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A cross-lagged analysis of teacher-child language interactions and receptive vocabulary of non-ELL and ELL children

The present study investigated whether the bidirectional cross-lagged paths between teacher-child language interactions and receptive vocabulary would be significantly different between English language learner (ELL) and non-ELL children. The FACES 2009 cohort was used to address the research goals. Cross-lagged analysis was conducted with the individual paths tested to compare across three groups of children: non-ELLs, ELLs with limited English proficiency, and ELLs with English proficiency. Results showed that Time 1 teacher-child language interactions significantly predicted Time 2 receptive vocabulary, but not vice versa. When equality constraints were placed on the specific paths, differences and similarities were found among the three groups of children. Future research directions and study implications are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2017

Head Start children's developmental progress and kindergarten experiences

This brief focuses on Head Start children's developmental progress and kindergarten experiences, drawing on data from the 2009 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2009). In a related report, we explore in depth the home and classroom supports available to children in kindergarten (Malone et al. 2017). Measuring children's outcomes and experiences throughout the program and following up at the end of kindergarten yields a deeper understanding of Head Start's efforts to prepare children for the school experience, and provides context for where children go after they leave Head Start. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2017

A portrait of Head Start programs: Findings from FACES 2009

This report is part of a series of reports describing data from the 2009 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2009). Other FACES 2009 reports and data tables address the characteristics of Head Start children, their families, classrooms, and programs at program entry (Hulsey et al. 2011), during their first year in the program (Moiduddin et al. 2012), and child outcomes from program entry through program exit (Aikens et al. 2013). Another report focuses on describing aspects of the Head Start family and classroom environment that may support children's development (Malone et al. 2017), and a brief explores children's developmental progress and kindergarten environments in more depth (Aikens et al. 2017).The current report provides a portrait of Head Start programs, including characteristics of programs and management staff, supports provided to staff at all levels, and program services. An accompanying table set (Kopack Klein et al. 2017) provides additional detail on the findings in this report. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2017

Head Start family and classroom supports for kindergarten achievement: FACES 2009 report

This report focuses on describing aspects of Head Start children's family and classroom environments that may support children's kindergarten achievement, drawing on data from the 2009 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2009). Other FACES 2009 reports describe the characteristics of children and their families, classrooms, and programs as children entered Head Start in fall 2009 (Hulsey et al. 2011) and during their first year in the program (Moiduddin et al. 2012) and child outcomes from program entry through program exit (Aikens et al. 2013). Another report takes a closer look at Head Start programs (Moiduddin et al. 2017). The current report extends the portrait of children, their family lives, and their classroom experiences to the spring of kindergarten. A related brief explores children's developmental progress and kindergarten environments in more depth (Aikens et al. 2017). This report focuses on the population of children who entered Head Start for the first time in fall 2009, completed one or two years of the program, and were attending kindergarten in spring 2011 or 2012. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2017

The classroom language context and English and Spanish vocabulary development among dual language learners attending Head Start

Using a nationally representative sample of dual language learners (DLLs) attending Head Start, this study investigated how the language used for instruction and the proportion of DLLs in the class was associated with English and Spanish receptive vocabulary development between the fall and spring (n = 531). Based on teacher report of the language or languages used for instructional activities in the classroom, teachers were categorized as using (1) English only, (2) a mix of English and Spanish, or (3) mostly Spanish. Three-level hierarchical linear models showed that children in classrooms using a mix of English and Spanish had English vocabulary scores that were no different than children in English-only classrooms. Children in mostly Spanish classrooms, however, had significantly lower spring English scores than children in English-only classrooms. In addition, children in English-only classrooms had significantly lower Spanish vocabulary scores than children in the other two categories of classrooms, which did not differ from each other. The higher the proportion of DLLs in a class the lower were spring English scores, but not Spanish vocabulary scores. Findings suggest that using bilingual instruction, and sharing classrooms with English-dominant peers can promote English vocabulary development without a cost to Spanish vocabulary development. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q1 2018

Spanish instruction in Head Start and dual language learners' achievement

The purpose of the current study is to determine whether Spanish language instruction is associated with school readiness skills for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLL children. It examines the relationship between Spanish instruction used by caregivers in Head Start settings and DLL children's subsequent English language academic achievement, as this may prove essential for their kindergarten readiness. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

