Quality Rating and Improvement System State Evaluations and Research

07 Jan 2016

A child care quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) is a method used by states and local jurisdictions to assess the level of quality of child care and early education programs, improve quality, and convey quality ratings to parents and other consumers. A typical QRIS incorporates the following components: quality standards for participating providers; a system for measuring and monitoring provider quality; resources for providers to support quality improvement; financial incentives for providers who meet quality standards; and education and outreach to families about the ratings and how to choose a quality program for their children.

In 2010, Assessing States' Child Care Quality Rating Systems (QRS), a project funded by the U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, produced a compendium that documented features of QRISs in 25 states that had them at the time. An updated online version of the compendium was released in 2014, which included information on 38 states with QRISs.

Many jurisdictions with QRISs, as well as other interested organizations and individuals, have undertaken research and evaluation efforts to improve their understanding of QRIS implementation, validity, results, and impacts. This Topic of Interest provides a comprehensive list of state QRIS evaluations and research in the Research Connections collection. If you know of state QRIS research and evaluation publications not included in this list, please let us know at contact@researchconnections.org.


Kentucky
Maine
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri



Arkansas

McKelvey, L., Chapin-Critz, M., Johnson, B., Bokony, P. A., Conners-Burrow, N. A., & Whiteside-Mansell, L. (2010). Evaluating Arkansas' path to better child outcomes. Little Rock: Arkansas, Division of Child Care and Early Childhood Education.


California

American Institutes for Research., & Rand Corporation. (2013). Local quality improvement efforts and outcomes descriptive study: Final report: A Governor's State Advisory Council on Early Learning and Care project. Sacramento: California, Child Development Division.

Hawkinson, L. E., Quick, H., Muenchow, S., Anthony, J., Weinberg, E., Holod, A., Parrish, D., & et al. (2015). Independent evaluation of California's Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge quality rating and improvement system: Half-term report. Sacramento: California, Department of Education.

Karoly, L. A., & Zellman, G. L. (2012). How would programs rate under California's proposed quality rating and improvement system?: Evidence from statewide and county data on early care and education program quality. (DB-647-PF). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Los Angeles County (Calif.). Office of Child Care. (2013). Feasibility report on a countywide child care rating system. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County, Office of Child Care.

Soliday-Hong, S., Howes, C., Marcella, J., Zucker, E., & Huang, Y. (2015). Quality Rating and Improvement Systems: Validation of a local implementation in LA County and children's school-readiness. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 227-240.

Wold and Associates. (2011). Steps to Excellence Project: Pilot process evaluation. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County, Office of Child Care.

Wold and Associates. (2013). Steps to Excellence Program (STEP): Evaluation report. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County, Office of Child Care.

Zellman, G. L., & Karoly, L. A. (2015). Improving QRISs through the use of existing data: A virtual pilot of the California QRIS. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 241-254.


Colorado

Karoly, L. A., Zellman, G. L., & Perlman, M. (2013). Understanding variation in classroom quality within early childhood centers: Evidence from Colorado's quality rating and improvement system. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(4), 645-657.

Le, V., Schaack, D., & Setodji, C. M. (2015). Identifying baseline and ceiling thresholds within the Qualistar Early Learning Quality Rating and Improvement System. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 215-226.

Schaack, D. (2008). Lessons learned from the Qualistar rating and improvement system Rand validation study. Denver, CO: Qualistar Early Learning.

Tarrant, K., & Huerta, L. A. (2015). Substantive or symbolic stars: Quality rating and improvement systems through a new institutional lens. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 327-338.

Zellman, G. L., & Perlman, M. (2008). Child-care quality rating and improvement systems in five pioneer states: Implementation issues and lessons learned. (MG-795-AECF/SPF/UWA). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Zellman, G. L., Perlman, M., Le, V., & Setodji, C. M. (2008). Assessing the validity of the Qualistar Early Learning quality rating and improvement system as a tool for improving child-care quality. (MG-650-QEL). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.


Delaware

Auger, A., Karoly, L. A., & Schwartz, H. L. (2015). Evaluation of Delaware Stars for Early Success: Year 2 report. (RR-1026-DOEL). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Delaware. Department of Education. Office of Early Care and Education. (2008). Delaware Stars for Early Success: Phase I report-2007. Dover: Delaware, Department of Education, Office of Early Care and Education.

Schwartz, H. L., Karoly, L. A., Le, V., Tamargo, J., & Setodji, C. M. (2014). Evaluation of Delaware Stars for Early Success: Year 1 report. (RR-606-DOEL). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

University of Delaware. Delaware Institute for Excellence in Early Childhood. (2008). Delaware Stars for Early Success: "Good programs working to become great programs": 2008 report. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Delaware Institute for Excellence in Early Childhood.


Florida

Baker, S., Spielberger, J., Lockaby, T., & Guterman, K. (2010). Enhancing quality in afterschool programs: Fifth-year report on a process evaluation of Prime Time Palm Beach County, Inc. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, Chapin Hall Center for Children.

Caronongan, P., Kirby, G., Malone, L., & Boller, K. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Defining and measuring quality: An in-depth study of five child care quality rating and improvement systems. (OPRE Report 2011-29). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Children's Forum. (2011). Miami-Dade County Quality Counts workforce study. Tallahassee, FL: Children's Forum.

