Child Care and Early Education Research Connections

Skip to main content

Increases in out-of-pocket child care costs: 1995 to 2016


The child care market experienced considerable change between 1995 and 2016. This brief documents changes in the out-of-pocket costs for families with children under age five. Key findings include: Children of all income levels were less likely to be in paid care arrangements than to receive care only from their parents; Children under age five were less likely to participate in paid family child care and more likely to receive care in center programs and unpaid relative care arrangements; Hourly early care and education (ECE) payments per child increased 86 percent; All major types of care became more expensive; The increases in ECE payments were largest for children in upper-income families. (author abstract)

Resource Type:
Reports & Papers
United States

- You May Also Like

These resources share similarities with the current selection.

The effects of an undergraduate programme of preschool teaching on preservice teachers' attitudes towards early mathematics education in Turkey: A longitudinal study

Reports & Papers

Early childhood educators working with children who have lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents: What does the literature tell us?

Literature Review

Developing leadership for early childhood professionals through oral inquiry: Strengthening equity through making particulars visible in dilemmas of practice

Reports & Papers

Improving QRISs through the use of existing data: A virtual pilot of the California QRIS

Reports & Papers
Release: 'v1.25.0' | Built: 2023-02-16 16:36:50 EST