March, 2016

Associations of home and classroom environments with Head Start children's code-related and oral language skills

This study used data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2009 4-year-old cohort to examine associations among family characteristics, home and classroom environments, and the emergent literacy skills of Head Start children. Results from hierarchical linear models suggest that both family and classroom contexts play a unique and interactive role in supporting Head Start children's development of different sets of emergent literacy skills. Parental warmth was positively related to children's oral language skills (i.e., receptive and expressive vocabulary knowledge), and teachers' educational level and the quality of instructional support in the classroom were significantly associated with children's code-related skills (i.e., letter-name and letter-sound knowledge). Further, high-quality instructional support in the classroom buffered the negative influence of low maternal education on children's oral language skills. Interventions focusing on enhancing the quality of parent-child interactions, in addition to professional development for teachers designed to improve the quality of instructional support, may contribute to promoting the development of emergent literacy skills of young children from low-income families. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2017

More than words: The relations between teacher-child interactions, classroom context, and Latino DLLs' school readiness

Increasingly, studies have shown that early childhood education programs are an effective way to promote young children's school readiness and long-term outcomes. However, there is still debate in the field about what constitutes a high-quality preschool experience for DLLs to foster their optimal positive development. To better serve DLLs, research needs to focus on how having access to two languages uniquely affects their learning. This dissertation examined the relations between teacher-child interactions, a consistently cited feature of high-quality preschools, characteristics of classroom context, and DLLs' school readiness skills. The three studies in this dissertation used multiple methods but all focused on low-income Latino DLLs. Study 1 utilized the latest Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), a secondary data set representing the population of children who entered Head Start in the U.S. for the first time in fall 2009. In Study 2 and 3, data were taken from a local Head Start program that consisted of 11 classrooms where more information was collected on DLLs' initial English and Spanish skills and teacher language ideologies.The first set of findings discussed the positive associations between teachers' speaking Spanish and students' socio-emotional skills but not language outcomes. The second set of findings show how higher concentrations of DLLs were linked to lower language and socio-emotional outcomes. Implications for preschool programs and teacher professional development are discussed as well as potential directions for future research. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2016

Developmental associations between bilingual experience and inhibitory control trajectories in Head Start children

Children from lower socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds tend to be at-risk for executive function (EF) impairments by the time they are in preschool, placing them at an early disadvantage for academic success. The present study examined the potentially protective role of bilingual experience on the development of inhibitory control (IC) in 1146 Head Start preschoolers who were followed for an 18-month period during the transition to kindergarten as part of the longitudinal Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2009 study. Using three waves of data, we predicted individual variation in developmental trajectories of IC for three groups that differed in bilingual experience--English monolinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals, and a group of children who transitioned from being Spanish monolingual to Spanish-English bilinguals during the course of the study. Compared to their English monolingual peers, bilingual children from Spanish-speaking homes showed higher IC performance at Head Start entry, as well as steeper IC growth over time. Children who were Spanish monolingual at the beginning of Head Start showed the lowest IC performance at baseline. However, their rate of IC growth exceeded that of children who remained English monolingual and did not differ from that of their peers who entered Head Start being bilingual. These results suggest that acquiring bilingualism and continued bilingual experience are associated with more rapid IC development during the transition from preschool to kindergarten in children from lower SES backgrounds. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2017

The sleeping patterns of Head Start children and the influence on developmental outcomes

Background: Sleep has a significant influence on children's development. The objective of this study was to investigate Head Start children's sleeping patterns and the impact on cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Methods: Using the 2009 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (N = 2,868), information on sleeping patterns was assessed through parent interviews. Cognitive outcomes were assessed using direct assessments (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IV, the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, and Subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III) in addition to teacher report. Behavioural outcomes were assessed through parent and teacher reports. A multiple regression analysis was performed for each outcome variable. Results: Descriptive findings showed that 89% of children had a regular bedtime at least 4 days per week and that the average amount of sleep per night was 10.41 hr. White mothers were more likely than other racial groups to adhere to a consistent bedtime, and maternal employment predicted less hour of sleep per night. Multiple regression analyses revealed that disrupted sleep had a negative influence on cognitive outcomes, especially in areas of mathematical problem solving, receptive language, teacher-reported literacy behaviours, and approaches to learning. Disrupted sleep was associated with the risk of misbehaviour by increasing teacher and parent ratings on aggressive behaviours, hyperactivity, and withdrawing in addition to decreased scores on overall social skills. Having an inconsistent bedtime negatively predicted expressive vocabulary and teacher-reported literacy behaviours. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the influential role of sleep on children's development. Sleeping through the night and having a consistent bedtime were found to be predictive of many areas of cognitive and behavioural development. Head Start staff can provide the supports to increase parental knowledge on appropriate child sleep practices. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2017