Children's Forum. (n.d.). Miami-Dade County Quality Counts workforce study: 2012 update. Miami, FL: Children's Trust.

Children's Forum. (n.d.). Miami-Dade County Quality Counts workforce study update: March 2013. Miami, FL: Children's Trust.

Clements, M. A., Kalifeh, P., & Grass, S. (2014). Miami-Dade Quality Counts workforce study: Early care and education: Research to practice brief. Tallahassee, FL: Children's Forum.

Clements, M. A., Kalifeh, P., & Grass, S. (2014). Miami-Dade Quality Counts Workforce Study update. Tallahassee, FL: Children's Forum.

Iruka, I. U., Yazejian, N., Hughes, C., Robertson, N., & Maxwell, K. (2010). Report of Year 2 Quality Counts survey findings. Miami, FL: Children's Trust.

Iruka, I. U., Yazejian, N., & Maxwell, K. (2009). Year 1 final report of stakeholder interviews: Evaluation of Quality Counts. Miami, FL: Children's Trust.

Iruka, I. U., Yazejian, N., & Maxwell, K. (2010). Report of Year 1 Quality Counts survey findings. Miami, FL: Children's Trust.

Iruka, I. U., Yazejian, N., Maxwell, K., & Robertson, N. (2011). Final report of stakeholder interviews: Evaluation of Quality Counts. Miami, FL: Children's Trust.

Kalifeh, P., Clements, M. A., & Esposito, B. (2013). Florida's Gold Seal Quality Care policy study. Tallahassee, FL: Children's Forum.

Kirby, G., Caronongan, P., Malone, L. M., & Boller, K. (2015). What do quality rating levels mean?: Examining the implementation of QRIS ratings to inform validation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 291-305.

Lindeman, L. M.  (n.d.). The best they can be: 2013-2014 annual quality improvement report for out-of-school time programs in Palm Beach County. Boynton Beach, FL: Prime Time Palm Beach County.

Ma, X., Shen, J., Lu, X., Brandi, K., Goodman, J., & Watson, G. (2013). Can quality improvement system improve childcare site performance in school readiness? Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 106(2), 146-156.

Malone, L., Kirby, G., Caronongan, P., Tout, K., & Boller, K. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Measuring quality across three child care quality rating and improvement systems: Findings from secondary analyses. (OPRE Report 2011-30). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Mitchell, A. W., & Ghazvini, A. (2007). Florida's Quality Rating System: A conceptual model for estimating cost assumptions, explanations and supporting data. Auburndale, FL: The Policy Group for Florida's Families and Children.

Naftzger, N., Hallberg, K., & Yang, T. (2014). Exploring the relationship between afterschool program quality and youth outcomes: Findings from the Prime Time of Palm Beach County quality improvement system study: Summary. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.

Shen, J., & Ma, X. (2013). Quality rating and improvement system for early care and education: Development, implementation, evaluation and learning. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Shen, J., Tackett, W., & Ma, X. (2008). First evaluation report for Palm Beach County Quality Improvement System. Boynton Beach, FL: Children's Services Council (Palm Beach County, Fla.).

Shen, J., Tackett, W., & Ma, X. (2009). Second evaluation report for Palm Beach County Quality Improvement System. Boynton Beach, FL: Children's Services Council (Palm Beach County, Fla.).

Spielberger, J., & Lockaby, T. (2006). The Prime Time Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida: QIS development process evaluation: Year 2 report. Chicago: University of Chicago, Chapin Hall Center for Children.

Spielberger, J., & Lockaby, T. (2008). Palm Beach County's Prime Time Initiative: Improving the quality of after-school programs. Chicago: University of Chicago, Chapin Hall Center for Children.

Spielberger, J., Lockaby, T., Mayers, L., & Guterman, K. (2009). Ready for prime time: Implementing a formal afterschool quality improvement system by Prime Time Palm Beach County, Inc. Chicago: University of Chicago, Chapin Hall Center for Children.

Wehry, S. (2008). Early Learning Coalition of Duval report: 2007-08 final report. Jacksonville, FL: Florida Institute of Education.

Wehry, S. (2009). Early Learning Coalition of Duval report: 2008-09. Jacksonville, FL: Florida Institute of Education.

Wehry, S. (2010). Early Learning Coalition of Duval report 2009-10. Jacksonville, FL: Early Learning Coalition of Duval.

Wehry, S. (2011). Early Learning Coalition of Duval report 2010-11. Jacksonville, FL: Early Learning Coalition of Duval.

Wehry, S. (2011). Early Learning Coalition of Duval report 2011-12. Jacksonville, FL: Early Learning Coalition of Duval.

Yazejian, N., & Iruka, I. U. (2015). Associations among tiered quality rating and improvement system supports and quality improvement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 255-265.

Yazejian, N., Iruka, I. U., Hughes, C., & Maxwell, K. (2010). Year 2 focus group summary: Evaluation of Quality Counts. Miami, FL: Children's Trust.

Yazejian, N., Iruka, I. U., Maxwell, K., Bessell, A. G., Kloosterman, V. I., Heiblum, L., & Gutierrez, S. M. (2009). Year 1 focus group summary: Evaluation of Quality Counts. Miami, FL: Children's Trust.

Yazejian, N., Iruka, I. U., Maxwell, K., & Robertson, N. (2012). Evaluation of Miami-Dade County's Quality Counts initiative: Final report: 2008-2012. Miami, FL: Children's Trust.



