Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2014) [United States] (ICPSR 36643)

Alternate Title:  FACES 2014

Principal Investigator(s):


NOTE: The 2014 Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2014) data and User Guide will be released in summer 2017. This listing has been created in anticipation of that release in order to provide users information about the study and the data training workshop being held July 24-25, 2017.

The 2014 Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, or FACES 2014, is the sixth in a series of national studies of Head Start, with earlier studies conducted in 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. It includes nationally representative samples of Head Start programs and centers, classrooms, children and their families. Data from surveys of Head Start program and center directors, classroom teachers, and parents provide descriptive information about program policies and practices, classroom activities, and the background and experiences of Head Start staff and families. Classroom observations are used to assess the quality of Head Start classrooms. Children in the study participate in a direct assessment that provides a rich picture of their school readiness skills at different time points.

FACES 2014 uses a new study design that differs from earlier rounds of FACES in several important ways: (1) it includes larger program and classroom samples, (2) all data are collected in a single program year, (3) the baseline sample of children includes both children enrolled in their first and second year of Head Start, and (4) several special studies are conducted along with the main or Core study to collect more detailed information about a given topic, to study new populations of Head Start programs and participants, and to evaluate measures for possible use in future rounds of FACES. For example, the Family Engagement Plus study collected information from parents and staff (teachers and family services staff) on family engagement efforts and service provision in Head Start programs.

The Office of Head Start, the Administration for Children and Families, other federal agencies, local programs, and the public have depended on FACES for valid and reliable national information on (1) the skills and abilities of Head Start children, (2) how Head Start children's skills and abilities compare with preschool children nationally, (3) Head Start children's readiness for and subsequent performance in kindergarten, and (4) the characteristics of the children's home and classroom environments. The FACES study is designed to enable researchers to answer a wide range of research questions that are crucial for aiding program managers and policymakers. Some of the questions that are central to FACES include:

  1. What are the demographic characteristics of the population of children and families served by Head Start? How has the population served by Head Start changed?
  2. What are the experiences of families and children in the Head Start program? How have they changed?
  3. What are the cognitive and social skills of Head Start children at the beginning and end of the program year?
  4. Has Head Start program performance improved over time?
  5. What are the qualifications of Head Start teachers in terms of education, experience, and credentials? Are average teacher education levels rising in Head Start?
  6. What is the observed quality of Head Start classrooms as early learning environments, including the level and range of teaching and interactions, provisions for learning, emotional and instructional support, and classroom organization? How has quality changed over time? What program- and classroom-level factors are related to observed classroom quality? How is observed quality related to children's outcomes and developmental gains?

The User Guide provides detailed information about the FACES 2014 study design, execution, and data to inform and assist researchers who may be interested in using the data for future analyses. The following items are provided in the User Guide as appendices.

  • Appendix A - Elements Of The FACES Design And Key Measures Used (And Child Outcomes Captured): FACES 1997 - FACES 2014
  • Appendix B - Copyright Permissions
  • Appendix C - Instrument Content Matrices
  • Appendix D - Instruments
  • Appendix E - Center/Program Codebook
  • Appendix F - Classroom/Teacher Codebook
  • Appendix G - Child Codebook
  • Appendix H - Family Engagement Family Service Staff Interview Codebook
  • Appendix I - Family Engagement Parent Interview Codebook
  • Appendix J - Description of Constructed/Derived Variables

Series: Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) Series

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

  • Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

    This study is provided by Child Care & Early Education Research Connections.


United States Department of Health and Human Services. , Administration for Children and Families., and Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation. Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2014) [United States]. ICPSR36643-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2017-04-14. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36643.v1

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DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  Core: Center/Program Data
No downloadable data files available.
DS2:  Core: Classroom/Teacher Data
No downloadable data files available.
DS3:  Core: Child Data
No downloadable data files available.
DS4:  Family Engagement: Family Services Staff (FSS) Data
No downloadable data files available.
DS5:  Family Engagement: Parent Data
No downloadable data files available.

Study Description


This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (HHSP23320095642WC/HHSP23337052T)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   child care, child development, child health, child nutrition, child rearing, children, curriculum, early childhood education, families, Head Start, parenting skills, parents, programs, school readiness

Smallest Geographic Unit:   Census Region

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 2014--2015

Date of Collection:  

  • 2014
  • 2015

Unit of Observation:   Head Start children (and their families), Head Start program, Head Start center, Head Start classroom/teacher, Head Start family service staff

Universe:   The Head Start programs participating in FACES 2014 were a probability sample selected from among 2,900 study-eligible programs on the 2012-2013 Head Start Program Information Report (PIR). To be eligible for the study, a program had to be in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia, be providing services directly to children ages 3 to 5, and not be in imminent danger of losing its grantee status. Furthermore, programs under the Migrant and Seasonal Worker program or American Indian and Alaska Native program were not eligible. Probability samples of centers were selected within each program, classrooms within each center, and children within each classroom. Teachers associated with selected classrooms were included in the study with certainty, as were parents associated with selected children. Family service staff in the 60 programs with child-level data collection were selected for the family engagement study. See Chapter II of the User's Manual for more information on the FACES 2014 samples.

