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1.

2012 report: Migrant and Seasonal Head Start Supplement to the National Agricultural Worker Survey
United States. Administration for Children and Families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, March, 2012
(OPRE Report No. 2012-13). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Findings on the characteristics of families with children under 6 years old from the National Agricultural Worker Survey (NAWS), a national random sample survey of crop farmworkers, and findings on families' child care experiences from the NAWS Migrant and Seasonal Head Start Supplement, which is administered to NAWS respondents with children under the age of 6

Reports & Papers

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2.

Access to Early Care and Education (ECE) for Disadvantaged Families
Madill, Rebecca, 2015
Child Trends

The purpose of the present study is to understand the role that state-level child care subsidy policies play in predicting disadvantaged families' access to high-quality early care and education (ECE). The federal Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) has dual goals of supporting parental employment and providing high-quality ECE to children. States set many of their own policies for administering child care subsidies to disadvantaged families, but it is unclear how different subsidy policies are related to access to ECE in different populations--especially ethnic minorities and families with limited English proficiency. This study has three objectives: 1. Provide descriptive information comparing the ECE experiences of subsidy-eligible and ineligible children 2. Determine whether certain combinations of subsidies (i.e., subsidy profiles) are associated with whether economically-disadvantaged children receive subsidies. 3. Determine how subsidy policy profiles are associated with economically-disadvantaged families' access to ECE.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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3.

Access to early care and education for children in immigrant families: Research-to-policy resources
Stephens, Samuel A., September, 2017
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

This Research-to-Policy Resource List focuses on resources in the Research Connections collection published in 2010 or later that focus on access to early care and education for children in immigrant families. The resources on this list are organized into the following categories: research reviews, research based on large-scale national datasets, and research based on smaller-scale, in-depth, and/or localized (state- or community-level) studies. These resources provide information on immigrant status as a factor in access to early care and education, on the benefits that early education experiences offer children in immigrant families, as well as on barriers to access and strategies to address those barriers. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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4.

Achieving Head Start Effectiveness Through Intensive Curriculum Training
Schweinhart, Lawrence J.; Daniel-Echols, Marijata, 2001
High/Scope Educational Research Foundation

The research question of this project asks whether intensive training in, and confirmed practice of, a proven curriculum model enables Head Start teachers to contribute significantly to children's development, especially their development of language, literacy, and the ability to resolve social conflict. It also asks the related question of whether Head Start teachers who claim to use a proven curriculum but have little or no training in it, and have not confirmed their practice of it contribute significantly to children's development. The proposed project will use a curriculum model of proven effectiveness, the High/Scope curriculum framework, to test this hypothesis. The intervention we propose involves intensive curriculum training and curriculum implementation confirmed by systematic observation. We ask if meeting these conditions contributes significantly to children's development. The primary intervention will involve 20 Head Start classrooms of Oakland Livingston Human Services Agency. From March to August 2001, we will plan and provide 30 days of training, observation-feedback, and discussion for the teaching staff, collecting curriculum data quite regularly. We will track their classroom program for two years, collecting observational data on children regularly throughout. We will identify a second Head Start agency for the secondary intervention, randomly assigning 20 classrooms to a comparison group and 20 classrooms to the intervention group, which will receive 30 days of training, observation-feedback, and discussion during the 2002-2003 program year. We will track their classroom programs for two years, following the same data collection schedule as before for both groups. Today's key challenge to Head Start is to identify program practices that contribute to program effectiveness. The High/Scope curriculum model is one of the few interventions with evidence that it serves this purpose. We propose to test the effectiveness not of this proven curriculum model, but rather of intensive training in this validated curriculum model and its verified implementation in Head Start. In this way we will determine whether the tougher curriculum standards we propose - validated curriculum model, intensive curriculum training, and verified implementation - are critical to Head Start's success.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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5.

Adaptation and Evaluation of a Parenting Intervention with Families of English Language Learners Attending Head Start
Mendez, Julia L., 2007
University of North Carolina at Greensboro

University of North Carolina- Greensboro is implementing a parenting intervention, The Companion Curriculum: Home-based Learning Activities for Parents and Children, that exposes English Language Learner (ELL) families to the educational, mental health, and family involvement components of Head Start contained within the National Performance Standards. Specifically, the curriculum is designed to offer parents hands-on experience with educational activities that take place within their children's Head Start classrooms, in order to promote increased parent-child interaction at home and parent involvement at school. The target population includes 40-50 Spanish-speaking or Turkish-Speaking ELL children per year. In Year 1, the intervention was adapted for use with specific ELL families, and in Years 2-3, the program is being evaluated using a randomized design to determine effects of the intervention on children, parents, and teachers. Results are expected to yield new data regarding effective strategies for promoting readiness for children.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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6.

Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention to Improve Social and Behavioral Competence in Head Start Children: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training
Campbell, Christopher; Hansen, David J., 2009
University of Nebraska, Lincoln

The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an empirically-based, cost-effective, and short-term teacher training program, Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT). The TCIT intervention (an adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for use with teachers) was designed to improve social and behavioral competence in Head Start children, and to increase teacher-efficacy and satisfaction for Head Start teachers. The aims of the proposed project are to evaluate: (1) the acquisition of TCIT skills by teachers in the training room (as assessed by behavior observations); (2) the generalization and maintenance of TCIT skills in the classroom (as assessed by behavior observations); (3) changes in Head Start children's social and behavioral competencies (as measured by behavioral observations in the classroom, teacher reports, and parental reports); and (4) Head Start teachers' perceptions of teaching efficacy and satisfaction (assessed by teacher-report measures). This research will provide important information to Head Start researchers, practitioners, and policy makers on the efficacy of a widely applicable and easily disseminated teacher training program in reducing a broad spectrum of social and behavioral problems that could negatively impact preschoolers' acquisition of important skills relevant to future school readiness and adjustment.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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7.

Adapting an evidence-based intervention to improve social and behavioral competence in Head Start children: Evaluating the effectiveness of teacher-child interaction training
Campbell, Christopher, July, 2011
(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE

Empirical studies indicate that as many as 35% of Head Start children meet the diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (Webster-Stratton & Hammond, 1998). Without early intervention, these problematic behaviors may become stable across childhood and adolescence (Campbell, 1995), increasing the likelihood of academic problems, school drop-out, substance abuse, delinquency, and violence (Snyder, 2001). Head Start children are also more likely to enter school with significant deficits in social-emotional readiness, with a many as 40% demonstrating delays in social competencies and communication abilities (Kaiser et al., 2000). Longitudinal research indicates that early gaps in social competence for socioeconomically challenged children persist and even widen as children progress in school (Huffman, Mehlinger, & Kerivan, 2001), and conduct problems become increasingly resistant to change over time (Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Hammond, 2001). Thus, intervention efforts to ensure children's competence across social and behavioral domains must begin as early as possible; ideally within the preschool years (Mashburn & Pianta, 2006). The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an empirically-based and short-term teacher intervention - Teacher-Child Interaction Training Preschool Program (TCIT-PRE). The TCIT-PRE program was designed to improve social and behavioral competence for preschool children, and increase efficacy and satisfaction for preschool teachers. Participants were six teachers and 101 children (and their caregivers) from three Head Start Centers. Overall, research findings indicated that: (a) Head Start teachers were able to acquire and master the TCIT-PRE skills with individual and small groups of children during training sessions; (b) TCIT-PRE skills acquired in the training room generalized to the classroom environment; (c) the utilization of TCIT-PRE skills by Head Start teachers was associated with improved social and behavioral competence for Head Children, both in the classroom and at home; and (d) the TCIT-PRE program was well received by Head Start teachers, many of whom reported increased efficacy and satisfaction after completing the program. Implications for early childhood intervention programs and future directions for the TCIT-PRE program are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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8.

Addressing challenging behaviors in Head Start: A closer look at program policies and procedures
Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene; et al., February, 2011
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30(4), 209-220

An examination of Head Start policies and procedures related to child guidance and challenging behaviors, based on interviews with program staff and document analysis from 6 Head Start programs in the Midwest

Reports & Papers

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9.

Addressing mental health, behavioral health, and social and emotional well-being in Head Start: Insights from the Head Start Health Manager Descriptive Study
Karoly, Lynn A.; Martin, Laurie T., October, 2016
(OPRE Report 2016-90). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

In this brief, our primary goal is to place a spotlight on mental health, behavioral health, and social and emotional well-being in Head Start and Early Head Start (HS/EHS), drawing on data from the Head Start Health Manager Descriptive Study (HSHMDS) (see text box) to identify the nature of the health issues programs face, the approach to staffing and the types of supports and services provided, and the community partners that programs work with to address this important aspect of early childhood health. In particular, we focus on the following questions: - What mental health, behavioral health, and social and emotional well-being issues do HS/EHS programs face? - What staffing models are used to address this domain of health? How does staff training address mental health, behavioral health, and social and emotional well-being? - What health programming (e.g., services, activities, education) is in place to address mental health, behavioral health, and social and emotional well-being issues? - How are programs leveraging the Health Services Advisory Committee (HSAC), health care providers, and other community resources to address mental health, behavioral health, and social and emotional well-being? While we rely primarily on findings from the Health Manager Survey, we also integrate some of the qualitative findings based on the interviews with health managers and other program staff. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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10.