Dual language learning, inhibitory control, and math achievement in Head Start and kindergarten

This study examined whether developmental patterns of inhibitory control (IC) and kindergarten math achievement differed among Head Start children with varying dual language learning status. This study further explored the potential mediation effects of IC development as an explanation of differences in kindergarten math skills across children with varying dual language learning status. Based on their English skills and home language use, children' dual language learning status was categorized into (1) Spanish-English bilingual children, (2) Spanish-English dual language learners with limited English skills (DLLs-LES), and (3) English-monolingual children. Analyses were conducted using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2009 Cohort. Results showed that bilingual children presented greater IC at Head Start entry than DLLs-LES and faster growth in IC through kindergarten (1.5 years) than English-monolingual children. Bilingual children also outperformed monolingual children and DLLs-LES in math at kindergarten, despite the fact that they had lower baseline math skills than monolingual children. DLLs-LES, on average, presented the lowest IC skills and math skills through kindergarten. DLLs-LES, however, presented faster growth in IC than English-monolingual children through kindergarten. The achievement gaps in math among the three groups were explained by relative differences in IC development among the groups. The current study with low-income preschoolers supported emerging literature suggesting the benefits of bilingualism for cognitive skills and learning. Study implications are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q1 2018

Spanish instruction in Head Start and dual language learners' academic achievement

Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 1141) and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, 2009 Cohort (N = 825) were used to investigate whether Spanish instruction in Head Start differentially increased Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners' (DLLs) academic achievement. Although hypothesized that Spanish instruction would be beneficial for DLLs' early literacy and math skills, results from residualized growth models showed there were no such positive associations. Somewhat surprisingly, DLL children instructed in Spanish had higher English receptive vocabulary skills at the end of the Head Start year than those not instructed, with children randomly assigned to Head Start and instructed in Spanish having the highest scores. Policy implications for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLLs are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September/October 2017

Promoting School Readiness with Preschool Curricula: A Mixed-Methods Study

Quality center-based care has been shown to help prepare young children for future academic success, and this is especially true for children from diverse low-income families. One of the reasons why center-based programs such as Head Start and state-funded prekindergarten may be effective and of high-quality is because of the use of curricula, which guide interactions and activities in the classroom. This mixed-methods study addresses an important topic of interest to the Administration for Children and Families, the Child Care Development Fund, and the Office of Head Start: curriculum as a key feature of high-quality center-based care and education for young children. Specifically, this study seeks to understand the influence of various preschool curricula on children's school readiness skills, for whom they work best, and how they are implemented in the classroom.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

2016

Absenteeism in Head Start and children's academic learning

Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort (n = 2,842), this study examined the implications of 3- and 4-year-old's absences from Head Start for their early academic learning. The findings from this study revealed that children who missed more days of school, and especially those who were chronically absent, demonstrated fewer gains in areas of math and literacy during the preschool year. Moreover, excessive absenteeism was found to detract from the potential benefits of quality preschool education and was especially problematic for the early learning of children who entered the Head Start program with a less developed skill set. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2017

Head Start teachers across a decade: Beliefs, characteristics, and time spent on academics

We examined changes in teachers' beliefs regarding developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) in 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009 using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experience Survey. In addition, we examined how teacher education, credentials, and professional experience relate to beliefs about DAP and explored how these relationships differ by cohort. We also explored teachers' reports of time spent in math and literacy focused activities. Findings indicate that after 2003, developmentally appropriate beliefs decreased significantly, while developmentally inappropriate beliefs increased. Results also showed significant increases in the frequency of literacy activity across the decade, while the frequency of math activity was more consistent. Despite these changes, teachers with more education consistently held the most appropriate beliefs. These findings indicate that teacher education may buffer against influences of pushed down curricula and increased accountability. This study also illustrates that policies at the national level have the potential to impact children's day-to-day classroom experiences. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2017

