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A report on risk characteristics among young children and families in the Baby TALK demonstration program: 2008-2010, with select comparative local, state, and national data from 2003-2010

This publication is the first installment of a series of reports and scholarly articles that will examine the Baby TALK model, the various components of the model, and the ways in which the model is used to aid high-risk families. In this research brief, we examine the risk characteristics of children and families in the Baby TALK demonstration program and compare those characteristics with demographic data at the county, state, and federal level. In short, this brief provides empirical evidence indicating the Baby TALK model does identify and serve a high-risk population in the demonstration program. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2011

Low-income children in Head Start and beyond: Findings from FACES

This chapter analyzes changes in children's emergent literacy skills during their participation in Head Start and into kindergarten but also examines factors at the program, center, and classroom levels that may enhance or constrain children's acquisition of emergent literacy and numeracy skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2006

Project Head Start: Quality and links to child outcomes

Whether Head Start is able to reduce the achievement gap and indeed whether it "works" has been a hotly debated topic since its inception, and legislative pressures to demonstrate program performance and accountability are increasing. Evaluation of its effectiveness has had a somewhat checkered past, partly because of changes in program philosophy, debates about the most appropriate and expectable outcomes from the program, and the evaluation methods that can best demonstrate these effects. In particular, several key questions have emerged, broadly stated as follows: 1. What is the quality of Head Start classrooms as early learning environments, how does it compare to other early childhood education settings, and what factors predict variations in quality? 2. Do children make significant gains in their school-readiness skills during the Head Start year and into kindergarten, and are these gains due to their exposure to Head Start? 3. Is program quality related to children's gains during Head Start and into kindergarten? 4. What difference does participation in Head Start make to key school-readiness outcomes and parental practices for children and parents from low-income families? 5. Under what circumstances does Head Start achieve the greatest impact? What works for which children? Which Head Start services are most related to impact? To answer these key questions, this chapter reviews the state of the national Head Start program, with emphasis on the findings from the Head Start Child and Family Experiences Survey (FACES) and the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS). (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2010

Head Start teachers across a decade: Beliefs, characteristics, and time spent on academics

We examined changes in teachers' beliefs regarding developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) in 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009 using data from the Head Start Family and Child Experience Survey. In addition, we examined how teacher education, credentials, and professional experience relate to beliefs about DAP and explored how these relationships differ by cohort. We also explored teachers' reports of time spent in math and literacy focused activities. Findings indicate that after 2003, developmentally appropriate beliefs decreased significantly, while developmentally inappropriate beliefs increased. Results also showed significant increases in the frequency of literacy activity across the decade, while the frequency of math activity was more consistent. Despite these changes, teachers with more education consistently held the most appropriate beliefs. These findings indicate that teacher education may buffer against influences of pushed down curricula and increased accountability. This study also illustrates that policies at the national level have the potential to impact children's day-to-day classroom experiences. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

September, 2017

Using bifactor models to measure teacher-child interaction quality in early childhood: Evidence from the Caregiver Interaction Scale

Bifactor models have great promise to support the measurement of adult-child interaction in early childhood settings but are not frequently used in the field. This study explored whether a bifactor model fit teacher-child interaction data gathered from the Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS; Arnett, 1989) in four cohorts of the recent Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) study (1997-2006). Analyses also examined concurrent validity of this approach using several teacher- and child-level variables. In total, 1422 Head Start classrooms were observed with the CIS. Factor analyses found that a bifactor model, featuring one factor for overall positive teacher-child interaction as well as two methodological factors accounting for whether items targeted appropriate or (reverse-coded) inappropriate behaviors, fit the data well, consistent with other recent work. Further, evidence of concurrent validity for this bifactor model of teacher-child interaction emerged with lead teachers' background factors (experience and CDA credential) and their global classroom quality, as well as children's prosocial skills. Overall, results illustrate both the utility and logistics of the bifactor model approach to measuring interaction quality in early childhood settings. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

