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Increasing opportunities to respond to print during storybook reading: Effects of evocative print-referencing techniques
This study employed a multiple baseline design to determine whether brief training and observational learning enabled teachers to increase their use of evocative references to print during whole-class story-book reading. Evocative print references require children to respond to teachers' questions or directives about print and, as such, were conceptualized as opportunities to respond (OTRs). Framed within this conceptualization, the study examined whether teachers' use of print-focused OTRs increased children's engagement during book reading and accelerated acquisition of print awareness skills. Book reading was observed twice weekly during baseline and intervention phases and coded for teachers' use of print-referenced OTRs and children's level of engagement. Print-knowledge skill probes were administered weekly to 33 children from low-income backgrounds. Results showed gains from baseline to intervention in teachers' use of evocative print references, children's engagement, and performance on skill probes. Findings are discussed in terms of using book reading to promote development of print awareness in children who are behind their peers in early literacy skills. (author abstract)
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