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Current Search: "Topics in Early Childhood Special Education"   

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1.

An examination of the quality of discipline policies in NAEYC-accredited early care and education programs
Garrity, Sarah, August, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(2), 94-106

The purpose of this study was to expand the knowledge base regarding discipline policies in early care and education (ECE) programs by examining the extent to which programs utilize policies that reflect the implementation of evidence-based practices to prevent and address challenging behaviors in the early years. Discipline policies were gathered from 282 programs accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and were scored using the Teaching and Guidance Policy Essentials Checklist. Overall, policies failed to address evidence-base practices, and findings are situated within the discourse on the prevalence of challenging behaviors and the troubling date on preschool suspension and expulsion rates and the current ECE context. (author abstract)

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2.

In it for the long haul: Parent-teacher partnerships for addressing preschool children's challenging behaviors
Kuhn, Miriam, August, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(2), 81-93

The Getting Ready intervention aims to strengthen parent-teacher partnerships to promote positive child outcomes. This study focused on the team process and social validity of the intervention when young children displayed challenging behaviors. Qualitative analysis yielded seven themes that provided a rich description of the preschool experiences of four children, their parents, and the preschool teachers and Early Intervention (EI) coaches serving them. Parent-professional partnerships, positive parent-child interactions, and team members' engagement in collaborative problem solving and planning were reported. The social validity of the Getting Ready intervention was confirmed by participants valuing the academic and behavioral goals established for children, the parents' partnerships with teachers to address chronic behavioral challenges, and reports of the durability of intervention impacts as three children completed kindergarten. (author abstract)

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3.

Four-year follow-up of children in the LEAP randomized trial: Some planned and accidental findings
Strain, Phillip S., August, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(2), 121-126

This article reports on a 4-year follow-up study from the Learning Experiences and Alternative Program for Preschoolers and Their Parents (LEAP) randomized trial of early intervention for young children with autism. Overall, participants from LEAP classes were marginally superior to comparison class children on elementary school outcomes specific to communication, adaptive behavior, social, academic, and cognitive skills. Statistically significant group differences were noted in cognitive development and social skills. However, when placement was treated as an independent variable, very large effects were seen across all outcome measures, including autism symptoms, for children who were enrolled in inclusive settings. Data from adult family members confirmed important changes in perceived quality of life. (author abstract)

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4.

Providing high-quality support services to home-based child care: A conceptual model and literature review
Bromer, Juliet, August, 2017
Early Education and Development, 28(6), 745-772

Research Findings: Home-based child care accounts for a significant proportion of nonparental child care arrangements for young children in the United States. Yet the early care and education field lacks clear models or pathways for how to improve quality in these settings. The conceptual model presented here articulates the components of high-quality support to child care providers; related factors; and hypothesized provider, family, and child outcomes. The model is based on a literature review of research on home-based child care, home visiting, early childhood mental health consultation, coaching, and family services. We hypothesize that high-quality support to home-based child care that offers relationship-based services focused on quality caregiving (individual home visiting and group supports such as training and networking) and sustainability (materials, equipment, referrals) is most likely to positively impact quality caregiving for children and families. Practice or Policy: Current federal efforts and policy initiatives to increase the supply and quality of infant-toddler child care focus on the development of systems that support home-based providers. The conceptual model of high-quality support described here will inform future program development and research on how to improve quality in home-based child care for the millions of low-income children in these settings. (author abstract)

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5.

Preschool teachers' use of Pyramid Model practices in mainland China
Luo, Li, July-September 2017
Infants & Young Children, 30(3), 221-237

The social domain is 1 of 5 preschool curricular domains in mainland China. Chinese preschool teachers are expected to use teaching practices that foster young children's social competence. The purpose of this study was to explore a small sample of Chinese preschool teachers' use of teaching and behavior support practices associated with the Pyramid Model. Twenty preschool classrooms in mainland China were observed using the prepublication version of the Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool for Preschool Classrooms (L. Fox, M. L. Hemmeter, & P. Snyder, 2008). In addition, each teacher completed a social-emotional teaching practices survey. Results indicated that Chinese teachers were observed to use, on average, about 31% of key teaching practices associated with the Pyramid Model. They were implementing more universal promotion practices than targeted social-emotional teaching practices. Chinese teachers generally were not observed to be teaching behavior expectations and social problem solving, nor were they developing individualized interventions for children with the most persistent challenging behavior. Correlational analyses suggested that observed implementation of Pyramid Model practices generally was not related to self-reported use of these practices. Limitations and implications of the present study along with considerations for future research are discussed. (author abstract)

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6.

The effects of play-based intervention on vocabulary acquisition by preschoolers at risk for reading and language delays
McLeod, Jennifer Ragan Henderson, June, 2017
Journal of Early Intervention, 39(2), 147-160

Closing the vocabulary gap for young children at risk for reading and language delays due to low socioeconomic status may have far reaching effects, as the relationship between early vocabulary knowledge and later academic achievement has been well-established. Vocabulary instruction for young children at risk for reading and language delays during classroom play is understudied, but appears to be a useful context for such interventions. A multiple probe design across behaviors replicated across participants was conducted to evaluate the effects of Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) techniques embedded in play sessions on target vocabulary word acquisition for preschool participants. Participants acquired target word sets in an average of 14 sessions, which, in addition to a book with target vocabulary, included interventionist's use of the words in conversation and prompts to use target words in play routines. Implications for vocabulary instruction during play and future research are included. (author abstract)

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7.