Illinois

Caronongan, P., Kirby, G., Malone, L., & Boller, K. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Defining and measuring quality: An in-depth study of five child care quality rating and improvement systems. (OPRE Report 2011-29). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Kelton, R., Talan, T., & Bloom, P. (2013). Alternative pathways in family child care quality rating and improvement systems. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 15(2).

Kirby, G., Caronongan, P., Malone, L. M., & Boller, K. (2015). What do quality rating levels mean?: Examining the implementation of QRIS ratings to inform validation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 291-305.

Malone, L., Kirby, G., Caronongan, P., Tout, K., & Boller, K. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Measuring quality across three child care quality rating and improvement systems: Findings from secondary analyses. (OPRE Report 2011-30). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

National-Louis University. McCormick Center for Early Childhood Leadership. (2013). Accreditation as an alternative pathway to quality in QRIS. Wheeling, IL: National-Louis University, McCormick Center for Early Childhood Leadership.


Indiana

Anderson, T., & Elicker, J. (n.d.). Does Paths to QUALITY benefit Indiana's child care providers? (Evaluation Brief No. 3). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, Center for Families.

Anderson, T., & Elicker, J. (n.d.). Does Paths to QUALITY help Indiana parents find quality child care? (Evaluation Brief No. 4). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, Center for Families.

Anderson, T., & Elicker, J. (n.d.). Does Paths to QUALITY produce quality care and education for Indiana's young children? (Evaluation Brief No. 2). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, Center for Families.

Anderson, T., & Elicker, J. (n.d.). Key findings. (Evaluation Report No. 1). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, Center for Families.

Caronongan, P., Kirby, G., Malone, L., & Boller, K. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Defining and measuring quality: An in-depth study of five child care quality rating and improvement systems. (OPRE Report 2011-29). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Elicker, J., Clawson, C., Ruprecht, K., & Kwon, K. (2007). Paths to QUALITY: A child care quality rating system for Indiana: What is its scientific basis? West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, Center for Families.

Elicker, J., Langill, C., Ruprecht, K., Lewsader, J., & Anderson, T. (2011). Evaluation of "Paths to QUALITY," Indiana's child care quality rating and improvement system: Final report. (Technical Report No. 3). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, Department of Child Development and Family Studies.

Elicker, J., Ruprecht, K., Langill, C., Lewsader, J., Anderson, T., & Brizzi, M. (2013). Indiana Paths to QUALITY: Collaborative evaluation of a new child care quality rating and improvement system. Early Education and Development, 24(1), 42-62.

Kirby, G., Boller, K., & Zaveri, H. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Child care quality rating and improvement systems: Approaches to integrating programs for young children in two states. (OPRE Report 2011-28). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Kirby, G., Caronongan, P., Malone, L. M., & Boller, K. (2015). What do quality rating levels mean?: Examining the implementation of QRIS ratings to inform validation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 291-305.

Lahti, M., Elicker, J., Zellman, G. L., & Fiene, R. (2015). Approaches to validating child care quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS): Results from two states with similar QRIS type designs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 280-290.

Lahti, M., Sabol, T., Starr, R., Langill, C., & Tout, K. (2013). Validation of quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS): Examples from four states. (Research-to-Policy, Research-to-Practice Brief OPRE 2013-036). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Langill, C., Elicker, J., & Ruprecht, K. (2013). Paths to QUALITY evaluation technical manual: Phase 2 evaluation methods and measures. (Technical Report No. 5). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, Center for Families.

Langill, C., Elicker, J., Ruprecht, K., Kwon, K., & Guenin, J. (2009). Paths to QUALITY: A child care quality rating & improvement system for Indiana: Evaluation methods and measures. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, Center for Families.

Lewsader, J., & Elicker, J. (2013). Church sponsored child care: Association of regulatory level with quality. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 7(2), 67-88.

Ruprecht, K., Langill, C., Elicker, J., & Anderson, T. (2013). Paths to QUALITY: Child care provider focus group report: Summary of findings from PTQ licensed child care center directors, registered ministry directors, and family child care providers. (Technical Report No. 4). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, Center for Families.


Iowa

Maxwell, K., Daily, S., & Graham, P. (2013). Iowa Quality Rating System evaluation: Key concepts, psychometric properties, and the rating process. Des Moines: Iowa, Department of Human Services.


Kentucky

Daily, S., Moodie, S., Isner, T. K., Rothenberg, L., & Soli, M. (2012). Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW process evaluation: Collaboration and coordination in the Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW technical assistance system. (Evaluation Brief No. 5). Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Daily, S., Moodie, S., Isner, T. K., Rothenberg, L., & Soli, M. (2012). Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW process evaluation: Technical assistance provided to and received by STARS for KIDS NOW programs. (Evaluation Brief No. 4). Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Isner, T. K., Soli, M., Rothenberg, L., Moodie, S., & Tout, K. (2012). Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW process evaluation: Alternative rating structures for Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW. (Evaluation Brief No. 6). Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Isner, T. K., Tout, K., Daily, S., Moodie, S., Rothenberg, L., & Soli, M. (2012). Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW process evaluation: Overview of methods. (Evaluation Brief No. 2). Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Kentucky. Department of Education. (2006). Kids Now evaluation project executive summary 2006. Frankfort, KY: Kentucky, Department of Education.