She's supporting them; who's supporting her?: Preschool center-level social-emotional supports and teacher well-being

Preschool teachers across the country have been charged to prepare children socially and emotionally for kindergarten. Teachers working in preschool centers are supporting children's social and emotional learning (SEL) within a rich ecology of emotion and social relationships and the present study considers how the supports implemented for children's SEL at the center-level are associated with teachers' psychological health and workplace experiences. Hierarchical linear models were constructed using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort. Results indicate that although teachers work in individual classrooms, they share common perceptions at the center-level of their workplace climate, access to support, and, although to a lesser extent, experience commonalities in psychological health and job satisfaction. Furthermore, in centers that had implemented more supports for children's SEL (including access to mental health consultants, classroom curriculum, and training and resources for teachers) teachers were less depressed, more satisfied with their jobs, felt more supported in managing challenging behavior, and viewed the workplace climate of their center as more positive. Findings are discussed in light of the national efforts to increase and retain a high-quality early childhood workforce. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2016

Tracking quality in Head Start classrooms: FACES 2006 to FACES 2014: Technical report

In this report, we highlight findings from cross-cohort analyses of data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2006, 2009, and 2014. The analyses (1) provide a descriptive portrait of observed classroom quality and other relevant classroom, teacher, and program characteristics at each time period; (2) determine the existence of trends or patterns in observed classroom quality and selected classroom, teacher, and program characteristics across cohorts; and (3) examine whether changes in such characteristics can explain the trends in observed classroom quality fully, partially, or not at all. We first describe the research questions the analyses are intended to address and then provide a brief overview of the FACES design across cohorts, including a description of any caveats related to the instrumentation and sampling across cohorts. Next, we describe our analytic approach and summarize findings from each analysis. We conclude this report with a discussion of the implications of the findings for future research. A companion policy brief (Aikens et al. 2016), also highlights a subset of the current findings. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

November, 2016

The effects of Head Start duration on the behavioral competence of socially disadvantaged children

This study examined the influence of Head Start duration on teacher-reported children's approaches to learning, behavioral problems, and cooperative classroom behaviors at the end of kindergarten. Propensity score matching was used to create comparable samples of children who experienced different durations of Head Start. Analysis of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey showed that children who attended 2 years of Head Start showed a higher level of approaches to learning (effect size [ES] = .53), cooperative classroom behaviors (ES = .35), and fewer problematic behaviors (ES = -.43) in kindergarten. The effects of 2 years of attendance of Head Start were most prominent for children raised in families with high-risk factors and for Black children, particularly with improvement in approaches to learning. This finding supports the argument that a longer exposure from an earlier age to a preschool program may contribute to improving school readiness for children from economically disadvantaged families. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

November, 2016

Use of Spanish in Head Start and dual language learners' academic achievement: A mixed-methods study

The number of Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLLs) is growing rapidly in the U.S., representing an increasing share of Head Start participants. The recent experimental Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) found that Spanish-speaking DLLs benefitted more from assignment to Head Start on some academic outcomes than monolingual-English speakers, and this dissertation aimed to understand whether classroom use of Spanish played a role in these impacts. Specifically, this mixed-methods dissertation sought to answer: 1) What child, family, and institutional factors are associated with enrollment in early care environments that use Spanish for instruction?; 2) Are there main effects of Spanish language instruction on Spanish-speaking DLL children's English academic school readiness skills?; and 3) Does Head Start differentially benefit Spanish-speaking DLL children instructed in Spanish? These research questions were answered using the two largest, nationally representative samples of Head Start children - the HSIS and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES, 2009 Cohort). Results showed that whether children's first language was exclusively Spanish and whether other DLL families previously attended the ECE arrangement predicted whether DLL children enrolled in centers that used Spanish for instruction. Further, DLL children instructed in Spanish had higher English receptive vocabulary skills at the end of Head Start than those not instructed, with children who attended Head Start and instructed in Spanish having the highest scores. Using the results from these secondary data analyses, classroom observations were then conducted at four local Head Start sites to answer: 4) How is Spanish used in local Head Start classrooms, for what purposes, and how may the use of Spanish possibly contribute to DLL children's school readiness? Results showed that in accordance with Head Start's "whole child" model of development, Spanish was used to promote English oral language skills in academic, socio-emotional, and health domains as well as to strengthen the home-school partnership. Taken together, the results of this mixed-methods dissertation imply that Head Start should continue targeting their resources in ways that support the home language such as bilingual teacher and staff hiring, classroom language supports, and curriculum decisions that stress the importance of both languages. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2016