Quantifying the life-cycle benefits of a prototypical early childhood program
Garcia, Jorge Luis, June, 2017
(NBER Working Paper No. 23479). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

This paper quantifies the experimentally evaluated life-cycle benefits of a widely implemented early childhood program targeting disadvantaged families. We join experimental data with non-experimental data using economic models to forecast its life-cycle benefits. Our baseline estimate of the internal rate of return (benefit/cost ratio) is 13.7% (7.3). We conduct extensive sensitivity analyses to account for model estimation error, forecasting error, and judgments made about the empirical magnitudes of non-market benefits. We examine the performance of widely used, ad hoc estimates of long-term benefit/cost ratios based on short-term measures of childhood test scores and find them wanting. (author abstract)

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8.

Appendix: Quantifying the life-cycle benefits of a prototypical early childhood program
Garcia, Jorge Luis, 31 May, 2017
Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

This is the appendix for a study that estimates the life-cycle benefits and costs, rate of return, and benefit/cost ratio of the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC) and the Carolina Approach to Responsive Education (CARE).

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9.

Appendix: Gender differences in the benefits of an influential early childhood program
Garcia, Jorge Luis, 11 May, 2017
Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

This is the appendix for a study that looks at gender differences in relation to a variety of outcomes for children who participated in the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC) and the Carolina Approach to Responsive Education (CARE) and at factors that may contribute to these differences.

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10.

Using family style dining to increase social interactions in young children
Locchetta, Brandy Michelle, May, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(1), 54-64

During family style dining (FSD), caregivers are encouraged to sit with children at the table to support, promote, and facilitate conversations. FSD is considered a best practice in child care and is encouraged by many early childhood agencies. However, there is no current research documenting the effects of FSD on mealtime interactions in the preschool environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of FSD on the social interactions of preschool children during mealtime, and any subsequent changes in the rate of teacher directives and praise statements. Results demonstrated increases in the rates of initiations by target children when FSD was implemented; however, the increases across children were modest. Also, teachers' rates of directives were not impacted by the use of FSD; that is, teachers' rates of directives were the same, on average, when using and not using FSD. (author abstract)

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11.

A modified dialogic reading intervention for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder
Fleury, Veronica P., May, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(1), 16-28

We examined the effect of a modified dialogic reading intervention on levels of verbal participation and vocabulary growth in nine preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using single-case design methodology. Baseline book reading resulted in consistently low levels of verbal participation followed by an immediate increase in verbal participation during dialogic book reading sessions for all children. Dialogic reading also resulted in greater gains in book-specific vocabulary for all children, as compared with baseline book reading sessions. The improvement in verbal participation was characterized by more frequent responses to the adults' question prompts during reading. No improvements in children's independent initiations of comments or questions during the book reading activity were observed. (author abstract)

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12.

Development, validation, and evaluation of Literacy 3D: A package supporting Tier 1 preschool literacy instruction implementation and intervention
Greenwood, Charles R., May, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(1), 29-41

Increasingly, prekindergarten programs with literacy outcome goals are seeking to implement evidence-based practices to improve results. Such efforts require instructional intervention strategies to engage children as well as strategies to support teacher implementation. Reported is the iterative development of Literacy 3D, an enhanced support system for Tier 1 literacy instruction that combines evidence-based strategies for teacher implementation with instructional intervention strategies. A waitlist randomized control trial (W-RCT) design was used over two years. In Year 1, classroom clusters were randomized to two groups, one Literacy 3D and the other a waitlist BAU comparison. In Year 2, the waitlist group received Literacy 3D. First year results indicated that Literacy 3D was promising with regard to improving teachers' use of Literacy 3D practices as well as some intermediate teacher outcomes. Improvements were made and re-tested with the waitlist group in Year 2. Results produced better outcomes in teacher, child, and early literacy outcomes. Implications are discussed. (author abstract)

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13.

Individualized education programmes and parental behaviours for children with disabilities: Moderation effects of Head Start on children's developmental outcomes
Lee, Kyunghee, May, 2017
Child & Family Social Work, 22(2), 1000-1014

This study examined associations among Head Start attendance, individualized education programmes (IEPs), parental behaviours and child outcomes in a sample of five-hundred and seventy 3- to 4-year-old children with disabilities. Home language, number of disabilities and Head Start enrollment were associated with having an IEP. Parents of children with IEPs and those who participated in Head Start used more social services, while social support was more prevalent for parents of non-Head Start children with IEPs. For all children, frequent parental book reading, greater number of books in the home and greater perceived social support among parents were associated with favourable cognitive and social-emotional outcomes. Greater social service use was adversely associated with reading scores only for non-Head Start children. Findings highlight the need for inclusive IEP policies and Head Start programmes for parents regarding access to special education supports for children who demonstrate developmental concerns. Participation in Head Start may buffer negative effects of social service use on children's reading skill development, although more research is needed to uncover the specific mechanisms responsible for this association. (author abstract)

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14.

Considerations for time sampling interval durations in the measurement of young children's classroom engagement
Zakszeski, Brittany N., May, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(1), 42-53

Classroom engagement is important to young children's academic and social development. Accurate methods of capturing this behavior are needed to inform and evaluate intervention efforts. This study compared the accuracy of interval durations (i.e., 5 s, 10 s, 15 s, 20 s, 30 s, and 60 s) of momentary time sampling (MTS) in approximating the duration of classroom engagement as measured by continuous duration recording (CDR). Twenty-four sessions of children in large-group instruction were observed using the Behavioral Observation of Students in School for Early Education (BOSS-EE). In general, shorter intervals produced engagement estimates that more highly correlated with CDR data and had less measurement error relative to estimates from longer intervals. Findings suggest that selection of MTS interval duration may affect the accuracy of estimates for children with low levels of engagement to a greater extent relative to children with high levels of engagement. Implications and future directions are discussed. (author abstract)

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15.