Q3 2016

Classroom quality and academic skills: Approaches to learning as a moderator

The purpose of this study was to examine whether approaches to learning moderated the association between child care classroom environment and Head Start children's academic skills. The data came from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES--2003 Cohort). The dataset is a nationally representative longitudinal study of Head Start children. The sample was selected using the stratified 4-stage sampling procedure. Data was collected in fall 2003, spring 2004, spring 2005, and spring 2006 in the first year of kindergarten. Participants included 3- and 4-year-old Head Start children (n = 786; 387 boys, 399 girls; 119 Hispanic children, 280 African American children, 312 Caucasian children). Head Start children's academic skills in letter-word identification, dictation/spelling, and mathematics at the 4 time points were measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Achievement Battery tests. Approaches to learning in fall 2003 was measured by the teacher report of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale. Child care classroom quality in fall 2003 was measured by the revised Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Results of the linear mixed effects models demonstrated that approaches to learning significantly moderated the effect of child care classroom quality on Head Start children's writing and spelling. Specifically, positive approaches to learning mitigated the negative effect of lower levels of classroom quality on dictation/spelling. Results underscore the important role of approaches to learning as a protective factor. Implications for early childhood educators with an emphasis on learning goals for disengaged children are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2015

Joint book reading and receptive vocabulary: A parallel process model

The purpose of the present study was to understand the reciprocal, bidirectional longitudinal relation between joint book reading and English receptive vocabulary. To address the research goals, a nationally representative sample of Head Start children, the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort), was used for analysis. The children were aged 3-4 years at programme entry. The mothers' average age at programme entry was 39 years old. A parallel process model was utilized to examine the growth factors of joint book reading and receptive vocabulary in parallel. Three significant findings emerged: (1) initial levels of English receptive vocabulary and joint book reading positively covaried; (2) English receptive vocabulary and joint book reading were positively and reciprocally related to each other; and (3) slopes for joint book reading and English receptive vocabulary negatively covaried. Results suggest that joint book reading can support and scaffold Head Start children's English receptive vocabulary. Reciprocally, Head Start children's English receptive vocabulary appears to predict the extent to which they engage in joint book reading at home. Moreover, the frequency of joint book reading decreases as the children demonstrate higher levels of English receptive vocabulary. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January/February 2016

Two-year versus one-year Head Start program impact: Addressing selection bias by comparing regression modeling with propensity score analysis

This article compares regression modeling and propensity score analysis as different types of statistical techniques used in addressing selection bias when estimating the impact of two-year versus one-year Head Start on children's school readiness. The analyses were based on the national Head Start secondary dataset. After controlling for covariates, regression modeling showed that program duration (two years vs. one year) was a significant predictor of all six outcome measures, including Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Woodcock-Johnson Reading Skills, Woodcock-Johnson Math Reasoning Skills, teacher-reported composite academic skills, preschool learning behaviors, and social skills. When using propensity score analysis that matched children, program duration significantly predicted children's academic outcomes but had limited effects on learning behaviors and social skills. Overall, both methods confirmed the predictive effects of program duration but propensity score analysis offered more conservative findings than regression modeling. Methodological issues and policy implications were discussed based on these findings. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January, 2015

Home literacy environment and Head Start children's language development: The role of approaches to learning

This study examined whether approaches to learning moderate the association between home literacy environment and English receptive vocabulary development. The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort) was used for analysis. Latent growth curve modeling was utilized to test a quadratic model of English receptive vocabulary development. Results showed that children's approaches to learning significantly moderated the influence of home literacy environment on English receptive vocabulary development. Post hoc probing of the simple slopes demonstrated that children with more positive approaches to learning and lower levels of home literacy environment had a higher English receptive vocabulary trajectory. The implications of the study results for early literacy interventions are discussed. Practice or Policy: Findings from this study may have implications for early educators who aim to improve Head Start children's language competencies by targeting home literacy environment and approaches to learning. At a preliminary level, the study findings suggest that positive approaches to learning may compensate for a limited home literacy environment. Because positive approaches to learning can facilitate learning in other domains, for instance, language learning, this information may be useful for early educators in terms of promoting positive learning attitudes and predispositions toward learning. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

January, 2015

Head Start classrooms and children's school readiness benefit from teachers' qualifications and ongoing training

