impact of the type and timing of receipt of Early Head Start services on child and family outcomes at 36 months through a secondary analysis of data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project of 1,392 families respondents to at least one of three parent interviews on service intensity

Reports & Papers

November, 2009

Precursors of language ability and academic performance: An inter-generational, longitudinal study of at-risk children
Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.;

An investigation of the inter-generational transfer of risk through an examination of the relationship between the academic outcomes of children and maternal risk factors and expressive language shared by mothers and preschool-aged children, drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project--a prospective study of French-speaking families from low-socioeconomic status neighborhoods in Montreal

Reports & Papers

September/October 2009

Parental involvement, parenting behaviors, and children's cognitive development in low-income and minority families
Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Singh, Kusum; Sung, Youngji Y.

A longitudinal study of the effects of parental participation in Head Start parenting classes, group socialization, or support groups on child cognitive and linguistic outcomes in several populations of low income and ethnic/linguistic minority families, based on data collected from an experimental group of 1,503 families and a control group of 1,474 families between 1996 and 2001

Reports & Papers

Spring 2009

Effectiveness of early intervention for children prenatally exposed to cocaine: Moderating effects of low birth weight on behavioral outcomes
Bono, Katherine E.; Sheinberg, Nurit;

A study of the influence of low birth weight on the relationship between participation in the Linda Ray Intervention Project and the cognitive, language, and behavioral outcomes of children exposed prenatally to cocaine, based on data collected from 364 participation children

Reports & Papers

May 2009

It takes time: Impacts of Early Head Start that lead to reductions in maternal depression two years later
Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Ayoub, Catherine; Pan, Barbara A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Raikes, Helen; McKelvey, Lorraine; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Hart, Andrea D.;

A study of the effect of Early Head Start participation on levels of maternal depression at the time of school entry, based on data collected at 17 Early Head Start programs nationwide

Reports & Papers

March/April 2007

Cognitive development and home environment of rural Paraguayan infants and toddlers participating in Pastoral del Nino, an early child development program
Peairson, Shannon; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta;

An examination of the development and the home environments of participants and non-participants in a child development program for rural aboriginal children, based on a sample of 106 infants and toddlers from the southern portion of Paraguay

Reports & Papers

Summer 2008

Predictors and outcomes of low-income fathers’ reading with their toddlers
Duursma, Elisabeth; Pan, Barbara A.; Raikes, Helen;

A study of the parental predictors and child outcomes associated with the frequency of book reading sessions between of low-income fathers and their toddlers

Reports & Papers

Q3 2008

Who drops out of Early Head Start home visiting programs?
Roggman, Lori A.; Cook, Gina A.; Peterson, Carla A.; Raikes, Helen;

An examination of the timing, factors, and predictors of the discontinuance of participation in Early Head Start home-based programs, based on a sample of 564 families

Reports & Papers

2008

The joint influence of mother and father parenting on child cognitive outcomes at age 5
Martin, Anne; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne;

An assessment of the association between both maternal and paternal supportiveness during toddlerhood and young children?s math and language achievement at age 5 in a sample of 200 low-income two-parent homes participating in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

Reports & Papers

Q4 2007

Maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes: The importance of analytic approach
Burchinal, Margaret; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison;

A reconciliation of the disparate findings of two studies on the effects of maternal employment in infancy on cognitive outcomes of children participating in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

Reports & Papers

September 2007

Bayley Short Form--Research Edition
National Center for Education Statistics;

Instruments

2000

Early student-teacher relationships of children with and without intellectual disability: Contributions of behavioral, social, and self-regulatory competence
Eisenhower, Abbey S.; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher-Dixon, Jan;

An examination of the quality of student teacher relationships (STR) among 6 year-old children with and without intellectual disability, considering child characteristics as predicators of STR and using data from the children at age 3

Reports & Papers

August 2007

Mothers’ and caregivers’ interactive and teaching behavior with toddlers
Klein, Pnina S.; Feldman, Ruth;

A comparison of the quality of mothers’ and caregivers’ interactive and teaching behaviors in one-on-one free play interactions with children, based on observations of a sample of 90 toddlers from 16 randomly selected Israeli child care centers

Reports & Papers

May 2007

An exploratory evaluation of two early intervention programmes for young children with autism
Farrell, Peter; Trigonaki, Nassia; Webster, David;

A discussion of the impact of two contrasting early intevention programmes for a small number of young children with autism

Reports & Papers

2005

Language environments and language outcomes: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development
McCartney, Kathleen;

An overview of the purpose, methods, and findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, including study characteristics that set it apart from other large scale, longitudinal studies

Reports & Papers

18 October, 2002

Change in family income-to-needs matters more for children with less
Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck A.;

An examination of changes in family income-to-needs and its effect on young children's cognitive, language, and behavioral development and outcomes using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

November/December 2001

Book reading styles in dual-parent and single-mother families
Blake, Joanna; Macdonald, Silvana; Bayrami, Lisa; Agosta, Vanessa; Milian, Andrea;

An observational study of shared book reading to determine if there are variations in reading methods between mothers without a partner and mothers and fathers from dual-parent families

Reports & Papers

September 2006

Promising outcomes in teen mothers enrolled in a school-based parent support program and child care center
Sadler, Lois; Swartz, Martha; Ryan-Krause, Patricia; Seitz, Victoria; Meadows-Oliver, Mikki; Grey, Margaret; Clemmens, Donna A.;

An evaluation of the impact of a school-based parent support program and child care center on teen mothers' depression levels, self esteem issues, perceived parental competence, and parent-child teaching interactions as well as on young children's cognitive development and health outcomes

Reports & Papers

March 2007

Preschool predictors of the need for early remedial and special education services
Mann, Emily A.; McCartney, Kathleen; Park, Jen;

An examination of child related predictors (sociodemographic factors, cognitive development, child behavior) in terms of their relation to teacher recommendations for early placement in special education classes

Reports & Papers

January 2007

Project DATA for toddlers: An inclusive approach to very young children with autism spectrum disorder
Boulware, Gusty-Lee; Schwartz, Ilene S.; Sandall, Susan R.; McBride, Bonnie J.;

A description of the components of Project DATA (Developmentally Appropriate Treatment for Autism), as well as an examination of the impact of Project DATA on toddlers' cognitive, communicative, self-regulatory, and functioning skills

Reports & Papers

Summer 2006

Mother-child bookreading in low-income families: Correlates and outcomes during the first three years of life
Raikes, Helen; Pan, Barbara A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Constantine, Jill; Tarullo, Louisa B.; Raikes, H. Abigail; Rodriguez, Eileen;

An investigation of the impact of mother-child book reading on low income young children's cognitive and language development as well as an examination of book reading in relation to the Early Head Start intervention using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

Reports & Papers

July/August 2006

Head Start Performance Standards and their relationship to key Early Head Start programs aims
Armijo, Eduardo J.