Addressing oral health in Head Start: Insights from the Head Start Health Manager Descriptive Study
Martin, Laurie T.; Karoly, Lynn A., October, 2016
(OPRE Report 2016-84). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

As reported by health managers in the Head Start Health Manager Descriptive Study (HSHMDS) (see textbox for more information), one of the major health issues confronting HS/EHS programs is tooth decay. Thus, in this brief, our primary objective is to draw on the quantitative and qualitative data collected for the HSHMDS to obtain insights into the ways in which HS/EHS programs are addressing the issues of tooth decay for the children and families they serve. In particular, we focus on the following questions: - What is the perceived burden of tooth decay on HS/EHS programs? - What health programming (e.g., services, activities, education) and policies are currently in place to address tooth decay? - What staffing models are used to address need? How is staff training addressing tooth decay? - How are programs leveraging other partners, community resources and the Health Services Advisory Committee (HSAC) to address tooth decay? (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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11.

Addressing overweight and obesity in Head Start: Insights from the Head Start Health Manager Descriptive Study
Martin, Laurie T.; Karoly, Lynn A., October, 2016
(OPRE Report 2016-85). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

As reported by health managers in the Head Start Health Manager Descriptive Study (HSHMDS) (see textbox for more information), one of the major health issues confronting Head Start (HS) and Early Head Start (EHS) programs is overweight and obesity both for the children they serve, as well as the children's adult family members. Thus, in this brief, our primary objective is to draw on the quantitative and qualitative data collected for the HSHMDS to obtain insights into the ways in which HS/EHS programs are addressing the issues of overweight and obesity for the children and families they serve. In particular, we focus on the following questions: - What is the perceived burden of overweight and obesity on HS/EHS programs? - What health programming (e.g., services, activities, education) and policies are currently in place to address overweight and obesity? - What staffing models are used to address need? How is staff training addressing overweight and obesity? - How are programs leveraging other partners, community resources and the Health Services Advisory Committee (HSAC) to address overweight and obesity? (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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12.

Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention: Extending validity and relevance across multiple perspectives
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Fantuzzo, John W., 2004
Psychology in the Schools, 41(7), 725-736

Two studies evaluating the behavioral and emotional difficulties of Head Start preschool children, and assessing the reliability and concurrent validity of the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention (ASPI)

Reports & Papers

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13.

Administrative data as children's well-being indicators: The South Carolina Data Bridge Project
Lavenda, Osnat; Hunter, Beverly; Noelle, McInerney; et al., July, 2011
Child Indicators Research, 4(3), 439-451

Administrative data are data regularly collected by organizations for monitoring and documentation purposes. They usually represent entire populations; they are timely; and have direct influence on their sources which are mostly governmental agencies. We argue in this paper that administrative data can and should be used as indicators of children's well-being as they constitute an existing body of knowledge that has the potential to form and influence policy. Such use of administrative data as of child well-being indicators is demonstrated by the South Carolina Data Bridge Project, initiated with a child care research capacity grant awarded in 2007 by the Office of Planning, Research and Families (OPRE) to study the impact of Child Care and Development Fund on the quality of care available to and utilized by low-income working parents and at-risk families. The project's goal was achieved by linking different sources of child care administrative data to create analytic data cubes that allow the examination of quality of care provided to children and factors contributing to it. This project indicates the importance of administrative data and their potential impact on well-informed decision making and policy change to improve children and families' well-being. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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14.

Advisory Committee on Head Start Research and Evaluation
United States. Administration for Children and Families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, 2010
Advisory Committee on Head Start Research and Evaluation

The purpose of the Advisory Committee on Head Start Research and Evaluation ("the Committee") is to review and make recommendations on the design of the study or studies that provide a national analysis of the impact of Head Start programs. The Committee will also advise the Secretary of Health and Human Services ("the Secretary") regarding the progress of the study.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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15.

African American father involvement and preschool children's school readiness
Downer, Jason T.; Mendez, Julia L., July, 2005
Early Education and Development, 16(3), 317-340

A developmental ecological model was used to identify child attributes, father characteristics, and familial factors associated with multidimensional father involvement with preschool children enrolled in Head Start. The relations between father involvement and children's school readiness were also investigated. Eighty-five African American fathers and father figures were surveyed about their involvement in child care, home-based educational and school-based educational activities. Children's school readiness competencies were evaluated via teacher report or direct assessment. Father involvement in child care and home-based educational activities were predicted by different contextual factors and child attributes. Fathers were more involved in child care activities when they lived in a child's home and when a child was highly emotional. Fathers who perceived the existence of a strong parenting alliance reported more involvement in home-based educational activities. Father involvement in child care and home-based educational activities was associated with higher levels of children's emotion regulation. Findings are consistent with a contextual, multidimensional perspective of African American fathering and hold policy implications for fatherhood initiatives in the early childhood education field. Efforts to increase father involvement may be most effective when addressing the multitude of influences on fathering behavior and focusing on father-child activities that occur outside of the preschool setting. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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16.

