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The impact of child care subsidy use on child care quality
Ryan, Rebecca, Q3 2011
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(3), 320-331

In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF),now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the quality of care families purchase. This study investigates the impact of government subsidization on parents' selection of child care quality using multivariate regression and propensity score matching approaches to account for differential selection into subsidy receipt and care arrangements. Data were drawn from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (CCS-FFCWS), conducted in 2002 and 2003 in 14 of the 20 FFCWS cities when focal children were 3 years old (N= 456). Our results indicate that families who used subsidies chose higher quality care than comparable mothers who did not use subsidies, but only because subsidy recipients were more likely to use center-based care. Subgroup analyses revealed that families using subsidies purchased higher-quality home-based care but lower-quality center-based care than comparable non-recipients. Findings suggest that child care subsidies may serve as more than a work support for low-income families by enhancing the quality of nonmaternal care children experience but that this effect is largely attributable to recipients' using formal child care arrangements (versus kith and kin care) more often than non-recipients. (author abstract)

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On childcare as a support for maternal employment wages and hours
Bub, Kristen L., 2004
Journal of Social Issues, 60(4), 819-834

An examination of the relationship between mothers' use of child care and maternal employment wages and hours, using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD)

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National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families: Patterns of child care use among low-income families: Final report
United States. Administration for Children and Families, September 2007
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families.

A study of families' decisions regarding employment and child care arrangements, examining variations by child's age, mother's race, and other family characteristics, and assessing the impact of child care subsidies and other state and local policies on families' choices

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National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families: Patterns of child care use among low-income families: Draft
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates

A study of families' decisions regarding employment and child care arrangements, examining variations by child's age, mother's race, and other family characteristics, and assessing the impact of child care subsidies and other state policies on families' choices

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Universal child care, maternal employment, and children's long-run outcomes: Evidence from the U.S. Lanham Act of 1940
Herbst, Chris M., December, 2013
(Discussion Paper No. 7846). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the Lanham Act of 1940, a heavily subsidized and universal child care program that was administered throughout the U.S. during World War II. I begin by estimating the impact of the Lanham Act on maternal employment using 1940 and 1950 Census data in a difference-in-difference-in-differences framework. The evidence suggests that mothers' paid work increased substantially following the introduction of the child care program. I then study the implications of the Lanham Act for children's long-run outcomes related to educational attainment, family formation, and labor market participation. Using Census data from 1970 to 1990, I assess well-being in a lifecycle framework by tracking cohorts of treated individuals throughout their prime working years. Results from difference-in-differences models suggest that the Lanham Act had strong and persistent positive effects on well-being, equivalent to a 0.36 standard deviation increase in a summary index of adult outcomes. In addition, a supplementary analysis of distributional effects shows that the benefits of the Lanham Act accrued largely to the most economically disadvantaged adults. Together, these findings shed light on the design of contemporary child care systems that balance the twin goals of increasing parental employment and enhancing child well-being. (author abstract)

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Maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes in the first three years of life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, 2002
Child Development, 73(4), 1052-1072

A study of the relationship between maternal employment in the first year of life to child cognitive outcomes and outcomes are mediated by the quality of childcare or home environment experienced by the child during the first three years of life based on longitudinal data collected from the National Institute for Child Health and Development

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Mothers' time with infant and time in employment as predictors of mother-child relationships and children's early development
Huston, Aletha C., 2005
Child Development, 76(2), 467-482

A study of the relationship between maternal time with infants and the quality of mother-child relationships and children’s development, based on a sample of 1,053 mothers taken from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, using time diaries, interviews, and home visit assessments using the Home Observation for Measure of the Environment (HOME) scale

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Examining cost fulfillment: Child care policy and strategies
Jordan, Lucy P., 2012
Journal of Social Service Research, 38(3), 313-329

A study of correlations among a variety of characteristics of child care subsidy eligibility policies in 20 cities across 15 states, and an identification of four categories of similar types of city-specific subsidy offerings, based on an examination of the local policies regarding the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and Child Care Development Fund (CCDF) subsidies

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Estimates of child care eligibility and receipt for fiscal year 2009
United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, December, 2012
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

An examination of children's eligibility for and receipt of federal child care subsidies under federal parameters and state-defined rules

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Pivot point: State child care assistance policies 2013
Schulman, Karen, 2013
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

A survey of changes in child care subsidy eligibility and use between 2012 and 2013 in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia

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Status report on state implementation efforts: Action plan to improve access to child care assistance for low-income families in the South
Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care, 2004
Columbia, SC: Southern Institute on Children and Families.