A study of how much Head Start Performance Standards correspond with the ability of a local agency to deliver services, and how these services are related to children's outcomes

Reports & Papers

2004

Early versus late entry to preschool: Some developmental implications
Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina;

An exploration of the effects of early preschool entry on the personality, cognitive, motor, and social development of 247 toddlers from 17 high quality preschools in different regions of Slovenia

Reports & Papers

2004

Relations between family predictors and child outcomes: Are they weaker for children in child care? [Abridged]
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

An abridged reprint of a study reporting analyses of the mediating effect of nonparental child care on the influence of family factors on infant and toddler cognitive and behavioral development using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

2005

Child outcomes when child care center classes meet recommended standards for quality [Abridged]
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

An abridged reprint of a study of how children's cognition, language and social competence are affected by child care meeting professional quality standards, based on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

2005

Early child care and children's peer interaction at 24 and 36 months [Abridged]
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

An abridged reprint of a study of how time spent in child care, child care quality, and availability of peers relate to children's peer social competence at 23 and 36 months, using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

2005

Child care characteristics of infants with and without special needs: Comparisons and concerns [Abridged]
Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Kelly, Jean F.;

A study of employment and child care characteristics, concerns, and problems in a sample of 166 families with children with diagnosed disabilities by 12 months old, as compared to a sample of 139 typically developing children and their families from the Seattle site of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

2005

Nonmaternal care and family factors in early development: An overview of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

A study of the relationships between types of nonmaternal care and children’s social and emotional adjustment, cognitive and linguistic development, and physical growth and health

Reports & Papers

2005

Involvement in Early Head Start home visiting services: Demographic predictors and relations to child and parent outcomes
Raikes, Helen; Green, Beth L.; Atwater, Jane; Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Constantine, Jill; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel;

One strand of home visiting research investigates efficacy while another investigates under what conditions programs achieve outcomes. The current study follows the latter approach. Using a within-program design in a sample of 11 home-based sites in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study, this study found that three components of home visits (quantity of involvement including number of home visits, duration in the program, length of visits and intensity of service; quality of engagement including global ratings of engagement by staff and ratings of engagement during each home visit; and the extent to which home visits were child focused) represented distinguishable aspects of home visit services. Demographic variables predicted components of involvement, and home visit involvement components were differentially related to outcomes at 36 months, after controlling for demographic/family factors and earlier functioning on the same measure. Only one quantity of involvement variable (duration) predicted improvements in home language and literacy environments at 36 months. Quality of involvement variables were negative predictors of maternal depressive symptoms at 36 months. Finally, the proportion of time during the visit devoted to child-focused activities predicted children's cognitive and language development scores, parent HOME scores, and parental support for language and learning when children were 36 months of age. Implications for home visiting programs and policies are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2006

Child-care effect sizes for the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

A report of findings on the effect sizes for exclusive maternal care and, for children in child care, for type, quality, and quantity of care, based on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

Reports & Papers

2006

Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd ed.)
Bayley, Nancy

Instruments

2005

Parenting and child care as predictors of language, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in young, low-income children
Nelson, Dana C.

An examination of parenting behavior and child care type and quality as predictors of cognitive, language, and behavioral development in low-income toddlers and preschool-aged children, based on data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project

Reports & Papers

2005

Infants' and toddlers' television viewing and language outcomes
Linebarger, Deborah L.; Walker, Dale;

A longitudinal study of the development of communicative behaviors of infants and toddlers as a result of interactions in both the home and child care setting, including an investigation of the association between linguistic inputs, in the form of televised messages, and infants’ and toddlers’ communicative ability

Reports & Papers

2005

Fathering attitudes and practices: Influences on children's development
Shears, Jeffrey; Robinson, JoAnn;

An investigation into the influence of fathers' parenting beliefs and level of modernity on their children's development, based on a sample of 525 biological fathers and stepfathers participating in the Early Head Start Research and Demonstration Project

Reports & Papers

2005

Executive functioning at 54 months: Is it predicted by varying levels of quality child care at 6, 24, and 36 months
Foster, Rachel E.

An investigation into the influence of child care quality and caregiver characteristics on children’s attention span and impulse control, based on a subsample of 174 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study on Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

2004

Duration and developmental timing of poverty and children's cognitive and social development from birth through third grade
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

A study of the relationship between duration and developmental timing of poverty and children’s development from birth to age 9, using comparisons of children from families who were never poor, poor only during their children’s infancy, poor only after their children's infancy, or chronically poor

Reports & Papers

2005

An empirical examination of toddler development in inclusive childcare
Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Carter, Cynthia;

A study assessing the cognitive, communication, and behavior skills of typically developing toddlers enrolled in an inclusive preschool program

Reports & Papers

2005

Maternal nonstandard work schedules and child cognitive outcomes
Han, Wen-Jui;

A study to determine whether maternal work schedules have an effect on children's cognitive outcomes, using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care (NICHD SECC)

Reports & Papers

2005

Incomes and outcomes in early childhood
Taylor, Beck A.; Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen;

An examination of the relationship between household income and developmental outcomes in early childhood, using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care (NICHD SECC)

Reports & Papers

2004

Child care and children's peer interaction at 24 and 36 months: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

A study of how time spent in child care, child care quality, and availability of peers relate to children's peer social competence at 23 and 36 months, using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

2001

Child care and employment in relation to infants' disabilities and risk factors
Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Kelly, Jean F.;

A study of children’s chronic health problems; use of adaptive equipment; diagnoses; risk factors; and mental, motor and adaptive functioning on maternal employment plans and selection of child care arrangements

Reports & Papers

1999

Early child care and self-control, compliance, and problem behavior at twenty-four and thirty-six months
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

A study into factors of family and child care experiences as predictors of self-control, compliance and problem behavior in children

Reports & Papers

1998

Child outcomes when child care center classes meet recommended standards for quality
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

A study of how children's cognition, language and social competence are affected by child care meeting professional quality standards, based on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

1999

Maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes in the first three years of life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane;

A study of the relationship between maternal employment in the first year of life to child cognitive outcomes and outcomes are mediated by the quality of childcare or home environment experienced by the child during the first three years of life based on longitudinal data collected from the National Institute for Child Health and Development

Reports & Papers

2002

Child care effects on the development of toddlers with special needs
Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Kelly, Jean F.;

A study comparing the development of toddlers with special needs in nonmaternal child care with those cared for at home by mothers

Reports & Papers

2002

Nonmaternal care and family factors in early development: An overview of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

An examination of connections among child care experiences, family characteristics, and early childhood developmental outcomes, based on a study of 1100 children followed from birth to age 7

Reports & Papers

2001

Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Bayley, Nancy;

Instruments

1969

Relations between family predictors and child outcomes: Are they weaker for children in child care?
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network;

An analysis of the mediating effect of nonparental child care on the influence of family factors on infant and toddler cognitive and behavioral development using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

1998

Do regulable features of child-care homes affect children's development?
Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; O'Brien, Marion; McCartney, Kathleen;

An analysis of the links between regulable and nonregulable features of family child care homes and infants' and toddlers' cognitive development using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

2002

Child-care characteristics of infants with and without special needs: Comparisons and concerns
Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Kelly, Jean F.;

An analysis comparing the maternal employment patterns and child care arrangements and their quality for children with and without special needs, using two studies: a study of children with special needs, and data from the Seattle, Washington, a site of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

1998

Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families: Summary report
United States. Administration for Children and Families;

An interim report of the random assignment, impact evaluation of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, analyzing child and family outcomes through the first two years of children's lives

Reports & Papers

January, 2001

ECE quality indicators and child outcomes: Analyses of six large child care studies
Soliday-Hong, Sandra; Sabol, Terri J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Tarullo, Louisa B.; Zaslow, Martha; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.;

Practice and policy in early childhood education rely heavily on professional expertise and guidelines developed from research on early care and education (ECE) quality, but these guidelines have not been extensively researched. Data from six large studies of ECE quality were analyzed to relate structural and process quality indicators based on professional guidelines to children's language, literacy, math, and social outcomes. Results indicated small gains related to some quality indicators (e.g., quality of teacher-child interactions, curriculum, and teacher and director education) for some of the preschoolers' outcomes, but not other indicators (e.g., global quality, group size). Combining quality indicators into a single index also predicted gains in preschoolers' language and literacy scores, but effect sizes for the quality rating were smaller than for individual indicators. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2019