Aligning stage-appropriate evaluation with the stages of implementation: Formative evaluation and fidelity
Blasberg, Amy, 2013
In T. Halle, A. Metz, & I. Martinez-Beck (Eds.), Applying implementation science in early childhood programs and systems (pp. 95-96). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes

An introduction to a section of the book Applying Implementation Science in Early Childhood Programs and Systems, focusing on the application of implementation science concepts to the early stages of early care and education program implementation

Other

17.

Aligning stage-appropriate evaluation with the stages of implementation: Ongoing monitoring and scale-up/replication
Blasberg, Amy, 2013
In T. Halle, A. Metz, & I. Martinez-Beck (Eds.), Applying implementation science in early childhood programs and systems (pp. 171-172). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes

An introduction to a section of the book Applying Implementation Science in Early Childhood Programs and Systems, focusing on the application of implementation science concepts to the later stages of early care and education program implementation

Other

18.

"Alumbrando el Camino/Bright Moments:" A Curriculum for Staff Working with EHS Parents with Depressive Symptoms
Beeber, Linda, 2005
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Nursing

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill developed and tested a curriculum to assist staff with interventions and support for English-speaking and Spanish-speaking only parents with depressive symptoms in the course of regular Early Head Start (EHS) programs. Participants will include 100 EHS families. Implementation, fidelity and staff, parent and child outcomes will be documented. Parenting and parent-toddler interactions were assessed 9 months and 12 months post-program participation. Results of the project included the enhancement of EHS staff's ability to work with parents with depressive symptoms through promotion of parents' positive interactions with their children. Through strengthening EHS services with depressed parents and families, more positive child social and emotional outcomes will result, thus allowing a vulnerable population of infants and toddlers to benefit from EHS child enrichment resources.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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19.

American Indian-Alaska Native Head Start Research Center
Spicer, Paul, 2005
University of Colorado at Denver

This grant cooperative agreement supported a Head Start American Indian/Alaska Native Research Center at the University of Colorado at Denver-Health Sciences Center. The purpose of the Center was to provide leadership and offer support in the development and facilitation of local American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) Head Start research, and strengthen the ability of local researchers to conduct model research projects (based in universities and other nonprofit research institutions) in collaboration with Head Start AIAN program staff and members of tribal communities. The Center engaged in a variety of activities that promoted community participatory research in early childhood research, contributed to the knowledge base, improved research capacity, and provided leadership and support for research on the early development of American Indian/Alaska Native children. Activities included the support of three local research partnerships projects with universities and tribal Head Start programs. These include: Michigan State University and the Intertribal Council of Michigan, and Oregon State University and the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. The Center also supported training fellowships that assist in the professional development of researchers who are interested or have worked on Head Start and early childhood Native American research, The Center also conducted a pilot study to determine how well research measures used in large national studies (such as FACES and Baby FACES) work among AIAN Head Start and Early Head Start children, families, and classrooms.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

20.

American Indian and Alaska Native Early Childhood Needs Assessment (AI/AN EC Needs Assessment) Design Project
Malone, Lizabeth M., 2014
Mathematica Policy Research

The American Indian and Alaska Native Early Childhood Needs Assessment (AI/AN EC Needs Assessment) design project seeks to lay a foundation for understanding the need for early childhood services in American Indian and Alaska Native communities. This project outlines a series of designs for future studies that will inform a national assessment of the unmet need for early childhood care, education, and home visiting services (prenatal to age 5) in tribal communities. The AI/AN EC Needs Assessment Community of Learning (CoL) was formed to share a range of perspectives on the AI/AN EC Needs Assessment, especially cultural considerations based on firsthand experiences with AI/AN children, families, and programs as well as conducting research in tribal communities. The CoL is composed of tribal practitioners and research partners from each of the ACF services of interest (Head Start and Early Head Start, child care, and home visiting); researchers from the Tribal Early Childhood Research Center and Mathematica Policy Research; and federal staff from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Office of Head Start, Office of Child Care, and the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Early Childhood Development.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

21.

American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (AI/AN FACES)
United States. Administration for Children and Families,
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families.