Gender differences in the benefits of an influential early childhood program
Garcia, Jorge Luis, May, 2017
(NBER Working Paper No. 23412). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

This paper estimates gender differences in life-cycle impacts across multiple domains of an influential enriched early childhood program targeted toward disadvantaged children that was evaluated by the method of random assignment. We assess the impacts of the program on promoting or alleviating population differences in outcomes by gender. For many outcomes, boys benefit relatively more from high-quality center childcare programs compared to low-quality programs. For them, home care, even in disadvantaged environments, is more beneficial than lower-quality center childcare for many outcomes. This phenomenon is not found for girls. We investigate the sources of the gender differentials in impacts. (author abstract)

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16.

Does gender moderate the relations between externalizing behavior and key emergent literacy abilities?: Evidence from a longitudinal study
Allan, Nicholas P., May, 2017
Journal of Attention Disorders, 21(7), 600-609

Objective: There is a significant negative relation between externalizing behavior and emergent literacy skills among preschool children. Method: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of gender on the predictive relation of externalizing behavior and emergent literacy in a group of 178 preschool children (mean age = 48.50 months, SD = 3.66; 48% boys). Results: Externalizing behaviors predicted emergent literacy over time. Distinct patterns of predictive associations dependent on gender were found. Girls with higher levels of externalizing behaviors experienced less change in their vocabulary skills compared with the vocabulary change shown by girls with lower levels of these problem behaviors. Conclusion: The results suggest that early identification programs that include externalizing behavior problems and their relation with emergent literacy development should account for potential gender differences. A theoretical framework in which girls with behavior problems receive less opportunity for vocabulary acquisition is presented. (author abstract)

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17.

Quantifying the life-cycle benefits of a prototypical early childhood program
Garcia, Jorge Luis, May, 2017
(IZA DP No. 10811). Bonn, Germany: Institute of Labor Economics.

This paper quantifies the experimentally evaluated life-cycle benefits of a widely implemented early childhood program targeting disadvantaged families. We join experimental data with non-experimental data using economic models to forecast its life-cycle benefits. Our baseline estimate of the internal rate of return (benefit/cost ratio) is 13.7% (7.3). We conduct extensive sensitivity analyses to account for model estimation error, forecasting error, and judgments made about the empirical magnitudes of non-market benefits. We examine the performance of widely used, ad hoc estimates of long-term benefit/cost ratios based on short-term measures of childhood test scores and find them wanting. (author abstract)

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18.

Gender differences in the benefits of an influential early childhood program
Garcia, Jorge Luis, May, 2017
(IZA DP No. 10758). Bonn, Germany: Institute of Labor Economics.

This paper estimates gender differences in life-cycle impacts across multiple domains of an influential enriched early childhood program targeted toward disadvantaged children that was evaluated by the method of random assignment. We assess the impacts of the program on promoting or alleviating population differences in outcomes by gender. For many outcomes, boys benefit relatively more from high-quality center childcare programs compared to low-quality programs. For them, home care, even in disadvantaged environments, is more beneficial than lower-quality center childcare for many outcomes. This phenomenon is not found for girls. We investigate the sources of the gender differentials in impacts. (author abstract)

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19.

Childcare providers' use of practices to promote young children's social-emotional competence
Steed, Elizabeth A., April-June 2017
Infants & Young Children, 30(2), 162-171

Findings are presented regarding childcare providers' use of evidence-based strategies to promote preschoolers' social-emotional competence in 38 urban childcare classrooms. Descriptive results from classroom observations and childcare teachers' interviews indicated that in the absence of training, childcare teaching staff implemented few of these strategies. Teachers also reported a lack of infrastructure elements such as professional development, a leadership team, data-based tools for decision making, and monetary resources that are associated with the adoption and sustained use of strategies. Findings are described and recommendations are presented to support implementation of practices associated with young children's social-emotional competence in childcare settings. (author abstract)

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20.

Examining the use of curriculum to support early literacy instruction: A multiple case study of Head Start teachers
Mihai, Alina, April, 2017
Early Education and Development, 28(3), 323-342

Research Findings: This qualitative study examined how Head Start teachers thought about children's early literacy and how they enacted their thinking in a year-long curriculum reform effort. Data collected included interviews, observations, questionnaires, concept maps, and teachers' reflections on implementation. The results indicated that as teachers implemented the new curriculum, a number of factors influenced their instructional practice. Four cross-case themes emerged: Volunteering to Change, Teachers' Perspectives About Early Literacy, The Relationships Within Teaching Teams, and The Head Start Context. Practice or Policy: Findings are discussed as they relate to improving early literacy instruction through the use of curriculum. Implications for practitioners and teacher educators are outlined, including the importance of addressing gaps in teacher knowledge, facilitating skill development, and influencing teachers' motivation to engage in change. Equally important to consider are factors that may influence a teacher's readiness to change his or her practice and emphasizing the need for supportive environments as teachers work to enhance children's early literacy development. (author abstract)

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21.

A continuum of play-based learning: The role of the teacher in play-based pedagogy and the fear of hijacking play
Pyle, Angela, April, 2017
Early Education and Development, 28(3), 274-289

Research Findings: Research has demonstrated the developmental and educational benefits of play. Despite these benefits, teacher-directed academic instruction is prominent in kindergarten. There is increasing acknowledgment in curricula and policies of the challenges presented by a lack of play in classrooms and the need to support academic learning using developmentally appropriate practices. Current research emphasizes a narrow definition of play-based learning as a child-directed practice, resulting in teacher uncertainty about the implementation of this pedagogical approach. Fifteen kindergarten classrooms were examined using qualitative methodology, including observations and teacher interviews. Two different teacher profiles emerged: The 1st profile saw play and learning as separate constructs and reported challenges meeting academic demands using play-based learning. Their students primarily engaged in free play. The 2nd profile believed that play could support academic learning and that teachers fill an important role in play. Their students engaged in 5 different types of play, situated along a continuum from child directed to more teacher directed. Practice or Policy: The continuum of play-based learning provides a broader and more concrete definition of play-based learning to help teachers implement this pedagogical approach and to enhance the study of play-based learning in early years research. (author abstract)

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22.