Adverse experiences in infancy and toddlerhood: Relations to adaptive behavior and academic status in middle childhood
McKelvey, Lorraine; Edge, Nicola A. Conners; Mesman, Glenn R.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.;

Findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study articulated the negative effects of childhood trauma on long-term well-being. The purpose of the current study is to examine the associations between ACEs experienced in infancy and toddlerhood and adaptive behavior and academic status in middle childhood. We used data collected from a sample of low-income families during the impacts study of Early Head Start (EHS). Data were collected by trained interviewers demonstrating at least 85% reliability with protocols. Data come from 1469 socio-demographically diverse mothers and children collected at or near ages 1, 2, 3, and 11. At ages 1, 2, and 3, an EHS-ACEs index was created based on interview and observation items. The EHS-ACEs indices were averaged to represent exposure across infancy and toddlerhood. At age 11, parents were asked about school outcomes and completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Across development, children were exposed to zero (19%), one (31%), two (27%), and three or more ACEs (23%). Logistic regression analyses, controlling for EHS program assignment, and parent, school, and child characteristics, showed ACEs were significantly associated with parental report of the child: having an individualized educational program since starting school and in the current school year, having been retained a grade in school, and problems with externalizing and internalizing behavior, as well as attention. Findings suggest that ACEs influence children's behavioral and academic outcomes early in development. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

August, 2018

The antecedents and outcomes of preschool programs for children in America
Ansari, Arya;

There has been an increased interest in the early childhood years as a point of intervention and, specifically, on preschool programs, which hold great promise in preparing children for school. Despite the extensive body of literature on preschool education, there remain a number of key issues that need to be addressed to move the early childhood field forward. This dissertation addresses three of these areas that require continued attention. First, we need to know why Latino children from U.S.- and foreign-born households are under-enrolled in preschool education (Aim 1). The second area that we need to know more about is the potential long-term benefits of large-scale preschool programs (Aim 2). Finally, the third area where more information is needed is on the different sources of heterogeneity in the benefits of preschool for children (Aim 3). Thus, the aims of this dissertation were to address these gaps in the knowledge-base by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth (ECLS-B) and Kindergarten (ECLS-K 1998) Cohorts. The first set of findings reveals that there are important differences that exist within the Latino population (culture, household resources, parents' beliefs about school readiness, and child elicitation) with respect to preschool selection. These differences indicate that, in order to boost the preschool enrollment of Latino children from U.S.- and foreign-born households, policymakers may need to focus on targeting a specific set of barriers. Findings from Aim 2 underscore the potential long-term benefits of preschool education. Specifically, despite evidence for partial convergence of test scores, children who attended preschool at age four consistently outperformed their classmates who attended informal care in areas of academic achievement through the end of middle school. Although all children benefited from preschool participation, analyses from Aim 3 of this dissertation revealed that there was evidence for systematic heterogeneity, with findings supporting developmental theories on cumulative advantage and diverging destinies. Taken together, the results from this dissertation add to the existing evidence base on preschool education by highlighting new means of engaging families in the preschool market and underscoring both how and why preschool programs have long-term benefits for children. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2016

Factors affecting bilingual language development in young children from low-income Latino families
Guerrero, Judith;

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the expressive language of low-income Latino children and the factors that may influence their language development. More specifically, this study was designed to determine the effect of acculturation, caregiver-child interaction, developmental status, language dominance, language exposure, and sociodemographic risk on children's expressive language. The following analytical procedures were used to carry out the study: (1) Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses were conducted to examine the effects of dominance language, sociodemographic risk, acculturation, and developmental status on vocabulary growth in children's dominant language. (2) Pearson correlations and descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the effects of these same five factors on children's language in English and Spanish at particular measurement points. The data obtained from these analyses support the hypothesis that caregiver-child interaction are affected by distal factors such as acculturation and sociodemographic risk and consequently children's expressive language outcomes. The results also showed significant results in the rate of vocabulary growth of children in their dominant language and that there were significant correlations between vocabulary and relative amount of language exposure in English and Spanish. The descriptive analyses suggest that distal as well as proximal factors such as caregiver-child interaction influence language growth and outcomes in English and Spanish. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2001

Environmental and developmental indicators in early childhood: Relations to second-grade reading comprehension
Cook, Gina A.;

Reading success has been linked to high school completion, future job success, and future generations of children who can read. Unfortunately, children who are unable to read on grade level by the end of first grade are at a great disadvantage and unlikely to catch up later. Without the ability to read and comprehend text, all aspects of schooling become progressively more difficult and the challenge of poor reading ability can be so difficult to overcome that many poor readers will not complete high school. For these reasons, it is important to identify early experiences in a child's family environment that predict the early skills that are necessary for later reading and reading comprehension. The child's family environment includes the quality of both the general home setting and specific kinds of parent-child interactions. The skills necessary for reading success include vocabulary, phonological skills, and other early literacy skills, but broader cognitive and regulatory skills may also be necessary. Because children from low-income families are at higher risk for reading problems, this study examines extant data on early environments, early development, and second-grade reading from a sample of 117 children from low-income families who participated in a longitudinal study from the child's infancy to second grade. Early family environments and children's early cognitive and other skills that are measured at 36 months and just prior to kindergarten entry at 54 months, were analyzed in relation to their second-grade vocabulary, reading ability, and reading comprehension. The results of this analysis of extant longitudinal data help identify early predictors of reading success for children at risk for reading problems. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2010

Routine active playtime with fathers is associated with self-regulation in early childhood
Bocknek, Erika London; Dayton, Carolyn; Raveau, Hasti A.; Richardson, Patricia; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Fitzgerald, Hiram;

In recent years, a literature has emerged describing contributions fathers make to the development of very young children. Scholars suggest that active play may be a specific area of parenting in which fathers are primary and, further, that this type of play helps children experience intense emotions and learn to regulate them. However, this hypothesis remains largely theoretical. The current study (N = 415) addresses this gap in fatherhood research by using a secondary analysis of data collected in the national Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP) Fathering Substudy (Boller et al., 2006; Love et al., 2005) to examine relations between fathers' active play (measured at children's 36-month birthday-related assessment) and developmental outcomes (cognitive-social and emotion regulation) at the entry to kindergarten. Findings demonstrate that regular active physical play between fathers and young children is associated with improved developmental outcomes. However, findings support a curvilinear relationship such that moderate amounts of active play are associated with better outcomes for children, but too little or too much active play is associated with worse outcomes, especially for children with more reactive temperamental qualities. Importantly, these findings are not replicated in relation to other types of parenting activities in which fathers engage, such as reading to children or engaging at mealtime, suggesting there is a special relationship between this type of play and children's development. Furthermore, findings demonstrate that children with high emotional reactivity may benefit the most from active playtime with their fathers. These results are discussed in the context of the influence of fathering processes on child and family outcomes in low-income families. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January, 2017

Maternal support of young children's planning and spatial concept learning as predictors of later math (and reading) achievement
Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Casey, Beth M.; Thomson, Dana; Nguyen, Hoa Nha; Dearing, Eric;