Nationally, about 35,575 American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children and their families are served by Head Start. Just over half of these children and families are served by 150 AI/AN Head Start programs in Region XI. While we have a wealth of information about Head Start children and families in general, we have little information about those who attend Head Start programs in Region XI, which includes both Native and non-Native children. A major source of descriptive information on Head Start-the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES)-has not historically included Region XI programs, children and families. As a result, we have little data to assess the service needs of the children and families in Region XI and to help inform policies and practices for addressing these needs. The American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (AI/AN FACES) is designed to fill this information gap with tribal voices at the forefront. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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22.

American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (AI/AN FACES)
Malone, Lizabeth M.; Sarche, Michelle C., 2013
Mathematica Policy Research

Since 1997, FACES has conducted studies in a nationally representative sample of Head Start programs, but has historically not included Region XI, whose programs are designed to serve predominantly AI/AN children and families. AI/AN FACES, is designed to fill this information gap. Data collection with Region XI children, families, classrooms, and programs began in the fall of 2015, and was repeated in the spring of 2016. Twenty-one Region XI Head Start programs were included in the final sample.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

23.

The American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Study progress and selected findings from the first national study of Tribal Head Start programs
Godfrey, Angie; Sarche, Michelle C.; West, Jerry; et al., September, 2016
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

This webinar provides a brief overview of the American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (AI/AN FACES), including study planning, design, and features. Initial findings based on child assessments, parent surveys, and teacher reports are presented from the Fall 2015 data collection, representative of Region XI Head Start programs run by tribal communities.

Multimedia

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24.

The American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey: Study progress and selected findings from the first national study of Tribal Head Start programs [PowerPoint]
Godfrey, Angie; Sarche, Michelle C.; West, Jerry; et al., September, 2016
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

This PowerPoint presentation accompanies a webinar that provides a brief overview of the American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (AI/AN FACES), including study planning, design, and features. Initial findings based on child assessments, parent surveys, and teacher reports are presented from the Fall 2015 data collection, representative of Region XI Head Start programs run by tribal communities.

Other

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25.

Annotated bibliography on early childhood research with Puerto Rican children, families, and programs: Building human services research partnerships in Puerto Rico
Barrueco, Sandra; Agosto, Jean G.; Davis, Anna E.; et al., 2014
San Juan, PR: Inter-American University of Puerto Rico.

This annotated bibliography identifies and summarizes pertinent early childhood research that has been conducted with the Puerto Rican community on the mainland and the island. As evidenced in the bibliography, the topics cover a wide range of topics, such as infant, toddler, and preschool development; health, linguistic, and cognitive development; parenting practices; programmatic influences; and more. (author abstract)

Bibliographies

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26.

The Antecedents and Outcomes of Early Care and Education Programs for Latino Children in America: A Mixed Methods Study
Ansari, Arya; Gershoff, Elizabeth, 2014
University of Texas at Austin

Latino families represent the fastest-growing minority population in the U.S., but they are also the least likely group to enroll their children in some form of non-parental care the year before kindergarten. Why Latino families utilize less formal arrangements remains unclear. With the national push to expand preschool education, there has been growing interest in theoretically grounded research that can uncover the factors supporting or inhibiting Latino families' participation in preschool education as well as their underlying motivations and perceptions of their agency in navigating the child care system. Additionally, although preschool programs can facilitate children's short-term academic success, their long-term effects are often ambiguous, with little evidence for Latino children across the country.

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27.

Appendix
Burchinal, Margaret, June, 2016
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 81(2), 95-98

This appendix provides two tables of information related to a study of the relationship between children's development and quality levels, quality features, and the extent of children's exposure to early care and education, based on secondary data analyses of eight large-scale studies of preschool children. The tables consist of child and family characteristics for matched and unmatched child samples in the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2006 and 2009) and the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS).

Other

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28.

Appendix 4: A guide to understanding state child care subsidy programs through analysis of public and non-public use datasets
Zanoni, Wladimir; Douglas-Hall, Ayana; Goerge, Robert; et al., August, 2009
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

A guide to using survey data from the Census Bureau and administrative data generated by state child care subsidy and other programs to study child care subsidy take-up rates and the relationship between parental employment and child care subsidy receipt

Other

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29.

Appendix C: Effect size outcomes by intervention and developmental groups
Murray, Desiree W.; Rosanbalm, Katie; Christopoulos, Christina; et al., February, 2016
(OPRE Report #2016-34). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

This Appendix summarizes the available evidence from our literature review for interventions that build self-regulation across development. This information is provided as a reference for the report entitled Self-Regulation and Toxic Stress: A Systematic Review of Self-Regulation Interventions, and should not be interpreted independently. The purpose of this Appendix is to present specific findings upon which this report's conclusions were based. (author abstract)

Other

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30.