Teacher qualifications have been emphasized as a basis of professional development to improve classroom practices for at-risk children's school readiness. However, teacher qualifications have often not been compared to another form of professional development, in-service training. Objective The current study attempts to investigate contributions of multiple types of professional development to school readiness skills of low-income preschoolers. Specifically, we examined the significance of teachers' education level, degree, teaching certificate, teaching experiences as well as specialized in-service training and coaching support as these teacher trainings are linked to preschoolers' school readiness through proximal classroom practices. Method We used a multi-level path analysis to examine multiple pathways from teachers' professional development to classroom environments and school readiness with Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2003 (N = 2,159). Results Teachers with an early childhood education major provided higher-quality provision for learning and social-emotional practices in the classroom; teachers who received coaching provided higher-quality social-emotional and parent involvement practices. Further, children in higher-quality social-emotional classrooms had better math skills, social skills and learning behaviors; children in the classrooms with higher-quality parent involvement practices had higher receptive vocabulary and parent-reported social skills and positive approaches to learning. Conclusions Along with early childhood education degree, ongoing coaching support would work effectively, improving classroom environments and a broad array of school readiness skills of at-risk children. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

December, 2013

Child Motivation, Shared Book Reading, and Vocabulary Development: A Growth Mixture Modeling Approach

Based on the sociocultural theory and the expectancy-value theory, this poster examined direct effects of shared book reading and child motivation on the vocabulary trajectories, and whether child motivation moderated the effect of shared book reading on the vocabulary trajectories. The growth mixture modeling was performed to address the research questions with a nationally representative sample of Head Start children.

Other

June, 2013

Protective Effects of Language Development Among Children in Head Start: A Person-Centered Approach

This poster examined whether the family literacy environment, children?s characteristics, and classroom environment would function as protective factors against the negative effect of poverty on language development among Head Start children. Growth mixture modeling was used to address the research questions.

Other

June, 2013

Shared Book Reading and Early Vocabulary Development: Child Motivation as a Moderator [Executive Summary]

This paper used a nationally representative sample of Head Start children to examine child motivation, shared book reading, and the trajectory of vocabulary development. Specifically, this paper used the latent growth curve analysis to examine whether child motivation moderated the effect of shared book reading on the vocabulary developmental trajectory.

Other

June, 2013

A portrait of family involvement during Head Start: Nature, extent, and predictors

A profile of the nature, frequency, and both family and center predictors of low income Head Start families' involvement in children's learning and schooling in the home, community, and school contexts, based on data from 2,154 children and families and 165 directors of Head Start centers participating in the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2003

Reports & Papers

Q4 2012

Are two years better than one year?: A propensity score analysis of the impact of Head Start program duration on children's school performance in kindergarten

A comparison of academic and social outcomes by the end of kindergarten between children who attended Head Start for two years and the ones who attended for one year, based on data from 1,778 Head Start children from the Family and Child Experience Survey (FACES)2003

Reports & Papers

Q4 2012

Patterns of school readiness among Head Start children: Meaningful within-group variability during the transition to kindergarten

A study of the overlap of children's early school readiness skills in the social and cognitive domains as they enter preschool, if the configurations of school readiness skills predict children's school adjustment by the end of kindergarten, and if patterns of children's school readiness identified at the beginning of their first Head Start year as well as family and classroom context factors predict and/or moderate cognitive and social outcomes at the end of kindergarten, based on data from 1,898 respondents from the Family and Children's Experiences Survey of 2002-2003

Reports & Papers

August, 2012

Data tables for FACES 2009 Head Start children, families, and programs: Present and past data from FACES report

Data tables from a profile of the characteristics of Head Start children and families and their home and Head Start classroom environments in fall 2009, including children's cognitive, physical, and socioemotional development, and Head Start classroom curricula and activities, based on data collected from a sample of 60 Head Start programs, 129 centers, 486 classrooms, and 3,349 children

Other

December, 2011

Head Start children, families, and programs: Present and past data from FACES

A profile of the characteristics of Head Start children and families and their home and Head Start classroom environments in fall 2009, including children's cognitive, physical, and socioemotional development, and Head Start classroom curricula and activities, and a comparison to profiles from 2000, 2003, and 2006, based on data collected in fall 2009 from a sample of 60 Head Start programs, 129 centers, 486 classrooms, and 3,349 children

Reports & Papers

December, 2011

Does teacher educational training help the early math skills of English language learners in Head Start?

A study of the relationship between the early math skills of immigrant preschoolers and teacher educational levels, certification, and professional training, based on data from a nationally representative dataset

Reports & Papers

May 2011

Early Reading First graduates go to kindergarten: Are achievement gains enduring?