Helping young children who have experienced trauma: Policies and strategies for early care and education
Bartlett, Jessica Dym, April, 2017
(Publication No. 2017-19). Bethesda, MD: Child Trends.

In this report, we describe early childhood trauma and its effects, offer promising strategies for ECE programs and systems to help young children who have experienced trauma, and present recommendations for state policymakers and other stakeholders looking to support trauma-informed ECE for this vulnerable group. (author abstract)

Other

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23.

Is dosage important?: Examining Head Start preschoolers' language and literacy learning after one versus two years of ExCELL
Hindman, Annemarie H., March/April 2017
Early Child Development and Care, 187(3-4), 342-357

The current study examined whether Head Start children who experienced a high-quality preschool intervention, Exceptional Coaching for Early Language and Literacy (ExCELL), as three-year-olds began the subsequent pre-kindergarten (or four-year-old) year with stronger language and literacy skills than same-age peers who entered ExCELL in pre-kindergarten, as well as whether any differences remained at the end of the pre-kindergarten year. A total of 159 Head Start preschoolers participated, including 88 four-year-olds who had 1 year of ExCELL and 71 four-year-olds who had participated in ExCELL for 2 years. All children were assessed on language and literacy measures assessing vocabulary, alphabet knowledge, and phonemic awareness. Results showed that children who experienced ExCELL at age 3 had stronger vocabulary, sound awareness, and alphabet skills at the start of the pre-kindergarten year than peers who were new to the programme. However, there were few differences between these groups in their learning over time, and they concluded the pre-kindergarten year on equal footing. Thus, two years (at ages 3 and 4) of participation in the ExCELL intervention was not associated with better early-reading-related outcomes than one, pre-kindergarten year (at age 4) alone. (author abstract)

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24.

Social experiences of children with disabilities in inclusive Portuguese preschool settings
Ferreira, Milene, March, 2017
Journal of Early Intervention, 39(1), 33-50

Based on peer sociometric reports, we examined how number of friendships, social acceptance, and characteristics of social networks vary as a function of disability profile. We also investigated teachers' awareness of the sociometric status of young children with disabilities. Participants were 86 children with disabilities (63 boys) enrolled in inclusive preschool classrooms of the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon, Portugal ([mean age] = 67.33 months, SD = 10.54). Findings suggest that children with severe or sociobehavioral disabilities may be at increased risk of social rejection and isolation, having fewer friends and lower social network centrality than children with mild disabilities. Low agreement between teachers' classifications of the social status of children with disabilities and classifications based on peer nominations raises concerns about their awareness of processes of social rejection and neglect. Findings highlight the need for interventions to support positive social experiences at the dyadic and group levels in Portuguese inclusive preschool classrooms. (author abstract)

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25.

"What do we do? This is not our area". Child care providers' experiences when working with families and preschool children living with parental mental illness
Laletas, Stella, March, 2017
Children and Youth Services Review, 74, 71-79

The prevalence of developmentally vulnerable children living with parental mental illness has been well documented, however due to stigmatised attitudes and prejudice these children may be 'hidden' and not identified as requiring additional assistance in early childhood settings. The aim of the present study was to explore the experiences and workforce needs of centre-based child care staff working with families living with parental mental illness. Eight staff (four child care workers and four child care directors) who worked in centre-based child care were interviewed using a semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenology Analysis framework. The findings of the present study highlighted four central themes: child development issues, tension around referral and worker anxiety, inadequate knowledge and training about parental mental illness and sensitivity when working with families. While these participants knowingly prioritized the importance of working with families in their daily work, they described feeling stressed and anxious about discussing referral options with these parents, and often worried about 'making things worse' for the child and the parent. The present study has contributed knowledge in regard to an important segment of the early childhood workforce; such information can inform the development of tailored professional training and resources that provide information about referral procedures and support programs for these families. (author abstract)

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26.

A review of the use of group contingencies in preschool settings
Pokorski, Elizabeth A., February, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 36(4), 230-241

Individual contingency management systems have been used successfully to improve behaviors in school settings--including preschools--but often come with associated challenges in time and personnel management. Group contingencies, in the form of independent, interdependent, and dependent contingencies, have been used in preschools to address these challenges. Although current reviews exist on the positive effects of these interventions with older students, none exist to date on the effects on preschool children. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research on the use of group contingencies in preschool classrooms. Clear trends emerged across studies regarding characteristics of participants, type of contingency used, intervention components, and rewards. (author abstract)

Literature Review

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27.

Teachers' perceptions of individualized education program (IEP) goals and related services
Musyoka, Millicent M., February, 2017
Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 29(1), 5-23

The rationale for developing an Individualized Education Program (IEP) is to identify appropriate goals to ensure that children who have disabilities are successful at school. This study focused on investigating teachers' views of the most important IEP goals for their young deaf students, as well as to ask them which services students were receiving. Our purpose was to identify the most prevalent IEP goals guiding early childhood education (ECE) programs and to determine whether services provided were appropriate for addressing the students' most critical needs. The participants included 118 young deaf children, ages 3-5, participating in the VL2 Early Educational Longitudinal Study (EELS). Results found that the IEP goals focused on three main areas: 1) improving school readiness; 2) improving communication (both sign communication and speech communication); and 3) improving pre-academic performance in targeted areas. Additionally, associations between specific IEP goals listed and related services were explored in relation to educational setting and school language philosophy. Recommendations for educational practice and further studies are provided. (author abstract)

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28.