Applications of implementation science to early care and education programs and systems: Implications for research, policy, and practice
Halle, Tamara; Zaslow, Martha; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse; et al., 2013
In T. Halle, A. Metz, & I. Martinez-Beck (Eds.), Applying implementation science in early childhood programs and systems (pp. 295-314). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes

A discussion of the research, policy, and practice implications from a collection of writings on the role of implementation science in early care and education, with examples of applications of implementation science principles, strategies, and frameworks to early care and education practices, programs, and systems

Other

31.

Applying implementation science in early childhood programs and systems
Halle, Tamara; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse; Metz, Allison J. R.; et al., 2013
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes

A collection of writings on the role of implementation science in early care and education, with examples of applications of implementation science principles, strategies, and frameworks to early care and education practices, programs, and systems

Other

32.

Applying lessons learned from evaluations of model early care and education programs to preparation for effective implementation at scale
Downer, Jason T., 2013
In T. Halle, A. Metz, & I. Martinez-Beck (Eds.), Applying implementation science in early childhood programs and systems (pp. 157-169). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes

A discussion of the roles of coaching and intervention fidelity data in supporting successful program implementation

Other

33.

Approaches to assessing the language and literacy skills of young dual language learners: A review of the research
Aikens, Nikki; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Bandel, Eileen; et al., 2012
(Research Brief No. 10). Chapel Hill, NC: Center for Early Care and Education Research: Dual Language Learners.

A summary of a review of the procedures used to assess the language and literacy development of young dual language learners, based on 80 studies from Canada and the United States

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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34.

Approaches to measuring Early Head Start-child care partnerships: Recommendations and considerations
Paulsell, Diane; Del Grosso, Patricia; Bernstein, Sara; et al., September, 2015
(OPRE Report No.2015-62). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

The Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), awarded a contract to Mathematica Policy Research and its partners to carry out the Study of Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships. ACF's goal for the study is to understand whether these partnerships provide continuity of care; meet families' needs for child care; and improve outcomes for providers, families, and children. As part of the project, we developed a theory of change that includes four sets of constructs: (1) inputs to the partnerships, (2) partnership activities, (3) short- and long-term outcomes, and (4) organizational and contextual factors that influence the partnerships. The purpose of this report is to provide a roadmap for measuring all aspects of the partnerships included in the theory of change. We developed the report with a broad range of stakeholders in mind, including researchers, administrators, and practitioners. The recommended measurement approaches will also inform the evaluation design and data collection plan for the Study of Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships. For each element in the model, we describe the constructs, data elements, data collection methods, and recommended measures, as well as the types of questions that can be answered and how the proposed data collection can inform policy, practice, and research. We conclude with a description of our approach to developing and pre-testing new measures and qualitative data collection protocols. (author abstract)

Other

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35.

Approaches to measuring Early Head Start-child care partnerships: Recommendations and considerations [Executive summary]
Paulsell, Diane; Del Grosso, Patricia; Bernstein, Sara; et al., September, 2015
(OPRE Report 2015-62). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

The Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), awarded a contract to Mathematica Policy Research and its partners to carry out the Study of Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships. ACF's goal for the study is to understand whether these partnerships provide continuity of care; meet families' needs for child care; and improve outcomes for providers, families, and children. As part of the project, we developed a theory of change that includes four sets of constructs: (1) inputs to the partnerships, (2) partnership activities, (3) short- and long-term outcomes, and (4) organizational and contextual factors that influence the partnerships. The purpose of this report is to provide a roadmap for measuring all aspects of the partnerships included in the theory of change. We developed the report with a broad range of stakeholders in mind, including researchers, administrators, and practitioners. The recommended measurement approaches will also inform the evaluation design and data collection plan for the Study of Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships. For each element in the model, we describe the constructs, data elements, data collection methods, and recommended measures, as well as the types of questions that can be answered and how the proposed data collection can inform policy, practice, and research. We conclude with a description of our approach to developing and pre-testing new measures and qualitative data collection protocols. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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36.

Are Child Care Subsidies Cost-Effective?
Herbst, Chris M.; Lopez, Mark, 2005
University of Maryland

A study of the cost-effectiveness of child care subsidies along two dimensions: (1) a comparison of measures of cost-effectiveness to the alternative of an Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); and (2) clarification of an optimal design strategy through the exploitation of the substantial cross-state policy innovation. The issue addressed is the extent to which these policies increase incentives for labor supply and human capital development, while reducing poverty and receipt of cash assistance. The study employs an empirical approach involving three broad steps: (1) modeling labor supply as a function of key budget constraint variables, including child care costs and the EITC, using a sample of single women; (2) modeling a number of indicators of educational attainment, in-school status, and job training enrollment as a function of child care costs and the EITC; and (3) conducting a welfare analysis on various components of states' CCDF comparisons in order to clarify an optimal design strategy. Data is drawn from multiple sources, primarily the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

37.