One year or two?: The impact of Head Start enrollment duration on academic achievement

This study examined the impact of Head Start duration on children's language and mathematics skills based on the nationally representative sample of the Head Start, Family and Children Experiences Survey (FACES, 2009). Analysis of the FACES (2009) revealed that children who attended Head Start for two years displayed substantial advantages both in language and math skills compared to one-year attendees by the time they left Head Start. These advantages were sustained until the end of kindergarten with a slight reduction of the effect sizes. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that a longer exposure from an earlier age to a public preschool program plays a significant role in improving the academic skills of children from economically disadvantaged families. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2016

Quality rating and improvement systems: Secondary data analyses of psychometric properties of scale development

The results of this secondary data analysis simulating a QRIS validation using six large early care and education datasets demonstrate several issues that should be considered when constructing, validating, and making changes to existing quality ratings. First, QRIS are developed from logic models that involve multiple outcome areas such as improving children's outcomes, professionalization of the workforce, family engagement, and ECE systems building. The analyses reported here suggest that separate QRIS rating scales will be needed for each of these dimensions unless they are highly correlated. Second, selection of the quality indicators should be based on the consistency and magnitude of effects in research literature. The QRIS rating is more likely to accurately measure quality when there is good evidence that we know how to measure the included quality indicators in a manner that predicts desired outcomes for the QRIS. Third, use of validated professional guidelines for defining the cut-points in the rating scales can maintain the information in the selected quality measures as they are converted into ratings to form the QRIS score. Results from this secondary data analysis suggest that a QRIS score reflecting classroom quality based on these principles predicts small but significant gains in children's academic outcomes. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

May, 2016

Child care enrollment decisions among dual language learner families: The role of Spanish language instruction in the child care setting

Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 1141) and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, 2009 Cohort (N = 825) were used to describe child care enrollment decisions among Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learner (DLL) families. In particular, logistic regression models tested which child, family, and institutional characteristics predicted enrollment in early care and education (ECE) settings that used Spanish for instruction versus enrollment in settings that did not use Spanish. Results showed that whether the child's first language was exclusively Spanish and whether other DLL families previously attended the ECE arrangement strongly predicted whether that child enrolled. Policy implications for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLLs are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q3 2016

Testing for dosage-outcome associations in early care and education

In this chapter, we turn to the question of whether there is evidence of an association between children's development and the quantity or dosage of ECE across several large studies. As follow-up to the results summarized in the literature review, it is important to control adequately for selection effects in studying effects of dosage. There is also a need to examine different measures of dosage to see if consistent patterns of findings emerge across different measurement approaches. Accordingly, in this chapter, we will summarize analyses by using more rigorous approaches to controlling for selection than those used in previous research and will adopt several approaches to operationalizing dosage. Again, we are seeking replicated findings, as indicated in this section by similar significant findings across projects in analyses of dosage. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

June, 2016

Testing for quality thresholds and features in early care and education

In this chapter, we report on the analyses focusing on both quality thresholds and quality features. First, we address questions about quality thresholds, using two analytic approaches. The analyses ask whether there is evidence suggesting thresholds in the association between a specific quality measure and a specific child outcome. Second, we extend these analyses to ask whether each child outcome is more strongly related to global quality measures or to quality measures that measure teacher-child interactions or quality of instruction in a given content area. The research to date provides the basis for the articulation of two hypotheses related to quality thresholds and features: (1) the quality of ECE is a stronger predictor of residualized gains in child outcomes in classrooms with higher quality than in classrooms with lower quality and (2) more specific measures of quality are stronger predictors of residualized gains in child outcomes than are global measures. We turn now to analyses intended to address these hypotheses by using data from several data sets. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

June, 2016

Exploring teachers' depressive symptoms, interaction quality, and children's social-emotional development in Head Start