Moodie, S., Isner, T. K., Rothenberg, L., & Soli, M. (2012). Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW process evaluation: Providers' perceptions of the Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW rating process. (Evaluation Brief No. 3). Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Starr, R., Moodie, S., Rothenberg, L., Isner, T. K., & Tout, K. (2012). Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW process evaluation: Evaluation of Kentucky's child care resource & referral system. (Evaluation Brief No. 7). Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Starr, R., Tout, K., Albertson-Junkans, L., Moodie, S., Rothenberg, L., & Soli, M. (2012). Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW process evaluation: Findings from the Kentucky Early Care and Education and School-Age Care Household Survey. (Evaluation Brief No. 8). Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Tout, K., Starr, R., Isner, T. K., Daily, S., Moodie, S., Rothenberg, L., & Soli, M. (2012). Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW process evaluation: Executive summary. (Evaluation Brief No. 1). Washington, DC: Child Trends.


Maine

Lahti, M., Cobo-Lewis, A. B., Dean, A., Rawlings, S., Sawyer, E., & Zollitsch, B. (2011). Maine's Quality for ME -- child care quality rating and improvement system (QRIS): Final evaluation report. Portland, ME: Edmund S. Muskie School of Public Service.

Lahti, M., Cobo-Lewis, A. B., Dean, A., Rawlings, S., Sawyer, E., & Zollitsch, B. (2011). Maine's Quality for ME -- child care quality rating and improvement system (QRIS): Final evaluation report appendix. Portland, ME: Edmund S. Muskie School of Public Service.

Lahti, M., Elicker, J., Zellman, G. L., & Fiene, R. (2015). Approaches to validating child care quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS): Results from two states with similar QRIS type designs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 280-290.

Lahti, M., Sabol, T., Starr, R., Langill, C., & Tout, K. (2013). Validation of quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS): Examples from four states. (Research-to-Policy, Research-to-Practice Brief OPRE 2013-036). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation. 


Massachusetts

Schilder, D., Canada, D., Paulk, S., & Smith Leavell, A. (2012). Review of research on QRIS standards: Final report. Boston: Massachusetts, Department of Early Education and Care.

Schilder, D., Young, J., Anastasopolous, L., Kimura, S., & Rivera, B. (2011). Massachusetts' Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) Provisional Standards Study: Final report. Boston: Massachusetts, Department of Early Education and Care.

Schilder, D., Young, J., Kimura, S., & Silvi, C. (2010). Massachusetts' quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) pilot: Final evaluation report. Boston: Massachusetts, Department of Early Education and Care.


Michigan

Faria, A., Hawkinson, L. E., Greenberg, A., Howard, E., & Brown, L. (2015). Examining changes to Michigan's early childhood quality rating and improvement system (QRIS). (REL 2015-029). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest.


Minnesota

Chase, R. A., & Gilbertson, L. (2013). Keys to successfully implementing Early Learning Scholarships in combination with Parent Aware. St. Paul, MN: Wilder Research Center.

Child Trends. (2013). Provider perceptions of Parent Aware. Minneapolis, MN: Parent Aware for School Readiness.

Child Trends. (2014). Provider perceptions of Parent Aware. Minneapolis, MN: Parent Aware for School Readiness.

Gaylor, E., Spiker, D., Williamson, C., & Ferguson, K. (2011). Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program evaluation: Final evaluation report: 2008-2011. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Early Learning Foundation.

Isner, T. K., Albertson-Junkans, L., Quinn, K., Soli, M., Cleveland, J., & Tout, K. (2012). Getting Ready: Final evaluation report. Minneapolis, MN: Child Trends.

Isner, T. K., Blasberg, A., Tout, K., Carlin, C., Davis, E. E., & Forry, N. D. (2011). Minnesota Child Care Choices: Families' awareness and use of a pilot quality rating and improvement system. Minneapolis, MN: Child Trends.

Lahti, M., Sabol, T., Starr, R., Langill, C., & Tout, K. (2013). Validation of quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS): Examples from four states. (Research-to-Policy, Research-to-Practice Brief OPRE 2013-036). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation. 

Minnesota Early Learning Foundation. (2008). Evaluation of Parent Aware: Minnesota's quality rating system pilot: Year 1 evaluation report. St. Paul: Minnesota Early Learning Foundation.

Minnesota Early Learning Foundation. (2009). Evaluation of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program: Issue brief 2: Implementation in year 2. Saint Paul, MN: Minnesota Early Learning Foundation.

Minnesota Early Learning Foundation. (2009). Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program evaluation: Annual report. St. Paul: Minnesota Early Learning Foundation.

Minnesota Early Learning Foundation. (2010). Evaluation of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program: Issue brief 3: Summary of implementation (year 3). Saint Paul, MN: Minnesota Early Childhood Foundation.

Minnesota Early Learning Foundation. (2010). Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program evaluation: Annual report: Year 2. Saint Paul, MN: Minnesota Early Learning Foundation.

Minnesota Early Learning Foundation. (2011). Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program evaluation: Annual report: Year 3. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Early Learning Foundation.

Minnesota. Department of Human Services. (2015). The Parent Aware quality rating and improvement system: Increasing accessibility for families and early care and education programs. (DHS-7066-ENG). St. Paul: Minnesota, Department of Human Services.