Data Types:   observational data, survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The 2014 Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2014) data and User Guide will be released in summer 2017. This listing has been created in anticipation of that release in order to provide users information about the study and the data training workshop being held July 24-25, 2017.

Project Officers:

The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey would like to acknowledge Maria Woolverton and Mary Mueggenborg's roles as the ACF Project Officers.


Juárez and Associates, Inc. assisted in collecting data for FACES 2014. Psychometric support was provided by Educational Testing Service.


Margaret Burchinal and Martha Zaslow.

Additional Resources:

Reports based on this data collection are available at the Administration for Children and Families web site.


Sample:   The sample is a multi-stage sample, with the first two of four stages (programs and centers) being selected with probability proportion to size (based on number of classrooms). Classrooms (stage three) and children (stage four) were sampled with equal probability. A total of 180 programs were selected, 60 of which included child-level data collection. In all 180 programs, an average of two centers and two classrooms in each center were selected. Within the 60 programs with child-level data collection, approximately 12 children were selected in each classroom to yield 10 participating children. Additional sampling was done to support the family engagement study. A description of the sample designs for the Core data collection and the family engagement study is found in Chapter II of the User's Manual.

Time Method:   Longitudinal

Weight:   The FACES 2014 data include a set of sampling weights to account for variations in the probabilities of selection as well as eligibility and cooperation rates among those selected. Consult Chapter VI of the User's Manual for a more in-depth explanation of the weights, the weighting procedure, and the specific formulas used for each of the weights. Chapter VI also providers guidance on the appropriate weight to use for different analyses.

Mode of Data Collection:   computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI), coded on-site observation, cognitive assessment test, mail questionnaire, paper and pencil interview (PAPI), web-based survey

Response Rates:   In the FACES 2014 study, there were high participation rates at each level and each time point of data collection with a few exceptions. Ninety-percent of programs selected agreed to participate. In fall 2014, 90 percent of the sampled programs with child-level data collection participated in the study and parent consents were received for 93 percent of the children who were sampled. Cooperation rates for the child assessments and teacher child reports were 95 and 98 percent, respectively. Cooperation rates for spring 2015 were 95 and 96 percent for the same instruments. More than 90 percent of teachers, center and program directors completed surveys in spring 2015. Core parent survey completion rates were lower than expected for a given wave, but 85 percent of children selected in the fall had at least one parent survey. For the family engagement study, there was a target goal of a certain number of completed parent and family service staff interviews. The response rate was 80 percent for family service staff interview but lower for parents. A nonresponse bias analyses, which examined a range of variables, found few significant differences between respondents and non-respondents, and those differences were generally resolved with nonresponse adjustments to the sampling weights. Please consult Chapter IV of the User's Manual for more details.

Presence of Common Scales:  

  • Preschool Language Assessment Survey (preLAS 2000): Simon Says and Art Show
  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition [PPVT-4]
  • Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (EOWPVT or EOWPVT-Spanish-Bilingual Edition)
  • Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test - Fourth Edition (Spanish-Bilingual Edition)
  • Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement-Third Edition/Batería III Woodcock-Muñoz (Spelling, Letter-Word Identification, Applied Problems)
  • ECLS-B Letter Sounds
  • ECLS mathematics assessment
  • Pencil Tapping Task
  • Leiter International Performance Scale Revised (Leiter-R) Examiner Rating Scale
  • Selected items from the Personal Maturity Scale, Social Skills Rating System and Behavior Problems Index
  • ECLS-K Approaches to Learning
  • Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R)
  • Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS)
  • Short (12-item) form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D)
  • Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Questionnaire
  • Strengths-Based Practices Inventory (SBPI)

See Chapter III in the User's Manual for a complete listing of the measures/scales used.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Restrictions: This data collection may not be used for any purpose other than statistical reporting and analysis. Use of these data to learn the identity of any person or establishment is prohibited. To protect respondent privacy, the FACES 2014 Cohort data are restricted from general dissemination. Access to parts of this study requires a signed User Agreement. To obtain the file(s), researchers must agree to the terms and conditions of the Restricted Data Use Agreement, which is included with every download and can also be obtained separately on the Browse Documentation page.


Original ICPSR Release:  


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