This study explored the role Head Start teachers' (n = 355) depressive symptoms play in their interactions with children and in children's (n = 2,203) social-emotional development, specifically changes in children's problem behaviors and social skills as reported by parents and teachers during the preschool year. Results of the multilevel path analyses revealed that children in classrooms with more depressed teachers made significantly fewer gains in social-emotional skills as reported by both teachers and parents. We found no evidence of mediation by the quality of teacher-child interactions. Practice or Policy: These findings have implications for understanding and supporting Head Start teachers' mental health and potentially improving children's social-emotional outcomes. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

July, 2016

Child temperamental regulation and classroom quality in Head Start: Considering the role of cumulative economic risk

There is growing recognition that cumulative economic risk places children at higher risk for depressed academic competencies (Crosnoe & Cooper, 2010; NCCP, 2008; Sameroff, 2000). Yet, children's temperamental regulation and the quality of the early childhood classroom environment have been associated with better academic skills. This study is an examination of prekindergarten classroom quality (instructional support, emotional support, organization) as a moderator between temperamental regulation and early math and literacy skills for children at varying levels of cumulative economic risk. The sample includes children enrolled in Head Start programs drawn from the FACES 2009 study. Three main findings emerged. First, for lower and highest risk children, more instructional support was associated with better math performance when children had high levels of temperamental regulation but poorer performance when children had low temperamental regulation. Second, among highest risk children, low instructional support was protective for math performance for children with low temperamental regulation and detrimental for those with high temperamental regulation. Third, for highest risk children, high classroom organization predicted better literacy scores for those with high temperamental regulation. Children with low temperamental regulation were expected to perform about the same, regardless of the level of classroom organization. Implications are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January, 2017

Understanding preschool teachers' emotional support as a function of center climate

There is great emphasis recently on improving the quality of early childhood education in the United States. Within quality rating improvement systems, classroom quality is often reported at the center or program levels. Yet little is known about teaching quality at the center level or the influence of center characteristics on teaching quality. Specifically, this study examines the extent to which the quality of emotional support provided by the teacher is associated with characteristics of the center (e.g., prior turnover rates) and center director (e.g., education, management practices). Findings from Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2009 data indicated that emotional support dimensions were differentially predicted by characteristics of the center and the director, including prior teacher turnover rate and director job satisfaction. However, highly regulated indicators of center quality (e.g., student:teacher ratio) did not substantially explain emotional support. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

October-December 2014

Classroom age composition and the school readiness of 3- and 4-year-olds in the Head Start program

The federal Head Start program, designed to improve the school readiness of children from low-income families, often serves 3- and 4-year-olds in the same classrooms. Given the developmental differences between 3- and 4-year-olds, it is unknown whether educating them together in the same classrooms benefits one group, both, or neither. Using data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort, this study used a peer-effects framework to examine the associations between mixed-age classrooms and the school readiness of a nationally representative sample of newly enrolled 3-year-olds (n = 1,644) and 4-year-olds (n = 1,185) in the Head Start program. Results revealed that 4-year-olds displayed fewer gains in academic skills during the preschool year when they were enrolled in classrooms with more 3-year-olds; effect sizes corresponded to 4 to 5 months of academic development. In contrast, classroom age composition was not consistently associated with 3-year-olds' school readiness. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January, 2016

Children in Early Head Start and Head Start: A profile of early leavers

Early Head Start serves pregnant women and children up to age 3, allowing families to enroll a child at any point in this age range. Head Start serves preschool-age children, who can enter the program at age 3 or 4. Engaging and retaining families in the program is a priority for Early Head Start and Head Start. However, some children who enroll in these programs do not stay for the full length of time they are eligible. In this brief, we explore the child-, family-, and program-level factors that may be associated with whether children leave the program early. We used data from the Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (Baby FACES) and from the 2009 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2009). Analyses show that most families who enrolled stayed for as long as they were eligible. However, a sizable percentage -- 35 percent in Early Head Start and 27 percent in Head Start left early. Early leaving was only related to a few child, family, or program characteristics examined in this brief. The findings suggest that the rate of early leaving was higher among families with several risk factors and who experienced instability, but mainly for Early Head Start families. In Head Start, early leaving was less associated with family risk and more related to program characteristics; children were more likely to leave early if they attended urban programs, if the turnover rates for lead or assistant teachers were high, and if program directors reported there were factors making it more difficult for them to do their jobs. To fully understand the circumstances related to leaving early and what programs can do to keep children enrolled, it will be important to gather additional data about families' needs and what they opt to do in lieu of participating in Early Head Start or Head Start. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