Are Higher Subsidy Payment Rates and Provider-Friendly Payment Policies Associated with Child Care Quality?
Derrick-Mills, Teresa; Greenberg, Erica; Isaacs, Julia B.; et al., 2015
Urban Institute

The goal of this project is to provide policy makers and the research community with useful information on whether subsidy payment rates and the adoption of various payment practices and policies is associated with the quality of child care centers and homes attended by children receiving child care subsidies. Literature to date has primarily examined whether child care subsidies are associated with child care quality and stability, but little is known about the extent to which payment policies and practices, which vary across states, can mediate the relationship between subsidy receipt and quality of care. This study combines data on payment rates and practices, drawn largely from the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Policies Database, with a variety of quality indicators available in the 2012 National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE).

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38.

Are two years better than one year?: A propensity score analysis of the impact of Head Start program duration on children's school performance in kindergarten
Wen, Xiaoli; Korfmacher, Jon; Marcus, Sue M.; et al., Q4 2012
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(4), 684-694

A comparison of academic and social outcomes by the end of kindergarten between children who attended Head Start for two years and the ones who attended for one year, based on data from 1,778 Head Start children from the Family and Child Experience Survey (FACES)2003

Reports & Papers

39.

Assessing Early Childhood Teachers' Use of Child Progress Monitoring to Individualize Teaching Practices
Monahan, Shannon; Atkins-Burnett, Sally, 2012
Mathematica Policy Research

This contract supported the development of a literature review, conceptual model, and tool designed to measure teachers' use of child assessments for individualizing instruction to support optimal development in early childhood settings. The literature review summarized the research on child assessment and individualized instruction and includes a conceptual model as a means of articulating the theoretical relations between key constructs underlying the process. A measurement plan derived from the literature review outlined key constructs, defined relevant terms and mechanisms, and proposed options for measurement that would be feasible in a variety of early childhood contexts. As a result of this work as well as two iterative rounds of pretesting, the Examining Data Informing Teaching (EDIT) measure was developed.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

40.

Assessing the evidence of effectiveness of home visiting program models implemented in tribal communities
Del Grosso, Patricia; Kleinman, Rebecca; Sama Martin, Emily; et al., August, 2011
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

This report describes the findings from the review of home visiting programs implemented in tribal communities or evaluated with American Indian or Alaska Native families and children. The original review was conducted in fall 2010 and the report was released in February 2011. This report was updated in August 2011 based on additional studies identified through an updated literature search conducted in spring 2011. (author abstract)

Literature Review

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41.

Assessing the evidence of effectiveness of home visiting program models implemented in tribal communities
Del Grosso, Patricia; Sama-Miller, Emily; Kleinman, Rebecca; et al., September, 2013
(OPRE Report No. 2013-41). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

This report describes the findings from the review of home visiting programs implemented in tribal communities or evaluated with American Indian or Alaska Native families and children. The original review was conducted in fall 2010 and the report was released in February 2011. This report is updated annually, most recently in August 2013 based on studies identified through an updated literature search conducted in early 2013 to identify new studies released during 2012, as well as to incorporate studies identified by the HomVEE team as including an AIAN population that were not previously included in the report. (author abstract)

Literature Review

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42.

Assessing the Impact of Child Care Subsidy on Program Access and Quality: Evaluation Planning
Lazarte-Alcala, Naneida R.; Johnson, Anna D.; Phillips, Deborah A.; et al., 2017
Oklahoma, Department of Human Services

This project aims to lay the foundation for future evaluative work that will contribute to knowledge about the efficacy of early care and education (ECE) programs, including child care subsidies, in achieving recent Federal goals and priorities such as increasing access by low-income families to high-quality ECE programs and promoting the healthy development and school readiness of children served. This Phase I project will support planning and development of evaluation work that will lay the foundation for assessment of key aspects of Oklahoma's CCDF subsidy program. These key aspects, to be assessed in Phase II, include understanding features of access (e.g., how parents learn about and access programs; patterns of program use by children; coordination and collaboration across ECE programs available to low-income children), as well as supporting quality improvement (e.g., possibility of developing a self-assessment tool for quality monitoring and improvement). In this context, for this Phase I project, we will establish a researcher-practitioner partnership with nationally recognized early childhood researchers at Georgetown University; examine how parents use information about subsidized programs to select care; explore possibilities for supporting providers as they self-assess program quality to promote continued quality improvement; and refine a data system to describe where subsidy recipients receive care, what alternatives they considered, and, for the non- recipients, which alternatives they actually pursued among the other ECE programs listed above. Accomplishing these objectives will endow the Lead Agency with the expertise, partnerships, systems, information, and deliverables needed to prepare a competitive application for Phase II project funding, to implement the research plan.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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43.