Impact of bug-in-ear professional development on early childhood co-teachers' use of communication strategies
Ottley, Jennifer Riggie, February, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 36(4), 218-229

The goal of this study was to build the capacity of early childhood teachers to implement evidence-based strategies. We investigated the efficacy of professional development with bug-in-ear peer coaching in improving teachers' use of communication strategies, the teachers' maintenance of strategies post intervention, and the social validity of the intervention. Four early childhood co-teacher dyads participated in the single-case design study. Data were analyzed through visual analysis and masked visual analysis. Results indicate that three of the four teacher dyads increased the frequency with which they used the strategies, with one dyad sustaining their use of targeted strategies post intervention. All teachers perceived that the intervention had positive effects on their children and indicated that bug-in-ear peer coaching was an acceptable form of professional development. Nonetheless, implications for research and practice are discussed to ensure that performance-based feedback is as meaningful as possible. (author abstract)

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29.

Early literacy intervention for preschoolers who need Tier 3 support
Kaminski, Ruth A., February, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 36(4), 205-217

Phonemic awareness has been consistently identified as an essential skill for as well as an important predictor of later reading achievement. Children who lack these early literacy skills at kindergarten entry are more likely to demonstrate both short- and long-term reading difficulties. Despite the importance of providing intervention early, there is a paucity of research on Tier 3 early literacy interventions in preschool. A single-case multiple baseline across subjects design was used to examine the effects of a Tier 3 phonemic awareness intervention with preschool children who were identified as needing Tier 3 support in early literacy skills. The intervention was conducted individually with children, 5 to 10 min a day over an 8-week period. The results show gains in phonemic awareness for all children; however, the intervention was clearly more effective for some students than others. Factors that may have affected children's learning are discussed. (author abstract)

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30.

Identifying common practice elements to improve social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes of young children in early childhood classrooms
McLeod, Bryce D., February, 2017
Prevention Science, 18(2), 204-213

Educators are increasingly being encouraged to implement evidence-based interventions and practices to address the social, emotional, and behavioral needs of young children who exhibit problem behavior in early childhood settings. Given the nature of social-emotional learning during the early childhood years and the lack of a common set of core evidence-based practices within the early childhood literature, selection of instructional practices that foster positive social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes for children in early childhood settings can be difficult. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a study designed to identify common practice elements found in comprehensive intervention models (i.e., manualized interventions that include a number of components) or discrete practices (i.e., a specific behavior or action) designed to target social, emotional, and behavioral learning of young children who exhibit problem behavior. We conducted a systematic review of early childhood classroom interventions that had been evaluated in randomized group designs, quasi-experimental designs, and single-case experimental designs. A total of 49 published articles were identified, and an iterative process was used to identify common practice elements. The practice elements were subsequently reviewed by experts in social-emotional and behavioral interventions for young children. Twenty-four practice elements were identified and classified into content (the goal or general principle that guides a practice element) and delivery (the way in which a teacher provides instruction to the child) categories. We discuss implications that the identification of these practice elements found in the early childhood literature has for efforts to implement models and practices. (author abstract)

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31.

Defining and measuring access to high-quality early care and education: A guidebook for policymakers and researchers
Friese, Sarah, February, 2017
(OPRE Report No. 2017-08). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Establishing a common understanding of ECE access, and how to measure it across different types of early learning settings, is essential for state and local policymakers responsible for improving access. A common understanding of access allows policymakers, administrators, and researchers to communicate clearly about this important concept. A common set of measurable indicators of ECE access allow for accurate longitudinal and cross-state or intrastate comparisons, as well. The ECE Access Guidebook was developed to address the need for developing a common understanding and approach to measuring access. Ultimately, this Guidebook is intended to support states' efforts to assess the reach and effectiveness of their policy initiatives aimed at expanding ECE access. The Guidebook provides information in four sections: Clarifying and Defining Access; Describing the Indicators of Access; Measuring the Indicators of Access; and Identifying ECE Access Datasets and Sources. (author abstract)

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32.

The effects of language- and literacy-focused professional development on early educators and children: A best-evidence meta-analysis
Markussen-Brown, Justin, Q1 2017
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 38, 97-115

Professional development (PD) is increasingly used to improve early childhood educators' skills and knowledge in providing quality language and emergent literacy environments for children. However, the literature does not clearly indicate the extent to which such efforts reach their goals, or whether improvements in educator outcomes translate to learning gains for children. In the current synthesis, we conducted meta-analyses to evaluate the effects of language- and literacy-focused PD on process quality, structural quality, and educator knowledge as primary outcomes. Furthermore, we estimated effects for three child outcomes: receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, and alphabet knowledge. PD produced a medium effect for process quality and a large effect for structural quality but no effect for educator knowledge. PD also produced a small to medium effect for phonological awareness and a small effect for alphabet knowledge, but these were not predicted by gains in educator outcomes. Although course and coaching intensity and duration were related to effect sizes, the total number of PD components was the strongest predictor of process quality. The results suggested that PD is a viable method of improving language and literacy processes and structures in preschools, but effects may need to be substantial if they are to translate into higher child outcomes. (author abstract)

Literature Review

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33.

Universal screening to promote early identification of developmental delays: Exploring childcare providers' beliefs and practices
Boh, Andrea, 2017
Early Child Development and Care, , 1-15

Despite the availability of tools for conducting universal developmental screening, only a fraction of children who could benefit from early intervention services are actually identified before reaching school age. Childcare providers are in a unique position to enhance early identification efforts. A web-based survey was distributed to all licensed childcare providers (centre- and family-based) throughout one Midwestern state to learn about their beliefs and practices associated with universal screening. Preliminary results, based on 1565 responses, indicate that only 16.3% of licensed childcares are conducting developmental screening. However, 54% reported believing it to be part of their role. In addition to this discrepancy, beliefs about their role in developmental screening were also related to other practices that are associated with early identification efforts. Implications and suggestions for practice and policy changes related to early, universal developmental screening in childcare are discussed relative to existing belief systems and professional development needs. (author abstract)

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34.