The goal of this study was to examine maternal support of spatial concept learning and planning at 36 months as predictors of children's math achievement at 4 1/2 years and first grade. Observational measures of videotaped mother-child interactions from the Boston site of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 140) were used to examine the effectiveness of support for spatial concept learning and planning during a block building play activity. Trained observers rated maternal support of children's learning of spatial concepts through spatial language and gestures, with higher ratings involving explanations and encouragement of children's use of spatial concepts. This measure was predictive of math achievement at 4 1/2 years when controlling for length of the parent-child observation, child gender, ethnicity, and IQ at 2 years, as well as maternal years of education, verbal intelligence, income-to-needs averaged from 1 to 36 months, parenting stress, general cognitive stimulation, and maternal support of numerical concepts during the same observation. Maternal support of children's planning skills, also rated by trained observers during the block building activity, involved identifying incremental steps to reach the block building goal, with higher ratings given for encouraging planning on the part of the child. This measure was predictive of math achievement at 4 1/2 years, as well as reading achievement at both 4 1/2 years and first grade, suggesting that maternal planning support has associations with the two key measures of school readiness, while maternal spatial support may be specific to mathematics. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2017

Dads' Parent Interactions with Children-Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO-D): Developing an observational measure of father-child interaction
Anderson, Sheila;

Intervention programs providing support for father parenting skills need a practical but psychometrically strong observational measure of fathers' early positive parenting interactions with children. The primary purpose of this project was to develop a valid, reliable observational measure of father-child interaction, based on research and theory, that predicts child outcomes, identifies fathers' strengths, and will be useful for home visiting practitioners. This study sought to fulfill this need by developing a new measure called Dads' Parenting Interactions with Children--Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO-D) for home visitors to use to identify fathering strengths. Developed with extant video observations of over 400 ethnically diverse, low-income fathers, 73 positive observable behavioral items of early positive father-child interaction were tested for variability, reliability, and validity. The final measure of 21 items representing four domains of positive parenting, affection, responsiveness, encouragement, and teaching, demonstrated good reliability and validity, including associations with children's language, cognitive, and social emotional outcomes into prekindergarten. Contextual influences were examined within father ethnicity and child gender groups and in a second observational setting. European and Latino American fathers had higher scores than African American fathers. Fathers had higher scores with daughters than sons. Fathers had higher scores in a semistructured play setting than in a father-choice setting. The new measure is intended for use as part of an individualized strengths-based approach for home visiting practitioners. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2012

Authentic assessment for infants and toddlers: Exploring the reliability and validity of the Ounce Scale
Meisels, Samuel J.; Wen, Xiaoli; Beachy-Quick, Kristy;

This study used a mixed methods methodology to investigate the reliability and validity of the Ounce Scale, an authentic, observational assessment of infants' and toddlers' development from birth through 42 months of age. Quantitative cross-sectional data were collected from 287 children and 124 teachers in seven urban Early Head Start programs; qualitative data were derived from interviews with 21 teachers and seven supervisors. Data were collected across eight age groups. Results showed moderate reliability of the Ounce Scale and provided evidence of agreement with criterion measures for concurrent validity. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses demonstrated very good levels of accuracy in predicting which children were at-risk or not at-risk. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child and family variables, the Ounce Scale contributed significantly to explaining the variance in children's performance on the criterion measures. Analysis of qualitative interview data elaborates on these findings in terms of the strength-based philosophy of the caregivers, the binary structure of the scale, the cultural context in which the scale was used, and the need for additional professional development. Discussion also centers on the relationship between norm-referenced and performance-based assessments in early childhood. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

April, 2010

Maternal responsivity to infants in the "High Chair" assessment: Longitudinal relations with toddler outcomes in a diverse, low-income sample
O'Neal, Colleen; Weston, Lynsey; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Berlin, Lisa; Atapattu, Ranga;

Infant-parent interactions occur across many situations, yet most home-based assessments of parenting behaviors are conducted under conditions of low stress, such as free play. In this study, low-income mothers from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project were observed at home interacting with their 14-month-olds in the mildly stressful "High Chair" assessment (n = 1718 dyads). This methodological study tested whether High Chair maternal responsiveness and detachment predicted later toddler cognitive and emotion outcomes, over and above equivalent maternal predictors during free play. High Chair responsiveness and detachment were significant, although modest, predictors of child cognitive and emotion outcomes, over and above maternal responsiveness and detachment during free play; except High Chair responsiveness did not predict the emotion outcome. There were no significant differences between ethnic groups in prediction of outcomes. Results are discussed in terms of the methodological value of assessing parenting behaviors across diverse situations and populations. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2017

Amount and timing of group-based childcare from birth and cognitive development at 51 months: A UK study
Barnes, Jacqueline; Melhuish, Edward

This study investigated whether the amount and timing of group-based childcare between birth and 51 months were predictive of cognitive development at 51 months, taking into account other non-parental childcare, demographic characteristics, cognitive development at 18 months, sensitive parenting and a stimulating home environment. Children's (N=978) cognitive development was assessed at 51 months with four subscales of the British Ability Scales: two verbal and two non-verbal. Mothers were interviewed and observed at 3, 10, 18, and 36 months and the quality of group care was assessed at 10, 18, and 36 months (N=239) if it was used for [greater than or equal to] 12 hours per week. Age of starting in group care and amount were highly associated (r = -.75). Multiple regressions indicated that, controlling for other factors, higher cognitive development and particularly non-verbal ability was associated with more hours per week in group care from 0 to 51 months, or an earlier start, or group care before age 2. Nevertheless, the majority of variance was explained by other predictors: sex (girl), higher cognitive development at 18 months, older mother, first language English, mother of white ethnic background, with more qualifications, higher family social class, more maternal responsivity at 10 months and a more stimulating home learning environment (HLE) at 36 months. Hours per week in relative care or home-based care were not significant predictors of cognitive scores. For the smaller relatively advantaged sample who had group care quality information (N=239), quality was a marginal predictor of better cognitive development but age of starting group care was not. Most variance was explained by 18 month cognitive development, maternal education, and family social class. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2017

Early physical health conditions and school readiness skills in a prospective birth cohort of U.S. children
Kull, Melissa A.; Coley, Rebekah Levine;

Rationale: Extant research identifies associations between early physical health disparities and impaired functioning in adulthood, but limited research examines the emergence of these associations in the early years of children's lives. Objective: This study draws on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; N = 5900) to assess whether a host of early health indicators measured from birth to age five are associated with children's cognitive and behavioral skills at age five. Results: After adjusting for child and family characteristics, results revealed that children's neonatal risks (prematurity or low birth weight) and reports of poor health and hospitalizations were associated with lower cognitive skills, and neonatal risks and poor health predicted lower behavioral functioning at age five. Some of the association between neonatal risks and school readiness skills were indirect, functioning through children's poor health and hospitalization. Analyses further found that associations between early physical health and children's school readiness skills were consistent across subgroups defined by family income and child race/ethnicity, suggesting generalizability of results. Conclusions: Findings emphasize the need for more interdisciplinary research, practice, and policy related to optimizing child well-being across domains of physical health and development in the early years of life. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2015

Latino American children and school readiness: The role of early care arrangements and caregiver language
Bumgarner, Erin;

