Related Resource of study 35003

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Result Resource Type Publication Date

Impacts of early childhood education on medium- and long-term educational outcomes

Despite calls to expand early childhood education (ECE) in the United States, questions remain regarding its medium- and long-term impacts on educational outcomes. We use meta-analysis of 22 high-quality experimental and quasi-experimental studies conducted between 1960 and 2016 to find that on average, participation in ECE leads to statistically significant reductions in special education placement (d = 0.33 SD, 8.1 percentage points) and grade retention (d = 0.26 SD, 8.3 percentage points) and increases in high school graduation rates (d = 0.24 SD, 11.4 percentage points). These results support ECE's utility for reducing education-related expenditures and promoting child well-being. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

November, 2017

Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) bibliography

This bibliography lists resources in the Research Connections collection related to the Head Start Impact Study and is intended as a reference tool for researchers and policymakers. It is divided into sections for data sets and guides; official reports; studies using HSIS data; summaries, analyses, and commentaries; and instruments. Within each section resources are listed alphabetically by author and then by year and title. (author abstract)

Bibliographies

November, 2017

Multigenerational Head Start participation: An unexpected marker of progress

One-quarter of the Head Start population has a mother who participated in the program as a child. This study uses experimental Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) data on 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 2,849) to describe multigenerational Head Start families and their program experiences. In sharp contrast to full-sample HSIS findings, Head Start has large, positive impacts on cognitive and socioemotional development through third grade among the children of former participant mothers, including improved mathematics skills and reductions in withdrawn and aggressive behavior. Evidence suggests that differences in program impacts between single- and multigenerational Head Start families are driven largely by differences in family resources and home learning environments. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January/February 2018

Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) bibliography

This bibliography lists resources in the Research Connections collection related to the Head Start Impact Study and is intended as a reference tool for researchers and policymakers. It is divided into sections for data sets; official reports; studies using HSIS data; summaries, analyses, and commentaries; and instruments. Within each section resources are listed alphabetically by author and then by year and title. (author abstract)

Bibliographies

November, 2014

Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) Spring 2007/2008 Principal Interview Third Grade

Instruments

Spring 2007

Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) Spring 2007/2008 Teacher's Child Report Third Grade

Instruments

Spring 2007

Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) Spring 2007/2008 Teacher Survey Third Grade

Instruments

Spring 2007

Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) Spring 2007/2008 Parent Interview Third Grade

Instruments

Spring 2007

The role of program quality in determining Head Start's impact on child development

The Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) has shown that having access to Head Start improves children's preschool experiences and school readiness in certain areas, though few of those advantages persisting through third grade (Puma et al., 2012). Scholars and practitioners alike have wondered whether impacts might be larger or more persistent for children who participate in high quality Head Start as opposed to lower quality Head Start. In response, this report examines the vital policy question: To what extent does variation in the quality of children's Head Start experiences affect children's development? The HSIS experimental evaluation, which involved a nationally representative sample and included rich data at baseline, about programs and across several years of follow-up, provides an ideal source for analyzing the answer to this question. Further informed by experts in the field, this report uses measures of quality based on the ECERS, Arnett, and teacher reports to capture three distinct dimensions of the Head Start setting: (1) "resources," which are the physical characteristics available in the program; (2) the "interactions" between teacher and child; and (3) children's "exposure" to academic activities in the classroom. Slightly less than three-fourths of the Head Start children in the study were in high quality classrooms for the resources and interactions quality measures, while on the exposure to academic activities measure, about one-fourth of the Head Start children were in high quality classrooms. Prior research posits that richer resources and more favorable interactions should be associated with better cognitive and social outcomes. The relationship of exposure to academic activities among children of this age is less clear, with some reason to think that too much such exposure may not necessarily benefit children. We find little evidence that quality matters to impacts of Head Start using the available quality measures from the study across two age cohorts, three quality dimensions, five outcomes, and several years. The one exception is that for 3-year-old program entrants low exposure quality, defined as less exposure to academic activities during Head Start participation, produces better behavioral impacts in the short-run than more exposure to academic activities. Even so, there is no indication that either high quality Head Start or low quality Head Start in any dimension leads to program impacts lasting into third grade. The analysis of quality makes use of the HSIS experimental evaluation design to capitalize on the fact that children were randomized into treatment and control groups, allowing any predicted quality subgroup of the treatment group to be matched to its counterpart in the control group. The analytic approach we take eliminates plausible rival explanations for observed impacts, an approach we advocate for future research that is otherwise challenged by potential selection bias on post-random assignment mediating factors, such as quality. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

March, 2014