A comparison of early literacy and social skills achievement gains of 97 Early Reading First Head Start graduates and 97 comparison children in the spring of their kindergarten year from the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2003 cohort

Reports & Papers

2010

FACES Instrument Matrix

The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) uses many instruments to collect data. This document provides a complete list of the FACES instruments indexed in the Research Connections' database. Every instrument is hyperlinked to its corresponding record and "X"s designate which cohorts they were used in. Other alpha characters represent the instruments' availability: OS = obtainable through the original source; RC = obtainable through Research Connections. While all instruments are listed, those instruments that are copyrighted are not available. To access a particular instrument, click on the appropriate link.

Other

Summer 2010

Guide to datasets for research and policymaking in child care and early education

An annotated bibliography of existing large-scale datasets that provide useful information to policymakers, researchers, and others in the field of child care and early education in the United States

Other

January 2009

Counting Blocks

Instruments

Kindergarten Followup to the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Kindergarten Teacher Survey: Spring 2005/06

Instruments

Spring 2005

Kindergarten Followup to the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Teacher's Child Report Form: Spring 2005/06

Instruments

Spring 2005

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Follow-Up Kindergarten Parent Interview: Spanish Version (FACES 2003): Spring 2005/06

Instruments

Spring 2005

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Follow-Up Kindergarten Parent Interview (FACES 2003): Spring 2005/06

Instruments

Spring 2005

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Teacher Interview (FACES 2003): Spring 2005

Instruments

Spring 2005

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Teacher's Child Report Form: Head Start, Spring 2005

Instruments

Spring 2005

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Parent Interview (FACES 2003): Spring 2005

Instruments

Spring 2005

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Parent Interview: Spanish Version (FACES 2003): Spring 2005

Instruments

Spring 2005

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Teacher Interview (FACES 2003): Spring 2004

Instruments

Spring 2004

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Teacher's Child Report Form: Spring 2004

Instruments

Spring 2004

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Parent Interview (FACES 2003): Spring 2004

Instruments

Spring 2004

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Parent Interview: Spanish Version (FACES 2003): Spring 2004

Instruments

Spring 2004

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Teacher Interview (FACES 2003): Fall 2003

Instruments

Fall 2003

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Teacher's Child Report Form: Fall 2003

Instruments

Fall 2003

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Parent Interview: Spanish Version (FACES 2003): Fall 2003

Instruments

Fall 2003

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Parent Interview (FACES 2003): Fall 2003

Instruments

Fall 2003

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Education Coordinator Interview (FACES 2003): Fall 2003

Instruments

Fall 2003

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey Center Director Interview (FACES 2003): Fall 2003

Instruments

Fall 2003

FACES 2003 research brief: Children's outcomes and program quality in Head Start

A summary of key findings related to children's outcomes and program quality from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2003

Fact Sheets & Briefs

December, 2006

FACES findings: New research on Head Start outcomes and program quality

Highlights of findings on multiple aspects of the Head Start program, including classroom quality and benefits to children and families

Fact Sheets & Briefs

December, 2006

Teachers' education, classroom quality, and young children's academic skills: Results from seven studies of preschool programs

An examination of the connections between preschool teachers' academic degrees and major courses of study and classroom quality and children's academic skills during the year before entering kindergarten, based on data from multiple studies, including the Early Head Start (EHS) Follow-Up, Georgia Early Care Study (GECS), and Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2003)

Reports & Papers

March/April 2007

Pre-LAS 2000

Instruments

1998

Preschool Comprehensive Test of Phonological and Print Processing

Instruments

2003

Counts of Staff/Children

Instruments

Story and Print Concepts

Instruments

Color Names and Counting

Instruments

Assessment Profile for Early Childhood Programs

Instruments

1987

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES)

A series of nationally representative longitudinal cohort studies of the experiences of Head Start children and families

Major Research Projects

McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities

Instruments

1972

Woodcock-Johnson III

A second revision of the original set of tests intended to measure cognitive abilities, oral language, and academic achievement in individuals 2 to 90 years or older

Instruments

2001

Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery (Rev. ed.)

Instruments

1990

Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (Rev. ed.)

A revised version of the original ECERS, designed to assess the quality of environments in preschool, kindergarten, and child care programs for children ages 2.5 to 5 years

Instruments

1998

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd ed.)

The third edition of a listening comprehension measure for spoken words in standard English, as well as a screening test of verbal ability for individuals aged 2 years, 5 months through 90 years or older

Instruments

1997

Caregiver Interaction Scale

A scale for measurement of the quality of caregivers' interactions with children

Instruments

1985-1986