Minnesota. Department of Human Services. (2015). Participation in Parent Aware Ratings across Minnesota. (DHS-7086-ENG). St. Paul: Minnesota, Department of Human Services.

Mitchell, A. W., & Stoney, L. (2009). Minnesota QRIS scaling options. St. Paul: Minnesota, Legislature, House of Representatives.

Tout, K., Cleveland, J., Friese, S., Sosinsky, L., Soli, M., & Hirilall, A. (2014). State expansion of Parent Aware: Year 2 annual report: Reporting period January-December 2013. Minneapolis, MN: Parent Aware for School Readiness.

Tout, K., Starr, R., Cleveland, J., Friese, S., Soli, M., & Albertson-Junkans, L. (2012). State expansion of Parent Aware: Year 1 implementation report. Minneapolis, MN: Parent Aware for School Readiness.

Tout, K., Starr, R., Isner, T. K., Cleveland, J., Albertson-Junkans, L., Soli, M., & Quinn, K. (2011). Evaluation of Parent Aware: Minnesota's quality rating and improvement system pilot: Final evaluation report. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Early Learning Foundation.

Tout, K., Starr, R., Isner, T. K., Cleveland, J., Soli, M., & Quinn, K. (2010). Evaluation of Parent Aware: Minnesota's quality rating and improvement system pilot: Year 2 evaluation report. Saint Paul, MN: Minnesota Early Learning Foundation.

Tout, K., Starr, R., Isner, T. K., Cleveland, J., Soli, M., & Quinn, K. (2010). Evaluation of Parent Aware: Minnesota's quality rating and improvement system pilot: Year 3. Saint Paul, MN: Minnesota Early Learning Foundation. 


Mississippi

De Marco, A., Yazejian, N., & Morgan, J. (2015). Evaluation of Mississippi child care Quality Stars program: Final report. Jackson: Mississippi, Division of Early Childhood Care & Development.

Fletcher, B. W., Billingsley, G., Fletcher, A., Lott, L., & Cannon, C. (2008). Mississippi child care quality impact study. Biloxi, MS: Mississippi Low-Income Child Care Initiative.


Missouri

Mid-America Regional Council. Metropolitan Council on Early Learning. (2005). Quality rating system: Preliminary findings: August 2005. Kansas City, MO: Mid-America Regional Council.

Thornburg, K. R., Mayfield, W. A., Hawks, J. S., & Fuger, K. (2009). The Missouri quality rating system school readiness study. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri--Columbia, Center for Family Policy and Research.


Nevada

Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy. (2010). Silver State Stars: Quality Rating Improvement System Pilot Project: Year one evaluation report. Las Vegas, NV: Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy.

Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy. (2011). Silver State Stars: Quality Rating Improvement System Pilot Project: Final evaluation report. Las Vegas, NV: Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy.

Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy. (2012). Silver State Stars: Quality Rating Improvement System Pilot Project: Year three final evaluation report. Las Vegas, NV: Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy.

Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy. (2013). Silver State Stars: Quality Rating Improvement System Project: Year 4 final evaluation report. Las Vegas, NV: Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy.

Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy. (n.d.). Silver State Stars: Quality rating improvement system project: Year five report. Las Vegas: Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy.


New Mexico

Krause, K. (2009). The cost of quality standards in the CYFD quality rating system. Santa Fe: New Mexico, Children, Youth, and Families Department.


New York

Ozdogru, A. A. (2012). QUALITYstarsNY Readiness Project evaluation report. Albany, NY: Early Care & Learning Council.

Peters, H., Bristow, B., Lim, Y., Skinner, P., Tallarico, B., McCoy, J., Meckler, D., & et al. (2005). Child care quality and consumer education: Final report: September 2000-September 2004. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

Stephens, S. A., Kreader, J., Smith, S., & McCabe, L. A. (2011). QUALITYstarsNY: Field test evaluation report. New York: New York City Early Childhood Professional Development Institute.

Widrick, R. M. (2012). QUALITYstarsNY Recruitment Project evaluation report. Albany, NY: Early Care & Learning Council.


North Carolina


Cassidy, D. J., Hestenes, L. L., Mims, S., & Hestenes, S. (2003). North Carolina Rated License Assessment Project: An executive summary 1999-2002. Greensboro, NC: University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Rated License Assessment Project.

Cassidy, D. J., Hestenes, S., Hestenes, L. L., & Mims, S. (2005). The North Carolina Rated License Assessment Project: Executive summary. Greensboro: University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Rated License Assessment Project.

Hatfield, B. E., Lower, J. K., Cassidy, D. J., & Faldowski, R. A. (2015). Inequities in access to quality early care and education: Associations with funding and community context. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 316-326.

Hestenes, L. L., Kintner-Duffy, V. L., Wang, Y., La Paro, K. M., Mims, S., Crosby, D. A., Scott-Little, C., & et al. (2015). Comparisons among quality measures in child care settings: Understanding the use of multiple measures in North Carolina's QRIS and their links to social-emotional development in preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 199-214.

Zellman, G. L., & Perlman, M. (2008). Child-care quality rating and improvement systems in five pioneer states: Implementation issues and lessons learned. (MG-795-AECF/SPF/UWA). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.


Ohio

Brandon, R. N., & Stutman, T. J. (2009). Potential improvements to Ohio?s Step Up to Quality program: Quality-based costs to providers, families, and funding agencies. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Human Services Policy Center.