Child care providers' competence and confidence in referring children at risk for developmental delays
Branson, Diane, January-March 2017
Infants & Young Children, 30(1), 41-57

Despite the benefits of early intervention for children, the majority of children with developmental delays are not identified prior to the age of 5 years. Child care providers could aid in recognition of children at risk for developmental delays; however, there is little research on this topic. This article reports on a qualitative research study used to investigate child care providers' ability to accurately assess child development and make appropriate referrals to Child Find agencies. Initial data analysis suggested that child care providers were able to recognize children at risk for developmental delays with or without using a standardized screening tool. The child care participants did not, however, always indicate that they would refer those children with whom they were concerned. Qualitative interview results revealed important supports that aid in child care providers identifying children at risk for developmental delays, as well as barriers that interfere with child care providers making appropriate referrals to Child Find agencies. (author abstract)

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35.

Differences in childcare quality -- a matter of personality traits, socialization goals and pre-service curriculum?
Eckhardt, Andrea G., 2017
Early Child Development and Care, , 1-12

International findings indicate only moderate childcare quality and results revealed significant differences between regions. So far, this difference cannot be explained by structural characteristics. Based on the National Study on Education, Learning and Upbringing in Early Childhood (NUBBEK) sample of 215 lead teachers, the influence of personality traits (Big Five) and socialization goals of childcare teachers on classroom quality (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale) and teacher-child interaction (Caregiver Interaction Scale) was investigated. First, significant differences in childcare quality were found between East and West Germany regarding classroom and interaction quality. Second, hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed differential effects in quality by region. Besides structural characteristics, personality traits and socialization goals provided additional information to understand variations in childcare quality. Further, type of pre-service education curriculum played an important role in predicting childcare quality. The analysis revealed substantial differences which can be attributed to pre-service education. Findings are discussed with respect to models of pre-service and in-service educational approaches in early childcare. (author abstract)

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36.

Pathways to relational family engagement with culturally and linguistically diverse families: Can reflective practice guide us?
Virmani, Elita Farine Amini, 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20, 91-115

This chapter reviews conceptualizations of parent involvement and family engagement as they aim to support children's learning and development and introduces the reader to relational family engagement, a new approach to engaging families in their children's early learning. Relational family engagement is discussed as central to effectively engaging culturally and linguistically diverse families as active contributors to their children's lifelong success as learners. The authors delineate three principles fundamental to relational family engagement, supported by an interdisciplinary review of research. Reflective practice is explored as a pathway to relational family engagement. The authors assert that the integration of reflective practice holds promise as a way to facilitate and deepen relationships among staff in early childhood programs, between the early childhood education program staff and families, and between families and children, such that children's early learning experiences are enhanced across both home and preschool contexts while drawing upon their families' cultural and linguistic assets. (author abstract)

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37.

Bornlearning(R) Academy: A school-based program for strengthening families with children under age five
Gilbert, Jaesook, 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20, 23-49

This chapter describes the Bornlearning(R) Academy (BLA), a school-based family engagement program predicated on the notion that families come to the table with knowledge and skills and can support children's learning by building on what they are already doing. It takes place in a school building within the families' school district, and it is a six-workshop series that utilizes materials available for free at bornlearning.org, a United Way Worldwide public engagement campaign. The goal of the BLA is to increase parents'/caregivers' understanding of their role in the education process of their children and to facilitate familiarization and establishment of positive experiences with the school personnel and the school district for the children and their families. Survey data demonstrated that parents/caregivers from a range of backgrounds enjoyed and learned from various BLA workshops. Gains on content questions indicated the BLA attendees learned, and responses indicated that attendees both intended to use what they learned at the workshops in their own interactions with their children and actually followed through on those intentions. (author abstract)

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38.

How does the narrowing of eligibility criteria affect enrollment in Part C early intervention?
Elbaum, Batya, January-March 2017
Infants & Young Children, 30(1), 28-40

In recent years, many states have narrowed their eligibility criteria for participation in the IDEA Part C early intervention (EI) program for infants and toddlers with or at risk for developmental delays. However, there is scant research on the effects of such a policy change on the population of children served or on the timing of children's access to EI services. Using data from an EI program serving a diverse, urban population in a large southeastern state, we compared characteristics of children who enrolled in EI the year before (n = 432) and the year after (n = 399), the state adopted more restrictive eligibility criteria for its EI program. Results indicated that following the policy change, children served in the program represented a smaller percentage of the resident birth-to-3 population; a smaller proportion of children enrolling in EI had mild delays; and children were 1.5 months older, on average, when they enrolled in services. The findings not only provide evidence that the narrowing of eligibility criteria achieved the intended effect of reducing EI enrollment but also raise concerns that the new policy may delay access to needed services for children with emergent developmental delays. (author abstract)

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39.

Collaborative coaching with EHS teachers using responsive communication strategies
Romano, Mollie, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, , 1-12

This study used a single-case, multiple baseline design to examine the effectiveness of collaborative coaching on three Early Head Start (EHS) teachers' use of responsive communication strategies with toddlers with communication delays. Child communication targets and teacher communication strategies were measured as secondary outcomes. The coaching approach included a joint planning session in which the interventionist and teachers chose child targets and how to embed strategies within classroom routines. The teachers increased their use of the responsiveness strategies in play and caregiving routines during intervention and maintenance. Child participants also increased their rates of communication during intervention and maintenance. Implications for professional development and the social validity of the approach are discussed. (author abstract)

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40.

ECoaching to enhance special educator practice and child outcomes
Coogle, Christan Grygas, January-March 2017
Infants & Young Children, 30(1), 58-75

Research suggests that there is a gap in what we know is best practice and what is taking place in inclusive early childhood classrooms for children identified with autism spectrum disorder. The purpose of this single-case design study was to examine the effect of eCoaching on (a) a preschool special educator's use of embedded learning opportunities, (b) children's responses to target embedded learning opportunities, and (c) children's expressive communication. Results suggest positive effects on the teacher's use of embedded learning opportunities, increases in child opportunities to practice communication, and variable effects on child communicative outcomes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. (author abstract)

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41.