August, 2014

Getting ready for kindergarten: Children's progress during Head Start: FACES 2009 report

A study of the characteristics and family backgrounds of Head Start children, as well as their developmental progress from Head Start entry to exit in the domains of cognitive development, socioemotional development, health, and physical development, based on data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), 2009 Cohort, for 2,356 children who entered the program in fall 2009

Reports & Papers

June, 2013

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Teacher Interview (FACES 2009): Fall 2009-Spring 2011

Instruments

July, 2013

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Teacher's Child Report Form (FACES 2009): Fall 2009-Spring 2011

Instruments

July, 2013

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Head Start and Kindergarten Parent Interview: Spanish Version (FACES 2009): Fall 2009-Spring 2012

Instruments

July, 2013

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Head Start and Kindergarten Parent Interview (FACES 2009): Fall 2009-Spring 2012

Instruments

July, 2013

Kindergarten Followup to the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Teacher's Child Report Form (FACES 2009): Spring 2011/12

Instruments

July, 2013

Kindergarten Followup to the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Kindergarten Teacher Survey (FACES 2009): Spring 2011/12

Instruments

July, 2013

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Program Director Interview (FACES 2009): Fall 2009

Instruments

July, 2013

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Center Director Interview (FACES 2009): Fall 2009

Instruments

July, 2013

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Education Coordinator Interview (FACES 2009): Fall 2009

Instruments

July, 2013

Data tables for Child outcomes and classroom quality in FACES 2009 report

Data tables from a profile of the characteristics of Head Start children and families and their home and Head Start classroom environments in fall 2009 and spring 2010, including children's cognitive, physical, and socioemotional development, and Head Start classroom curricula, activities, and quality, based on fall 2009 and spring 2010 data for a sample of 370 classrooms and 3,022 children in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES)

Other

September, 2012

Child outcomes and classroom quality in FACES 2009 [Executive summary]

A summary of a profile of the characteristics of Head Start children and families and their home and Head Start classroom environments in fall 2009 and spring 2010, including children's cognitive, physical, and socioemotional development, and Head Start classroom curricula, activities, and quality, based on fall 2009 and spring 2010 data for a sample of 370 classrooms and 3,022 children in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES)

Executive Summary

September, 2012

Child outcomes and classroom quality in FACES 2009

A profile of the characteristics of Head Start children and families and their home and Head Start classroom environments in fall 2009 and spring 2010, including children's cognitive, physical, and socioemotional development, and Head Start classroom curricula, activities, and quality, based on fall 2009 and spring 2010 data for a sample of 370 classrooms and 3,022 children in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES)

Reports & Papers

September, 2012

Data tables for FACES 2009 Head Start children, families, and programs: Present and past data from FACES report

Data tables from a profile of the characteristics of Head Start children and families and their home and Head Start classroom environments in fall 2009, including children's cognitive, physical, and socioemotional development, and Head Start classroom curricula and activities, based on data collected from a sample of 60 Head Start programs, 129 centers, 486 classrooms, and 3,349 children

Other

December, 2011

Head Start children, families, and programs: Present and past data from FACES

A profile of the characteristics of Head Start children and families and their home and Head Start classroom environments in fall 2009, including children's cognitive, physical, and socioemotional development, and Head Start classroom curricula and activities, and a comparison to profiles from 2000, 2003, and 2006, based on data collected in fall 2009 from a sample of 60 Head Start programs, 129 centers, 486 classrooms, and 3,349 children

Reports & Papers

December, 2011

FACES 2009 study design

An overview of the study design of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 (FACES 2009)

Other

June, 2011

FACES Instrument Matrix

The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) uses many instruments to collect data. This document provides a complete list of the FACES instruments indexed in the Research Connections' database. Every instrument is hyperlinked to its corresponding record and "X"s designate which cohorts they were used in. Other alpha characters represent the instruments' availability: OS = obtainable through the original source; RC = obtainable through Research Connections. While all instruments are listed, those instruments that are copyrighted are not available. To access a particular instrument, click on the appropriate link.

Other

Summer 2010

Leiter International Performance Scale (Rev. ed.)

Instruments

1997