The number of Latino children in the United States is steadily increasing. Many of these children are underperforming academically, with noticeable gaps in math and literacy between Latino and White children apparent by kindergarten. In coming years, researchers and policymakers will be confronted with the challenge of developing interventions, such as high quality child care, to better prepare Latino children for their entry into kindergarten. Findings from several studies already suggest that high quality center-based child care arrangements may have positive impacts on Latino children's academic outcomes. Such research is informative and has important policy implications; however, several gaps still remain in the literature. First, while center-based care appears to have larger effects on school readiness than parental care for Latino children, we know less about how different center-based arrangements compare to each other (e.g. Head Start vs. pre-kindergarten) or how different home-based arrangements compare to each other (e.g. parental vs. other home-based care). Second, most studies have estimated the effects of care arrangements for 3- and 4-year old children. We know relatively little about the effects of care arrangements for Latino children younger than that. Finally, many studies come from a single site or city, limiting the variability of data and generalizability of findings. This dissertation aims to address these gaps in the literature by drawing on a nationally representative sample of Latino American children from the birth cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B). With these data, this dissertation first examines the association between care arrangements the year before kindergarten (YBK; Head Start, pre-kindergarten, other center, parental, home) and outcomes at kindergarten entry (math, literacy, and approaches to learning) for Latino American children. I then extended this inquiry to estimate impacts of care arrangements at 2 years (center, parental, home) and outcomes at kindergarten entry for Latino children. Finally, for Latino children from Spanish speaking homes, I examine whether the primary language of instruction (Spanish or English) is associated with outcomes at kindergarten entry. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2013

Profiles of social-emotional readiness for 4-year-old kindergarten
Miller, Michele M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

Children who are viewed as ready for kindergarten and/or first grade typically exhibit high attention, approach, and adaptability coupled with low activity and reactivity. These characteristics tend to be especially valued by teachers and describe a child who is "teachable," or school ready. Since many children enter formal schooling earlier by attending pre-K for 4-year olds, often called 4-year-old kindergarten, there is a need to examine school readiness earlier than kindergarten, which may look very different developmentally. If we expect children to enter formal schooling at age 4, then it should be clear what we expect of them in order to succeed. We explored which temperament, behavior, and cognitive items teachers of 4-year-old kindergarten (N = 29) rated as highly characteristic versus uncharacteristic of ready 4-year-olds. This teacher-generated data identified five clusters of children who were deemed ready for 4-year-old kindergarten. Teachers noted high cognitive skills and following directions as salient in many of the clusters, which aligns with the readiness expectations for kindergarten and first grade. However, items that distinguished the five clusters from one another referenced differences in activity level, sociability, shyness, enthusiasm, and patience that were not expected based on the previous literature with slightly older children. Given that some of the children teachers identified as especially ready for 4-year-old kindergarten did not fit this static model of a "teachable" child, a single profile of school readiness at an early age may be inappropriate. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

31 January, 2017

Maternal support of children's early numerical concept learning predicts preschool and first-grade math achievement
Casey, Beth M.; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Thomson, Dana; Nguyen, Hoa Nha; Paz, Melissa; Theriault, Cote A.; Dearing, Eric;

The primary goal in this study was to examine maternal support of numerical concepts at 36 months as predictors of math achievement at 4 1/2 and 6-7 years. Observational measures of mother-child interactions (n = 140) were used to examine type of support for numerical concepts. Maternal support that involved labeling the quantities of sets of objects was predictive of later child math achievement. This association was significant for preschool (d = .45) and first-grade math (d = .49), controlling for other forms of numerical support (identifying numerals, one-to-one counting) as well as potential confounding factors. The importance of maternal support of labeling set sizes at 36 months is discussed as a precursor to children's eventual understanding of the cardinal principle. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January/February 2018

Parent-child book-reading styles, emotional quality, and changes in Early Head Start children's cognitive scores
Cline, Keely D.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope;

Research Findings: The objective of this study was to understand how instructional book-reading style and emotional quality of reading interact and relate to cognitive skills in a sample of at-risk infants and toddlers. Participants were 81 parents and their children participating in Early Head Start programs in the rural Midwest. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that parental book-reading instructional style and emotional quality interact and relate to changes in children's cognitive scores for culturally and linguistically diverse families. Results included that there were variations in how book-reading qualities interacted and related to changes in child cognitive scores for families whose primary home languages were either English or Spanish. Practice or Policy: The results of this study are discussed in conjunction with findings from a previous study published in this journal that examined concurrent relationships in the same sample of Early Head Start families. Combined, findings of these studies underscore a need to further explore potentially complex patterns of relationships among parental literacy behaviors and child knowledge, concurrently and across time, for culturally and linguistically diverse families. Better understanding these patterns could inform the development and implementation of culturally sensitive intervention approaches designed to support high-quality parent-child book reading. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January, 2017

Family and social risk, and parental investments during the early childhood years as predictors of low-income children's school readiness outcomes
Mistry, Rashmita S.; Benner, Aprile D.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Howes, Carollee

Using data from the National Early Head Start (EHS) Research and Evaluation Project (N= 1851), the current study examined relations among cumulative family and social risk, assessed during infancy and the preschool years, and children's prekindergarten achievement, self-regulatory skills, and problematic social behavior, testing if these associations were mediated through two sets of family processes--responsive parenting practices and the provision of language stimulation and literacy practices. Structural equation modeling results highlight the significance of the timing of children's experience of risk in predicting school readiness competencies. Risk exposure during infancy was observed to be most detrimental for children's school readiness skills and was partially mediated by risk exposure during the preschool years and family processes, assessed during toddlerhood and the preschool years. Moderation analyses revealed no difference in the strength of relationships among the study variables by EHS assignment or by race/ethnicity. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2010

Early physical health problems as developmental liabilities for school readiness: Associations with early learning contexts and family socioeconomic status
Kull, Melissa A.;

Emerging research suggests that children's physical health may account for some of the variability in developmental competencies at school entry, which are the cognitive, learning, and behavioral skills necessary for long-term academic achievement. Most studies on children's health find that neonatal risks, like low birth weight and premature birth, impair children's early functioning, but little is known about other domains of children's health, like global health or acute and chronic conditions, which may be associated with functioning at school entry. Moreover, it is unclear what role physical health may play in children's access to and engagement in home and early childhood education center-based learning contexts, which may function as pathways linking early health disparities with later development. This dissertation tested direct associations between a range of childhood health problems and school readiness skills at kindergarten entry, as well as indirect and interacted associations with early learning contexts. Given the well-established socioeconomic gradient in both health and development, analyses also explored whether associations linking health and development were conditional on family socioeconomic status. Data were drawn from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (Birth Cohort; N = 5,900), which follows a cohort of children born in 2001 from infancy through kindergarten entry. Linear regressions and path analyses revealed that four of five health conditions were associated with lower school readiness skills, most consistently in the domains of cognitive and learning skills. Neonatal risks, poor health, and hospitalization functioned directly to predict lower cognitive and learning skills, where as asthma diagnosis predicted heightened learning skills. Only poor health functioned indirectly through more restricted home learning activities. Children's time in ECE functioned in a compensatory role to attenuate associations between hospitalization and lower school readiness skills. Across all models, there was no evidence that measured associations varied across the family socioeconomic spectrum. Findings highlight the importance of interdisciplinary research on child well-being and draw attention to potential avenues for prevention and intervention. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2015

Multivariate models for normal and binary responses in intervention studies
Pituch, Keenan A.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Chang, Wanchen