Zellman, G. L., & Perlman, M. (2008). Child-care quality rating and improvement systems in five pioneer states: Implementation issues and lessons learned. (MG-795-AECF/SPF/UWA). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.


Oklahoma

Norris, D. J., & Dunn, L. (2004). "Reaching for the stars": Family child care home validation study: Final report. Norman, OK: Early Childhood Collaborative of Oklahoma.

Norris, D. J., Dunn, L., & Eckert, L. (2003). "Reaching for the stars": Center validation study final report. Norman, OK: Early Childhood Collaborative of Oklahoma.

Zellman, G. L., & Perlman, M. (2008). Child-care quality rating and improvement systems in five pioneer states: Implementation issues and lessons learned. (MG-795-AECF/SPF/UWA). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.


Oregon

Western Oregon University. Center on Early Learning. (2014). Data facts: Oregon's QRIS. Monmouth: Western Oregon University, Center on Early Learning.


Pennsylvania

Caronongan, P., Kirby, G., Malone, L., & Boller, K. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Defining and measuring quality: An in-depth study of five child care quality rating and improvement systems. (OPRE Report 2011-29). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Fiene, R. (2006). Evaluation of Keystone STARS quality rating system: Preliminary results. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania State University, Capital Area Health and Human Development Institute.

Kirby, G., Boller, K., & Zaveri, H. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Child care quality rating and improvement systems: Approaches to integrating programs for young children in two states. (OPRE Report 2011-28). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Kirby, G., Caronongan, P., Malone, L. M., & Boller, K. (2015). What do quality rating levels mean?: Examining the implementation of QRIS ratings to inform validation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 291-305.

Pennsylvania Early Learning Keys to Quality. (2011). Preschoolers in Keystone STAR 3 and 4 programs make impressive progress, ready for kindergarten. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Early Learning Keys to Quality.

Pennsylvania. Office of Child Development and Early Learning. (2008). Keystone STARS provider survey: 2008 report on results. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania, Office of Child Development and Early Learning.

Pennsylvania. Office of Child Development and Early Learning. (2011). Keystone STARS provider survey: 2010-2011 results. (Research Brief Issue 3). Harrisburg: Pennsylvania, Office of Child Development and Early Learning.

Pennsylvania. Office of Child Development and Early Learning. (2011). Keystone STARS technical assistance. (Research Brief Issue 4, Rev. ed.). Harrisburg: Pennsylvania, Office of Child Development and Early Learning.

Pennsylvania. Office of Child Development and Early Learning. (2012). Children's progress update: Keystone STAR 3 and 4 programs, 2011-2012. (Research Brief Issue 8). Harrisburg: Pennsylvania, Office of Child Development and Early Learning.

Pennsylvania. Office of Child Development and Early Learning. (2012). Keystone STARS designator reliability. (Research Brief Issue 5). Harrisburg: Pennsylvania, Office of Child Development and Early Learning.

Pennsylvania. Office of Child Development and Early Learning. (2013). Assessing quality across all STAR levels. (Research Brief Vol. 2, Issue 1). Harrisburg: Pennsylvania, Office of Child Development and Early Learning.

Pennsylvania. Office of Child Development and Early Learning. (2013). Keystone STARS technical assistance. (Research Brief Vol. 2, Issue 2). Harrisburg: Pennsylvania, Office of Child Development and Early Learning.

Pennsylvania. Office of Child Development and Early Learning. Research and Evaluation Unit. (2010). Demonstrating quality: Pennsylvania Keystone STARS 2010 program report. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania, Office of Child Development and Early Learning.

Pennsylvania Pre-K Counts. (2010). June 2010: Keystone STARS: Building a better, brighter future for Pennsylvania. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Pre-K Counts.

Sirinides, P., Fantuzzo, J. W., LeBoeuf, W., Barghaus, K. M., & Fink, R. (2015). An inquiry into Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS: Research report. Philadelphia: Consortium for Policy Research in Education.

University of Pittsburgh. School of Education. Office of Child Development. (2006). Evaluation of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS Quality Rating System in child care settings. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, School of Education, Office of Child Development.

Zellman, G. L., & Perlman, M. (2008). Child-care quality rating and improvement systems in five pioneer states: Implementation issues and lessons learned. (MG-795-AECF/SPF/UWA). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.


Rhode Island

Maxwell, K. (2008). Pilot test of the draft Rhode Island BrightStars child care center and preschool framework. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Kids Count.

Maxwell, K. (2009). Pilot test of the draft Rhode Island BrightStars family child care framework. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Kids Count.

Maxwell, K. (2010). Pilot test of the draft Rhode Island BrightStars school age child care (K-5) framework. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Kids Count.

Mitchell, A. W. (2013). The cost of quality early learning in Rhode Island: Interim report. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Early Learning Council.

National Association for Regulatory Administration. (2008). Recommendations to strengthen Rhode Island's child care licensing regulations and compliance procedures to support a strong program quality rating system. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Kids Count.


Tennessee

Caronongan, P., Kirby, G., Malone, L., & Boller, K. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Defining and measuring quality: An in-depth study of five child care quality rating and improvement systems. (OPRE Report 2011-29). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Cheatham, J., Pope, B., & Myers, G. (2005). Evaluating quality in state child care licensing: The Tennessee Report Card and Star-Quality Child Care Program. Nashville: Tennessee, Department of Human Services.