Improving quality of the child care environment through a consultancy programme for centre directors
Helmerhorst, Katrien O.W., 2017
International Journal of Early Years Education, (), 1-18

This study examined the effects of a newly developed on-site consultancy programme to improve global quality of the child care environment in non-parental child care centres for 0- to 4-year-old children as measured with the ITERS-R/ECERS-R. Using a randomised controlled trial with a pretest, posttest, and follow-up test, we compared 35 experimental group with 33 control group. The consultancy programme comprised three consultations in total. Analysis on the items that were specifically targeted during the consultancy showed a significant improvement on these targeted items between pretest and posttest and between posttest and follow-up. The effect of the consultancy programme on the total scores (including the non-targeted items) was not significant. (author abstract)

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42.

Participation in early childhood educational environments for young children with and without developmental disabilities and delays: A mixed methods study
Benjamin, Tanya E., 2017
Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 37(1), 87-107

Aims: This mixed methods study examined: 1) how young children with and without developmental disabilities and delays participate in daycare or preschool activities; 2) similarities and differences in environmental factors impacting daycare or preschool participation; and 3) strategies used by parents who desired a change in their child's participation. Methods: Data were drawn from 129 parents of young children with and without developmental disabilities and delays (mean age = 49.3 months) residing in North America. Summary and item-level group differences based on disability status were assessed for participation and environmental supports to participation. Narrative data on parental strategies were content coded, transformed into numerical counts, and summarized to identify strategies commonly employed by parents to promote their child's participation. Results: Moderate to large disability related group differences in participation and environmental support to participation were found even after controlling for confounding effects of child age, child gender, and family income. Parents commonly described strategies focused on "child care tasks" and "child peer groups," irrespective of the type(s) of change they desired. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that discrepancies in school participation between young children with and without disabilities and delays can be detected and intervened on during the early childhood period. (author abstract)

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43.

Promoting the educational success of children and youth learning English: Promising futures
Takanishi, Ruby, 2017
Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs.

Educating dual language learners (DLLs) and English learners (ELs) effectively is a national challenge with consequences both for individuals and for American society. Despite their linguistic, cognitive, and social potential, many ELs--who account for more than 9 percent of enrollment in grades K-12 in U.S. schools--are struggling to meet the requirements for academic success, and their prospects for success in postsecondary education and in the workforce are jeopardized as a result. A defining characteristic of DLLs/ELs is their demographic diversity. They are members of every major racial/ethnic group and include both U.S.- and foreign-born youth. Most come from Latin America and Asia, with Mexico being their leading country of origin. They speak a wide range of languages, including Spanish, Korean, Chinese, Fulani, and French Creole, as well as other languages spoken in Europe, Asia, and other parts of the world. Relative to other U.S. children, DLLs/ELs are far more likely to live in poverty and in two-parent families with low levels of education. At the same time, DLLs/ELs have assets that may serve them well in their education and future careers. Those who become proficient in both a home or primary language ("L1") and English ("L2") are likely to reap benefits in cognitive, social, and emotional development and may also be protected from brain decline at older ages. In addition, the cultures, languages, and experiences of ELs are highly diverse and constitute assets for their development, as well as for the nation (Conclusion 3-1). This report addresses both the assets that DLLs/ELs bring to their education and the factors that support or may impede their educational success. (author abstract)

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44.

Going to scale: Exploring implementation of positive behaviour intervention and supports within and across different types of early childhood programmes
Johnson, LeAnne, 2017
Early Child Development and Care, (), 1-18

Despite calls to better prepare children for school entry, children with social, emotional, or behavioural needs continue to experience limited access to care that meets their needs. Despite frameworks for Positive Behaviour Intervention and Support (PBIS) that may aid in addressing children's needs, bringing those frameworks to scale in early childhood requires examination. This study explores the impact of a state agency-sponsored professional development system on the implementation of a PBIS framework by 132 educators representing seven different types of early childhood programmes (i.e. Head Start, child care centre, special education, etc.). Significant differences in implementation were observed by programme type in both the initial level of implementation and changes in implementation after receiving training and monthly coaching. Implications and future research are discussed relative to implementation supports that may need to vary by programme type when trying to bring a PBIS framework to scale in early childhood. (author abstract)

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45.

Integrating the Little Talks intervention into Early Head Start: An experimental examination of implementation supports involving fidelity monitoring and performance feedback
Manz, Patricia Holliday, 2017
Children and Youth Services Review, (),

Enriching home visiting services by incorporating scientifically-supported interventions is a means for improving their effectiveness in promoting child development. However, deliberate efforts to ensure that home visitors are fully knowledgeable and supported to implement interventions with parents of young children are necessary. In this experimental study, a randomly-assigned group of Early Head Start home visitors monitored the fidelity of their provision of a scientifically-based intervention, Little Talks, and the program's general child development services. On a bi-weekly basis, home visitors received performance feedback specific to their implementation of Little Talks and based upon the fidelity data. Findings demonstrated that home visitors showed immediate and consistent mastery of the Little Talks content, while the quality of their implementation, including their clinical decision-making and collaborative processes, improved to adequate levels over time. The Little Talks home visitors showed generalized improvements in their ability to obtain parent input while providing the program's typical child development services were detected. In fact, Little Talks home visitors' were superior in obtaining parent input relative to comparison home visitors. Further, parents for whom low-quality intervention implementation was observed discontinued their enrollment in home visiting prematurely, while high-quality implementation was associated with sustained enrollment. Limitations for this study are identified, leading to future directions for advancing home visitors' incorporation of evidence-based practices. (author abstract)

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46.