Use of multivariate analysis (e.g., multivariate analysis of variance) is common when normally distributed outcomes are collected in intervention research. However, when mixed response--a set of normal and binary outcome--are collected, standard multivariate analyses are no longer suitable. While mixed responses are often obtained in intervention studies and analysis models that can simultaneously include such outcomes are available, we found very limited use of these models in intervention research. To encourage greater use of multivariate analysis for mixed outcomes, this article highlights the benefits and describes important features of models that can incorporate a mix of normal and binary outcomes. Models for intervention research are then fit using Mplus and results interpreted using data from an evaluation of the Early Head Start program, a randomized trial designed to improve child outcomes for an at-risk population. The models illustrated estimate treatment effects for mixed responses in standard and multilevel experimental designs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

June, 2016

Comparing public, private, and informal preschool programs in a national sample of low-income children
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Collins, Melissa A.; Cook, Kyle Demeo;

Recent research has found that center-based early education and care (EEC) programs promote gains in cognitive skills for low-income children, but knowledge is limited concerning diverse types of EEC arrangements. This paper contrasts the primary EEC arrangements (Head Start, public centers, private centers, and home care) attended by economically disadvantaged children in the US with data on 4250 low-income children from the nationally-representative ECLS-B cohort. Results found public centers and Head Start programs provided children with the most educated and highly trained teachers and with the most enriching learning activities and global quality, with private centers showing moderate levels and home EEC very low levels of quality. Nonetheless, after adjusting for differential selection into EEC through propensity score weighting, low-income children who attended private EEC centers showed the highest math, reading, and language skills at age 5, with children attending Head Start and public centers also showing heightened math and reading skills in comparison to children experiencing only parent care. No differences were found in children's behavioral skills at age five in relation to EEC type. Results support enhanced access to all center preschool programs for low-income children, and suggest the need for greater understanding of the processes through which EEC affects children's school readiness skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q3 2016

Within- and between-sector quality differences in early childhood education and care
Bassok, Daphna; Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Greenberg, Erica; Loeb, Susanna;

This study leverages nationally representative data (N [is approximately] 6,000) to examine the magnitude of quality differences between (a) formal and informal early childhood education and care providers; (b) Head Start, prekindergarten, and other center-based care; and (c) programs serving toddlers and those serving preschoolers. It then documents differences in children's reading and math skills at age 5 between those who had enrolled in formal and informal settings. Cross-sector differences are substantially reduced when accounting for a set of quality measures, though these measures do less to explain more modest differences in outcomes within the formal sector. Results inform current efforts aimed at improving the quality of early childhood settings by highlighting the large quality differences across sectors and their relationship with child development. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2016

The selection of children from low-income families into preschool
Crosnoe, Robert; Purtell, Kelly M.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E. (Pamela Ellen); Ansari, Arya; Benner, Aprile D.;

Because children from low-income families benefit from preschool but are less likely than other children to enroll, identifying factors that promote their enrollment can support research and policy aiming to reduce socioeconomic disparities in education. In this study, we tested an accommodations model with data on 6,250 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. In general, parental necessity (e.g., maternal employment) and human capital considerations (e.g., maternal education) most consistently predicted preschool enrollment among children from low-income families. Supply side factors (e.g., local child care options) and more necessity and human capital factors (e.g., having fewer children, desiring preparation for school) selected such children into preschool over parental care or other care arrangements, and several necessity factors (e.g., being less concerned about costs) selected them into non-Head Start preschools over Head Start programs. Systemic connections and child elicitation did not consistently predict preschool enrollment in this population. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

April, 2016

Adolescent motherhood and developmental outcomes of children in Early Head Start: The influence of maternal parenting behaviors, well-being, and risk factors within the family setting
Rafferty, Yvonne; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lodise, Michelle

This longitudinal study examined the influence of parenting behaviors, well-being, and risk factors of low-income adolescent mothers on the cognitive and language abilities of children from infancy to age 3. Participants consisted of 1,240 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Data were collected using structured interviews with the mothers and from videotaped mother-child interactions during play activities when children were approximately 14 months old and again at 36 months of age. Positive parenting behaviors exhibited toward the 14-month-old children predicted gains in both cognitive and language abilities more so than did maternal well-being, risk factors within the family setting, and demographic risk factors. Gains in cognitive abilities from infancy to age 3 were predicted by supportive parenting, higher family resources, and lower family conflict when children were infants. Gains in language abilities were predicted by supportive parenting, support for language and learning in the home environment, and higher family resources when children were infants. Finally, path analyses showed that maternal age had an indirect effect on child cognitive and language abilities at age 3 through effects on parenting behaviors. Older mothers were more likely to be supportive during play at age 14 months, which in turn promoted enhanced developmental outcomes at age 3. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

April, 2011

Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment
Snell, Emily K.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Belsky, Jay

Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

November, 2015

Sociodemographic and programmatic moderators of Early Head Start: Evidence from the national Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project
Jung, Sunyoung; Stone, Susan I.

This secondary analysis of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, a randomized study of program participation of children and families in Early Head Start (that is, enrolled in programming prior to children's first birthdays) investigated sociodeniographic (race and ethnicity, income level, and maternal education level) and program type (mixed programs or center- and home-based) moderators of child cognitive and parenting outcomes. Results found significant race by program type interactions, favoring African American and Hispanic families participating in center- and home-based programs, on both child cognitive and parenting outcomes. On the other hand, positive cognitive outcomes clustered in children with mothers who had not completed high school. Implications for social work research and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July, 2008

The transition from early child care to preschool: Emerging toddler skills and readiness for group-based learning
Goodrich, Samantha; Mudrick, Hannah B.; Robinson, JoAnn;

National policy today is on the brink of defining preschool experiences as essential for children's academic success. Indeed, many children's classroom experience begins as they transition from infant/toddler care to a preschool classroom. This study examined developmentally relevant skill domains among 36-month-olds (effortful control, social engagement, and language abilities) and tested their organization in a latent factor model of skills hypothesized to promote classroom adaptation. Assessments of low-income children interacting with a parent and examiner from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project were utilized (n = 1,814). The data included observations of mother-child interactions during semistructured activities at home and child behavior assessments. Results indicated that the interrelated structure of children's skills was best defined in a 2-factor, latent variable model: effortful control and social communication. These learning skills were related to but separate from general cognitive ability. Practice or Policy: Home-visiting programs for infants and toddlers are expected to promote children's school readiness, yet little research has focused on the skills that facilitate children's transition to the large-group learning environment at age 3. Implications of this model for early prevention efforts and early childhood teacher training to promote children's readiness for group-based learning are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2015

Immigration and the interplay of parenting, preschool enrollment, and young children's academic skills
Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert;

This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents' support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (Ages 2 to 5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment, and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia, and did not vary by immigrants' socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems, as well as "child effects" and population diversity, in developmental research. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

June, 2015

Toddlers in Early Head Start: A portrait of 3-year-olds, their families, and the programs serving them: Volume 1: Age 3 report
Vogel, Cheri; Caronongan, Pia; Xue, Yange; Thomas, Jaime; Bandel, Eileen; Aikens, Nikki; Boller, Kimberly; Murphy, Lauren;

The Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (Baby FACES) is a descriptive study of Early Head Start programs designed to inform policy and practice at both national and local levels. In 2007, the Office of Planning, Research & Evaluation (OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, contracted with Mathematica Policy Research and its partners to implement this longitudinal study in 89 Early Head Start programs around the country. Baby FACES followed two cohorts of children, newborns and 1-year-olds, through their time in Early Head Start. The Newborn Cohort includes pregnant mothers and newborn children (194 are in this group) and the 1-year-old Cohort includes children who were approximately age 1 (782 were aged 10 to 15 months) at study enrollment in 2009. Data collection started in the spring of 2009 and ended for the 1-year-old Cohort in spring 2011 and for the Newborn Cohort in spring 2012, when both cohorts were 3 years of age. This is the third and final report describing the experiences of families and children in Early Head Start. The first report provides in-depth information about the sample design, the measures used, and the baseline findings (Vogel et al. 2011) and the second report describes findings from the second wave of data collection focused primarily on children who were 2 years old in 2010 (1-year-old Cohort only) (Vogel et al. 2015). This report describes the experiences of children in both cohorts through age 3 and focuses on understanding program participation and predictors of participation, service quality and predictors of quality, and associations between receiving services at different levels of intensity and quality and child and family outcomes. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