Cunningham, M., & Magda, J. (2012). Tennessee Report Card & Star Quality Program: Year 10 annual report. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Social Work Office of Research and Public Service.

Denny, J., Hallam, R. A., & Homer, K. (2012). A multi-instrument examination of preschool classroom quality and the relationship between program, classroom, and teacher characteristics. Early Education and Development, 23(5), 678-696.

Hallam, R. A., Bargreen, K., & Ridgley, R. (2013). Quality in family child care settings: The relationship between provider educational experiences and global quality scores in a statewide quality rating and improvement system. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 27(4), 393-406.

Kirby, G., Caronongan, P., Malone, L. M., & Boller, K. (2015). What do quality rating levels mean?: Examining the implementation of QRIS ratings to inform validation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 291-305.

Malone, L., Kirby, G., Caronongan, P., Tout, K., & Boller, K. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Measuring quality across three child care quality rating and improvement systems: Findings from secondary analyses. (OPRE Report 2011-30). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Moore, R., & Norman-Gordon, N. (2007). Evaluating child care: Tennessee's Star-Quality Program. Nashville: Tennessee, Offices of Research and Education Accountability.

Pope, B., Denny, J., Homer, K., & Ricci, K. (2006). What is working? What is not working?: Report on the qualitative study of the Tennessee report card and Star-Quality program and support system. Nashville: Tennessee, Department of Human Services.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Social Work Office of Research and Public Service. (2004). Who cares for Tennessee's children?: A review of Tennessee's Child Care Evaluation Report Card Program. Nashville: Tennessee, Department of Human Services.


Vermont

Learning Partners, Inc.. (2007). Quarterly progress report: April - July 2007. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.

Learning Partners, Inc.. (2007). Summary report of STARS application and participation: December 2007. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.
 
Learning Partners, Inc.. (2008). Summary report of STARS application and participation: June 2008. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.

Learning Partners, Inc.. (2008). Summary report of STARS application and participation: September 2008. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.

Learning Partners, Inc.. (2009). Summary report of STARS application and participation: January 2009. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.

Learning Partners, Inc.. (2009). Summary report of STARS application and participation: July 2009. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.

Learning Partners, Inc.. (2010). Summary report of STARS participation: January, 2010. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.

Mary Johnson Children's Center. STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS). (2012). STARS annual report: July 1, 2011 through June 30, 2012. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.

Mary Johnson Children's Center. STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS). (2012). STARS quarterly report Oct.-Dec. 2011. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.

Mary Johnson Children's Center. STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS). (n.d.). STARS annual report for FY 2013. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.

Mary Johnson Children's Center. STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS). (n.d.). STARS quarterly report: January 6, 2011. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.

Mary Johnson Children's Center. STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS). (n.d.). Summary report of STARS participation: July 1, 2010- September 30, 2010. Waterbury: Vermont, Department for Children and Families.


Virginia

Bradburn, I., Dunkenberger, M., White, N. J., & Allen, E. (2011). Virginia Star Quality Initiative family child care home demonstration pilot evaluation report. Richmond, VA: Virginia Early Childhood Foundation.

Lahti, M., Sabol, T., Starr, R., Langill, C., & Tout, K. (2013). Validation of quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS): Examples from four states. (Research-to-Policy, Research-to-Practice Brief OPRE 2013-036). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation. 

Sabol, T. J., & Pianta, R. C. (2015). Validating Virginia's quality rating and improvement system among state-funded pre-kindergarten programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 183-198.


Washington


Boller, K., Blair, R., Del Grosso, P., & Paulsell, D. (2010). Better beginnings: The Seeds to Success Modified Field Test: Impact evaluation findings. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.

Boller, K., Del Grosso, P., Blair, R., Jolly, Y., Fortson, K., Paulsell, D., Lundquist, E., & et al. (2010). The Seeds to Success Modified Field Test: Findings from the impact and implementation studies. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.

Boller, K., Paulsell, D., Del Grosso, P., Blair, R., Lundquist, E., Kassow, D. Z., Kim, R., & et al. (2015). Impacts of a child care quality rating and improvement system on child care quality. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 306-315.

Joseph, G. E., Feldman, E. N., Brennan, C., & Cerros, C. (2010). Seeds to Success modified field test year two preliminary descriptive report. Olympia: Washington State, Department of Early Learning.

Joseph, G. E., Feldman, E. N., Brennan, C., Naslund, R., Phillips, J., & Petras, A. (2011). Seeds to Success field test year two: Final technical report. Olympia: Washington State, Department of Early Learning.

Mitchell, A. W. (2013). Modeling the cost of quality in Early Achievers centers and family child care. Olympia: Washington State, Department of Early Learning.

Washington (State). Department of Early Learning. (2013). Head Start, ECEAP & Early Achievers: Pilot project report and reciprocity plan. Olympia: Washington State, Department of Early Learning.


West Virginia

Kent, C., Price, J., Curry, J. A., & Sowards, K. (2011). Quality rating and improvement system: Cost implementation study. Huntington, WV: Marshall University, Center for Business and Economic Research.


Wisconsin

Grunewald, R., & Bezruki, D. (2012). The economic power of early childhood education in Wisconsin. (WPRI Report Vol. 25, No. 2). Hartland, WI: Wisconsin Policy Research Institute.