Weak mathematical skills at an early age: Persistent or temporary?: Children with weak mathematical skills and their development from toddlers to preschoolers
Reikeras, Elin, 2017
Early Child Development and Care, (), 1-13

The aim of the study is to examine how toddlers (33 months) with weak mathematical skills differ from their peers, the extent to which those weak skills persist into preschool age (57 months), and how the group with persisting weak skills differs from the group with temporary weak skills. Participants were 692 children (344 girls, 348 boys). The children were observed during play and daily-life activities over two three-month periods to make an authentic assessment of a wide area of mathematical skills. The toddlers with weak skills had weaker skills than their peers in all parts of mathematics. The largest difference was in the numerical areas. Only 25% had persistent weak skills into preschool age. No difference in mathematical skills was found between the persistently weak group and the temporarily weak group at toddler age. The findings indicate that predicting weak development in toddlers is difficult. (author abstract)

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47.

The role of teachers' comments during book reading in children's vocabulary growth
Barnes, Erica Marie, 2017
Journal of Educational Research, 110(5), 515-527

This study described the commenting practices of Head Start teachers, and the relationship of comments to the expressive and receptive vocabulary growth of children with below-the-mean language ability across one year of preschool. Participants included 52 Head Start teachers, and 489 children (247 early intervention candidates and 242 Head Start typical). Descriptive analyses reveal that teachers used informative comments that gave or explained information more frequently than comments that responded to children's utterances, and that these comments contained more conceptually focused content than vocabulary or skills content. Responsive and conceptually focused comments were significantly related to the children's receptive vocabulary growth, and were moderated by children's initial language ability indicating the presence of the Matthew Effect. These findings underscore the importance of integrating instructional comments into book reading sessions, and the need to differentiate instruction based on children's initial vocabulary sizes. Practical implications are discussed. (author abstract)

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48.

Implementing positive behavior support in preschools: An exploratory study of CW-FIT Tier 1
Jolstead, Krystine A., January, 2017
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19(1), 48-60

Challenging behavior in preschool is a serious concern for teachers. Positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) have been shown to be effective in reducing such behaviors. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a specific multi-tiered intervention for implementing effective classroom management strategies using PBIS practices. CW-FIT has been shown to be effective in elementary classrooms but has not yet been evaluated with younger age groups. CW-FIT Tier 1 is a group contingency utilizing social skills training, teacher praise, and positive reinforcement to improve student behavior. The present study examined the effects of CW-FIT Tier 1 implementation on student group on-task behavior and on teacher praise and reprimand rates in four preschool classrooms. A single-subject delayed multiple baseline design with embedded reversals was used to evaluate impact. Results indicated the intervention increased student group on-task behavior and teacher praise to reprimand ratios. Both teachers and children found CW-FIT Tier 1 to be socially valid. Limitations and implications of this study for researchers and practitioners are discussed. (author abstract)

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49.

Examining the predictive relations between two aspects of self-regulation and growth in preschool children's early literacy skills
Lonigan, Christopher J., January, 2017
Developmental Psychology, 53(1), 63-76

There is strong evidence that self-regulatory processes are linked to early academic skills, both concurrently and longitudinally. The majority of extant longitudinal studies, however, have been conducted using autoregressive techniques that may not accurately model change across time. The purpose of this study was to examine the unique associations between 2 components of self-regulation, attention and executive functioning (EF), and growth in early literacy skills over the preschool year using latent-growth-curve analysis. The sample included 1,082 preschool children (mean age = 55.0 months, SD = 3.73). Children completed measures of vocabulary, syntax, phonological awareness, print knowledge, cognitive ability, and self-regulation, and children's classroom teachers completed a behavior rating measure. To examine the independent relations of the self-regulatory skills and cognitive ability with children's initial early literacy skills and growth across the preschool year, growth models in which the intercept and slope were simultaneously regressed on each of the predictor variables were examined. Because of the significant relation between intercept and slope for most outcomes, slope was regressed on intercept in the models to allow a determination of direct and indirect effects of the predictors on growth in children's language and literacy skills across the preschool year. In general, both teacher-rated inattention and directly measured EF were uniquely associated with initial skills level; however, only teacher-rated inattention uniquely predicted growth in early literacy skills. These findings suggest that teacher ratings of inattention may measure an aspect of self-regulation that is particularly associated with the acquisition of academic skills in early childhood. (author abstract)

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50.

Efficacy of a supplemental phonemic awareness curriculum to instruct preschoolers with delays in early literacy development
Goldstein, Howard, January, 2017
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60(1), 89-103

Purpose: Children who do not develop early literacy skills, especially phonological awareness (PA) and alphabet knowledge, prior to kindergarten are at risk for reading difficulties. We investigated a supplemental curriculum with children demonstrating delays in these skills. Method: A cluster randomized design with 104 preschool-age children in 39 classrooms was used to determine the efficacy of a supplemental PA curriculum, PAth to Literacy. The curriculum consists of 36 daily scripted 10-min lessons with interactive games designed to teach PA and alphabet skills. A vocabulary intervention (Story Friends), which also uses a small-group format, served as the comparison condition. Results: Multilevel modeling indicated that children in the experimental condition demonstrated significantly greater gains on the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) First Sound Fluency (Dynamic Measurement Group, 2006) and Word Parts Fluency (Kaminski & Powell-Smith, 2011) measures. Educational relevance was evident: 82% of the children in the experimental condition met the kindergarten benchmark for First Sound Fluency compared with 34% of the children in the comparison condition. Teachers reported overall satisfaction with the lessons. Conclusions: Results indicated that the vast majority of children demonstrating early literacy delays in preschool may benefit from a supplemental PA curriculum that has the potential to prevent reading difficulties as children transition to kindergarten. (author abstract)

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