April, 2015

Center-based preschool and school readiness skills of children from immigrant families
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Collins, Melissa A.; Miller, Portia;

Children from immigrant families are more likely than children of native parents to start school with fewer of the academic skills that are important for long-term success, although evidence on behavioral skills is mixed. Center-based early education and care (EEC) programs, which have been linked to improvements in academic functioning in disadvantaged samples, may serve as a potent resource for children from immigrant families, but important questions remain about their benefits and drawbacks for academic and behavioral outcomes across the diverse population of children from immigrant families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N [is approximately] 6,550), this study examined prospective associations between center-based EEC at age 4 and school readiness skills at age 5 among children from immigrant families. Practice or Policy: The results suggest that center-based EEC is associated with heightened math, reading, and expressive language skills and also with lower parent-rated externalizing behaviors for children of immigrants in comparison to children of native parents. Results also revealed heterogeneity in associations between center-based EEC attendance and school readiness skills among children of immigrants based on parental region of origin, household language use, and the language used in EEC settings. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2015

Toddlers in Early Head Start: A portrait of 2-year-olds, their families, and the programs serving them: Volume I: Age 2 report
Vogel, Cheri; Caronongan, Pia; Thomas, Jaime; Bandel, Eileen; Xue, Yange; Henke, Juliette; Aikens, Nikki; Boller, Kimberly; Murphy, Lauren;

The Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (Baby FACES) is an ongoing study of Early Head Start programs designed to inform policy and practice at both national and local levels. In 2007, the Office of Planning, Research & Evaluation (OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, contracted with Mathematica Policy Research and its partners to implement this six-year longitudinal study in 89 Early Head Start programs around the country. Baby FACES follows two cohorts of children through their time in Early Head Start, starting in 2009, the first wave of data collection. The Newborn Cohort includes 194 pregnant mothers and newborn children. The 1-year-old Cohort includes children who were approximately 1 year old (782 were ages 10 to 15 months). This report is the second of three submissions describing findings as we follow families and children throughout their experiences in Early Head Start. The first report provided in-depth information about the sample design, the measures used, and the baseline findings (Vogel et al. 2011). This report describes findings from the second wave of data collection and focuses primarily on children in the 1-year-old Cohort who were 2 years old in 2010. However, it also provides in the technical appendix information on the Newborn Cohort (when children were 1 year old). A subsequent report will describe children's experiences through age 3 and focus on the associations between receiving services at different levels of intensity and quality, and child and family outcomes. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

February, 2015

What's past is prologue: Relations between early mathematics knowledge and high school achievement
Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E. (Pamela Ellen);

Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multisite longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of prekindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October, 2014

Theories of change and outcomes in home-based Early Head Start programs
Raikes, Helen; Roggman, Lori A.; Peterson, Carla A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Schiffman, Rachel F.;

Programs to promote children's early development are based on a set of assumptions, explicit or implicit, about intended outcomes and how the program will effect change. The "theories of change" were examined in ten home-based programs in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP), using data collected through multiple interviews with program staff. All home-based programs indicated that parenting outcomes were among their highest three priorities, while only 4 of 10 programs said that child outcomes were in their top priorities. The pattern of outcome differences between randomly-assigned program and control group participants reflected the programs' theories of change in several ways. Early Head Start home-based programs showed positive impacts on 9 of 9 parenting outcomes, including parental supportiveness, home language and learning supports, emotional responsiveness, and family conflict when children were 24 months of age. Significant program impacts on child cognitive skills (Bayley MDI scores) and social behavior (observed child engagement of parent during play) were found when children were 36 months of age. Mediation analyses showed that the 54% of the program impact on 36-month child cognitive scores was mediated by 24-month program impacts on parental supportiveness, language and learning support, emotional responsiveness, and family conflict, and 47% of the program impact on 36-month child engagement of parent was mediated by 24-month impacts on parental supportiveness, language and cognitive stimulation, and emotional responsiveness. Results from mediation analyses were consistent with these home-based programs' theories of change, supporting the efficacy of focusing on parent change as a mechanism for child outcomes in home visiting programs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2014

Observed quality and psychometric properties of the CLASS-T in the Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey
Bandel, Eileen; Aikens, Nikki; Vogel, Cheri; Boller, Kimberly; Murphy, Lauren;

In this technical brief, we report on the use of the Toddler Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS-T; Pianta et al. 2010; La Paro et al. 2012) in the Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (Baby FACES). We begin by providing a brief overview of the Baby FACES study, including its methodology and approach to data collection. Next, we provide a descriptive snapshot of process quality in center-based settings drawing on observations conducted in Early Head Start classrooms serving 2-and 3-year-old children in Baby FACES. Finally, we document evidence from Baby FACES of the instrument's psychometric properties, including results of factor analyses, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent and predictive associations to child development outcomes and other key indicators of quality. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2014

Road to readiness: Pathways from low-income children's early interactions to school readiness skills
Martoccio, Tiffany L.; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Onaga, Esther E.;

This study utilized data from the Michigan component of the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study to examine toddlers' joint attention at 14 months (parent report measure of toddlers' initiating behaviors, e.g., extends arm to show you something he or she is holding, reaches out and gives you a toy he or she has been holding, and points at something interesting) as a mediator of the relations between early mother-child interactions (e.g., mother and child behaviors in response to one another's cues) and later school readiness skills in a low-income sample (N = 127 mother-child dyads). Understanding relations between early parent-child interactions, joint attention, and later school readiness skills is critical to identifying developmental paths of economically at-risk children. Results showed that toddlers' joint attention behaviors at 14 months partially mediated the path between mother-child interaction at 14 months and later school readiness, measured by children's emotion regulation, social-cognition, language development, and literacy and mathematics academic outcomes, at approximately 5 years of age. Results suggest the important roles of early mother-child interactions in low-income families and joint attention in promoting school readiness skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July-September 2014

Selection into early education and care settings: Differences by developmental period
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Collins, Melissa A.; Miller, Portia;

Early education and care programs (EEC) serve important functions in promoting children's school readiness skills and supporting parental employment. Yet knowledge remains limited concerning factors inhibiting or increasing families' use of EEC programs for their young children and whether such factors function differently as children age. This study employed nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) following 10,700 children from infancy through early childhood to assess predictors of home and center-based EEC and to delineate whether predictors differed by developmental period. Drawing on Meyers and Jordan's (2006) rich accommodations model of EEC selection, analyses found that factors associated with family needs and resources (parental employment, income, education, and family structure), cultural norms and preferences (race, ethnicity, and immigration status; geographic location; child characteristics; and parental priorities regarding EEC characteristics) and contextual opportunities and constraints (availability of care in the community) were all associated with selection into EEC settings. Many patterns were similar for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, although race/ethnicity, employment, and availability were most strongly linked to EEC type during infancy, whereas parental priorities for features associated with higher-quality care programs predicted EEC most strongly for preschoolers. Results are discussed in terms of efforts to increase family choice and access to EEC programs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q3 2014