Magnuson, K. A., & Lin, Y. (2015). Validation of the QRIS YoungStar Rating Scale. Madison: Wisconsin, Department of Children and Families.

Peterangelo, J., Carlson, V., & Henken, R. E. (2014). Reaching for the stars: Examining YoungStar and its effect on the quality of Milwaukee County's afterschool workforce. Milwaukee, WI: Public Policy Forum.

Peterangelo, J., & Dickman, A. M. (2013). After two years of YoungStar, a more complete picture emerges. (Research Brief Vol. 101, No. 2). Milwaukee, WI: Public Policy Forum.

Peterangelo, J., Dickman, A. M., & Henken, R. E. (2012). YoungStar at one year: An analysis of child care quality in Milwaukee County. Milwaukee, WI: Public Policy Forum.

Public Policy Forum. (2011). Milwaukee County child care providers appear ready for YoungStar: Local providers compare favorably to state as a whole. (Research Brief Vol. 99, No. 4). Milwaukee, WI: Public Policy Forum.

Roach, M. A., & Wisconsin Child Care Improvement Project. (2007). Mapping child care quality: Wisconsin's "Grow in Quality" project: Final report. Madison: Wisconsin, Department of Workforce Development.

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (2011). YoungStar in Milwaukee County: An initial progress report as of July 2011. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Council on Children and Families.

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (2011). YoungStar in Wisconsin: An initial progress report as of July 2011. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Council on Children and Families.

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (2013). YoungStar in Wisconsin: Analysis of data as of July 2013. (YoungStar Progress Report No. 4). Madison, WI: Wisconsin Council on Children and Families.

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (2014). YoungStar in Wisconsin: Analysis of data as of July 2014. (YoungStar Progress Report No. 5). Madison, WI: Wisconsin Council on Children and Families.

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (n.d.). YoungStar in Wisconsin: Analysis of data as of January 2012. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Council on Children and Families

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (n.d.). YoungStar in Wisconsin: Analysis of data as of July 2012. (YoungStar Progress Report No. 3). Madison, WI: Wisconsin Council on Children and Families.

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (n.d.). YoungStar trends early 2012 to Feb. 2013: Movement toward higher quality ratings. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Council on Children and Families.

Wolfe, D. (2012). Milwaukee YoungStar survey shows a mixture of optimism and anxiety. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Council on Children and Families.


Multistate/Not Specified

Caronongan, P., Kirby, G., Malone, L., & Boller, K. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Defining and measuring quality: An in-depth study of five child care quality rating and improvement systems. (OPRE Report 2011-29). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.


Isner, T. K., Tout, K., Zaslow, M., Soli, M., Quinn, K., Rothenberg, L., & Burkhauser, M. (2011). Coaching in early care and education programs and quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS): Identifying promising features. Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Jeon, L., & Buettner, C. K. (2015). Quality rating and improvement systems and children's cognitive development. Child & Youth Care Forum, 44(2), 191-207.

Jeon, L., Buettner, C. K., & Hur, E. (2014). Examining pre-school classroom quality in a statewide quality rating and improvement system. Child & Youth Care Forum, 43(4), 469-487.

Karoly, L. A. (2014). Validation studies for early learning and care quality rating and improvement systems: A review of the literature. (WR-1051-DOEL). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Kirby, G., Boller, K., & Zaveri, H. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Child care quality rating and improvement systems: Approaches to integrating programs for young children in two states. (OPRE Report 2011-28). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Kirby, G., Caronongan, P., Malone, L. M., & Boller, K. (2015). What do quality rating levels mean?: Examining the implementation of QRIS ratings to inform validation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 291-305.

Lahti, M., Elicker, J., Zellman, G. L., & Fiene, R. (2015). Approaches to validating child care quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS): Results from two states with similar QRIS type designs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(1), 280-290.

Lahti, M., Sabol, T., Starr, R., Langill, C., & Tout, K. (2013). Validation of quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS): Examples from four states. (Research-to-Policy, Research-to-Practice Brief OPRE 2013-036). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Malone, L., Kirby, G., Caronongan, P., Tout, K., & Boller, K. (2011). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Measuring quality across three child care quality rating and improvement systems: Findings from secondary analyses. (OPRE Report 2011-30). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Smith, S., Robbins, T., Schneider, W., Kreader, J., & Ong, C. (2012). Coaching and quality assistance in quality rating improvement systems: Approaches used by TA providers to improve quality in early care and education programs and home-based settings. New York: Columbia University, National Center for Children in Poverty.

Smith, S., Schneider, W., & Kreader, J. (2010). Features of professional development and on-site assistance in child care quality rating improvement systems: A survey of state-wide systems. New York: Columbia University, National Center for Children in Poverty.

Tout, K., Chien, N., Rothenberg, L. & Li, W. (2014). Implications of QRIS design for the distribution of program ratings and linkages between ratings and observed quality. (OPRE Research Brief No. 2014-33). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

United States. Administration for Children and Families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation. (2010). The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment: Compendium of quality rating systems and evaluations. Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Zellman, G. L., & Perlman, M. (2008). Child-care quality rating and improvement systems in five pioneer states: Implementation issues and lessons learned. (MG-795-AECF/SPF/UWA). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.


Prepared by: Daniel Ferguson
Last updated: January 2016

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