An overview of state-level actions to increase the access to and use of child care subsidies in 17 southeastern states and the District of Columbia

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Public preschool and maternal labor supply: Evidence from the introduction of kindergartens into American public schools
Cascio, Elizabeth, 2006
(NBER Working Paper Series No. 12179). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

A comparative analysis of the effect of the availability of public kindergarten programs on the employment patterns of women with five-year-old children, using data from the 1950 through 1990 Decennial Censuses

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National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families: State and Community Substudy: Final report
United States. Administration for Children and Families, September 2007
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families.

A study of ongoing changes in state and community policies for meeting the child care needs of low-income families as a result of welfare reform implementation, including child care subsidy use and expenditures from 1997 to 2001 and child care subsidy policies and their administration from 1999 to 2002, based on administrative records, policy manuals, and key informant interviews from 17 states and 25 communities

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Child care in America: 2013 state fact sheets
Child Care Aware of America, 2013
Arlington, VA: Child Care Aware of America.

An examination of national and state-by-state information on family characteristics and on child care availability, referral requests, prices, subsidies, and workers, based on a survey of state child care resource and referral networks and on secondary data

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The economic impact of the child care and early education industry in South Hampton Roads, Virginia
Traill, Saskia, 2006
Norfolk, VA: Child & Family Services of Eastern Virginia.

An analysis of the economic impact of the South Hampton Roads, Virginia, child care and early education industry in terms of its employment and gross receipts, as well as its role in supporting other industries and labor force participation

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Child care in America: 2014 state fact sheets
Child Care Aware of America, March, 2014
Arlington, VA: Child Care Aware of America.

This state-by-state compilation of statistics presents state-level averages of the number of families, children under 6, working mothers, child care sites, demand for types of care, child care prices, subsidy use, and workforce data for each state. The section for each state provides a side-by-side comparison of the statewide and national averages. The data was compiled through a survey of state child care resource and referral networks and sources of secondary data

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Supporting family, friend and neighbor caregivers: Findings from a survey of state policies
Porter, Toni, 2005
New York: Bank Street College of Education, Institute for a Child Care Continuum. (No longer accessible as of August 16, 2012)

An examination of state regulatory policies for kith and kin child care providers receiving government subsidies

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Variations in child care by grandparents during the first three years
Vandell, Deborah L., 2003
Journal of Marriage and the Family, 65(2), 375-381

An investigation into the varying frequencies of grandparent child care and its relation to maternal employment, using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Early Development Study of Early Child Care

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In the margins: State child care assistance policies on provider reimbursement
National Women's Law Center, March, 2014
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

Several key child care assistance policies--income eligibility limits, waiting lists, parent copayments, reimbursement rates, and eligibility for parents searching for a job--have a significant impact on families' access to help paying for child care, the level of help they receive, and the quality of care. State policies in these essential areas are examined in an annual report by the National Women's Law Center. However, parents' access to affordable, high-quality care is also affected by a number of other state policy decisions. This brief explores some of the policies that determine when states will reimburse for care, including whether they reimburse for care beyond parents' work hours such as during a parent's commute or study time, and whether they reimburse for child care on days when a child is absent from care. (author abstract)

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State child care assistance policies 2011: Reduced support for families in challenging times
Schulman, Karen, October, 2011
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

A study of changes to state child care assistance policies between February 2010 and February 2011 and between 2001 and February 2011, including changes to income eligibility limits, waiting lists, parent copayments, reimbursement rates, and assistance to parents searching for a job, based on a survey of state child care administrators

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State child care assistance policies 2010: New federal funds help states weather the storm
Schulman, Karen, September 2010
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

A study of changes to state child care assistance policies between February 2009 and February 2010, including changes to income eligibility limits, waiting lists, parent copayments, reimbursement rates, and assistance to parents searching for a job, based on a survey of state child care administrators

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Downward slide: State child care assistance policies 2012
Schulman, Karen, 2012
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

A study of changes to state child care assistance policies between February 2011 and February 2012 and between 2001 and February 2012, including changes to income eligibility limits, waiting lists, parent copayments, reimbursement rates, and assistance to parents searching for a job, based on a survey of child care administrators in each state and the District of Columbia

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State child care assistance policies 2009: Most states hold the line, but some lose ground in hard times
Schulman, Karen, September, 2009
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

A study of changes to state child care assistance policies from February 2008 to February 2009, including changes to income eligibility limits, waiting lists, parent co-payments, and reimbursement rates, based on a survey of state child care administrators

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State child care assistance policies 2008: Too little progress for children and families
Schulman, Karen, September, 2008
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

A study of changes to state child care assistance policies from February 2007 to February 2008, including changes to income eligibility limits, waiting lists, parent co-payments, and reimbursement rates, based on a survey of state child care administrators

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Economic impact of the child care industry in Virginia
Voices for Virginia's Children, 2004
Richmond: Voices for Virginia's Children.

A discussion of the economic benefits of the child care industry for the state of Virginia

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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