The instructional and emotional quality of parent-child book reading and Early Head Start children's learning outcomes
Cline, Keely D.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope;

The objective of this study was to understand how two dimensions of parent-child book-reading quality--instructional and emotional--interact and relate to learning in a sample of low-income infants and toddlers. Participants included 81 parents and their children from Early Head Start programs in the rural Midwest. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that parental book-reading qualities interact and relate to children's concurrent cognitive and language scores. Exploratory analyses examined if patterns of relationships varied for families who had different home languages (i.e., English, Spanish). Results included that book-reading qualities and home language interacted to predict child scores. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

November, 2013

Caregiver-child verbal interactions in child care: A buffer against poor language outcomes when maternal language input is less
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.; The Family Life Project Key Investigators;

Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2013

Longitudinal associations among interest, persistence, supportive parenting, and achievement in early childhood
Martin, Anne; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

This study investigates two facets of children's school readiness: interest in new cognitive tasks (interest) and persistence in task completion (persistence). Little attention has been paid to the early development of these learning behaviors, although they might prove susceptible to intervention even before school entry. Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, a sample of low-income children (N = 1771) was followed to model bidirectional associations among interest and persistence and maternal supportive parenting between ages 1 and 3, and estimate associations between children's interest and persistence at age 3 and their academic skills at age 5. Results indicate that maternal supportive parenting influences children's interest and persistence more strongly and consistently than interest or persistence influences parenting, and that interest but not persistence transacts with parenting over time. Interest and persistence were equally predictive of children's early academic skills. Findings affirm that both interest and persistence during toddlerhood predict children's academic standing at school entry. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2013

Predictors of early care and education type among preschool-aged children in immigrant families: The role of region of origin and characteristics of the immigrant experience
Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine;

Children of immigrants have lower rates of participation in early care and education (ECE) settings in the year before they enter kindergarten than do children of native parents. There is a dearth of research examining factors associated with the ECE type that immigrant families select for their children. Using data on immigrant families from the ECLS-B (N ~ 2500) this study aims to fill gaps in the literature by examining associations between immigrant, family, child, and contextual characteristics and patterns of ECE type at age 4. The results show significant differences in ECE type related to parental region of origin that were reduced when characteristics of families and contexts were taken into account. Findings highlight the importance of considering factors that may be especially salient for immigrant families, including household English proficiency, parental citizenship status, parental preferences, and availability of non-English speaking care providers. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2013

Program subgroups: Patterns of impacts for home-based, center-based, and mixed-approach programs
Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Raikes, Helen; Vogel, Cheri;

A study of variations in the impact of Early Head Start by program service delivery model on child and family outcomes, including children's socioemotional and cognitive development and families' well-being and home environments, based on data for randomly-assigned low income families collected when children were 2, 3, and 5 years old

Reports & Papers

February, 2013

Family subgroups and impacts at ages 2, 3, and 5: Variability by race/ethnicity and demographic risk
Raikes, Helen; Vogel, Cheri; Love, John M.;

A study of variations by race, ethnicity, and risk indicators of the impact of Early Head Start on child and family outcomes, including children's socioemotional and cognitive development and families' well-being and home environments, based on data for randomly-assigned low income families collected when children were 2, 3, and 5 years old

Reports & Papers

February, 2013

Impacts of Early Head Start participation on child and parent outcomes at ages 2, 3, and 5
Vogel, Cheri; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Martin, Anne; Klute, Mary M.;

A study of the impact of Early Head Start on child and family outcomes, including children's socioemotional and cognitive development and families' well-being and home environments, and an examination of the age at which program impacts appear and of mediators of impacts at age 5, based on data for randomly-assigned low income families collected when children were 2, 3, and 5 years old

Reports & Papers

February, 2013

The relationship between child care subsidies and children's cognitive development
Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca;

Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child care subsidy use and school readiness, using value-added regression models as well as parametric and non-parametric models with propensity score matching. Compared to a diverse group of subsidy non-recipients in various types of non-parental care as well as parental care only, we find that child care subsidy use during preschool is negatively associated with children's math skills at kindergarten entry. However, sensitivity analysis suggests that these findings could be easily overturned if unobserved factors affect selection into subsidy receipt. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q2 2013

Timing, extent, and type of child care and children's behavioral functioning in kindergarten
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Miller, Portia; Koury, Amanda;

An assessment of relationships between the timing, extent, and type of child care from infancy through preschool and children's behavioral functioning in kindergarten, based on data from 6,000 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

Reports & Papers

October, 2013

A person-oriented approach to understanding dimensions of parenting in low-income mothers
Cook, Gina A.; Roggman, Lori A.; D'zatko, Kim;

An identification, at multiple time points, of groups of parents that share similar profiles of parenting, and an examination of the relationship between those group differences and other individual, family, and context characteristics, based on data from a sample of 2,631 low income Early Head Start mothers from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP)

Reports & Papers

Q4 2012

Early Head Start and African American families: Impacts and mechanisms of child outcomes
Harden, Brenda Jones; Sandstrom, Heather; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel;

A study of the effects of participation in Early Head Start (EHS) for both African American children at age 3 and their parents across developmental and parenting domains, and an examination of the mediating roles of parental cognitive stimulation, warmth, supportiveness, parental distress, and harshness on those effects, based on data from 778 African American families participating in the Early Head Start evaluation

Reports & Papers

Q4 2012

Timing of high-quality child care and cognitive, language, and preacademic development
Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Vandell, Deborah Lowe;

A study of the relationship between exposure to different combinations of high- versus low-quality child care during two developmental periods--infant-toddlerhood and preschool, and children's cognitive, language, and preacademic development, based on data from 1,364 young children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

August, 2013

Home literacy exposure and early language and literacy skills in children who struggle with behavior and attention problems
Haak, Jill; Downer, Jason T.; Reeve, Ronald

A study of the relationships of the behavior and attention problems and of the early home literacy environment, as well as of the interaction between the two, to the language and literacy skills of 4-year-olds, based on data for 1,364 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

Reports & Papers

September, 2012

Effects of early child-care on cognition, language, and task-related behaviours at 18 months: An English study
Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan; Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik;

A study of the relationship between family characteristics, child characteristics, and the characteristics of early child care, including quality of care and time in care, and the development of cognition, language, task-related attention, orientation/engagement, and emotion regulation of 18-month-old infants, based on data from a prospective longitudinal study of 1,201 infants from antenatal and postnatal community clinics in two large hospitals in England

Reports & Papers

March, 2011

Early Head Start home visitation: The role of implementation in bolstering program benefits
Harden, Brenda Jones; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Raikes, Helen; Vogel, Cheri

Home visitation has emerged as a key strategy for promoting child and family well-being in the current policy context. This article examines the effectiveness of the Early Head Start (EHS) home-based program for children and families at the end of the program and 2 years later, with a particular focus on the role of program implementation in the impacts of the EHS home-based program on child and family outcomes. There was a pattern of broad, modest effects of EHS home visiting for both children and parents, which were strengthened if the programs were fully implemented according to federal guidelines. In particular, impacts for children in the cognitive and language domain were documented. Implications of these findings for policy and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2012

Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills and prekindergarten
Rodriguez, Eileen; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.;

A categorical study of the home learning environments associated with children's vocabulary and emergent literacy skills in prekindergarten, based on data collected from a sample of 1,852 mothers and their children participating in Early Head Start programs

Reports & Papers

July/August 2011