Assessing the Implementation and Cost of High Quality Early Care and Education (ECE-ICHQ)
Kirby, Gretchen; Caronongan, Pia; Boller, Kimberly; et al., 2014
Mathematica Policy Research

Growing evidence about the benefits of high quality care for young children, particularly low-income children, has garnered a strong commitment at both the federal and state levels to improve the quality of early care and education (ECE) programs. Yet, in an environment of competing demands and limited resources, policymakers, administrators, and other key stakeholders lack the information needed to effectively target funds to increase quality in ECE. The existing research base about the association between the costs and quality of ECE is not sufficient to inform these decisions. The Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), has launched the Assessing the Implementation and Cost of High-Quality ECE (ECE-ICHQ) project. The goal of the project is to create a technically sound, feasible, and useful instrument that will provide consistent and systematic measures of the implementation and costs of quality to help fill the knowledge gap about the cost of providing and improving quality in ECE. The unique contribution of the project is its focus on documenting implementation by using an implementation science lens (parsing out context and implementation inputs and activities) to identify the cost ingredients of quality and to measure differences in implementation and context that may matter to costs.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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44.

Assessing the implementation and cost of high quality early care and education: A review of the literature
Caronongan, Pia; Kirby, Gretchen; Boller, Kimberly; et al., April, 2016
(OPRE Report 2016-31). Washington DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

This report summarizes the findings of a literature review conducted as part of the Assessing the Implementation and Cost of High-Quality ECE (ECE-ICHQ) project funded by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation within the Administration for Children and Families at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The project's goal is to create a technically sound and feasible instrument that will provide consistent, systematic measures of the implementation and costs of education and care in center-based settings that serve children from birth to age 5. The ultimate measures will inform research, policy, and practice by improving understanding of variations in what centers do to support quality, their associated costs, and how resources for ECE may be better aligned with expectations for quality. We reviewed the literature and research syntheses in three areas--ECE quality, implementation science, and ECE costs--to create a conceptual framework that will guide measurement development. (author abstract)

Literature Review

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45.

Assessing the implementation and cost of high quality early care and education: A review of the literature [Executive summary]
Caronongan, Pia; Kirby, Gretchen; Boller, Kimberly; et al., April, 2016
(OPRE Report 2016-31). Washington DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Measures of implementation and cost of ECE are needed for use and testing together with measures of quality to shed light on what it takes--in terms of activities, capacities, and money--to achieve high quality within a center. Implementation measures need to reflect what ECE centers are doing to educate and care for children and how they are doing it. Cost measures need to capture the way ECE centers allocate the resources they have to work with. The Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) launched a new project--Assessing the Implementation and Cost of High-Quality ECE (ECE-ICHQ)--to develop measures of implementation and cost for an ECE center. The measures will inform research, policy, and practice by improving understanding of variations in what centers do to support quality, their associated costs, and how resources for ECE may be better aligned with expectations for quality. The project's goal is to create a technically sound, feasible, and useful instrument that will provide consistent, systematic measures of the implementation and costs of education and care in center-based settings that serve children from birth to age 5 ("ECE centers"). By "costs" we mean how much it costs to operate a center, including costs incurred by the center, as well as the value of in-kind contributions such as space or labor. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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46.

Assessing initiatives for family, friend, and neighbor child care: An overview of models and evaluations
Porter, Toni, March, 2007
(Research-to-Policy Connections No. 5). New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

A description of current efforts to support and enhance home-based, regulation-exempt child care provided by family, friends, and/or neighbors, and of the documentation and evaluation of these efforts

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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47.

Assessing Phonological Sensitivity in Hispanic Head Start Children as a Precursor to Literacy
Lopez, Lisa M., 1999
University of Miami

The purpose of this study was to assess pre-literacy skills of low-income Hispanic Head Start children by (1) creating a comparable measure of English and Spanish phonological sensitivity for this population, (2) assessing internal consistency among children's Spanish and English phonological skills, (3) determining the relationship between phonological awareness and oral language skills in this sample, and (4) identifying a cross-language transfer of skills. A phonological assessment tool was developed and modified during the first year of the project with a sample of 50 Spanish-speaking Head Start children. During the second year, the tool was used to determine the phonological sensitivity of 100 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-speaking Head Start children. These children were drawn from three selected Head Start centers in Miami-Dade County, Florida serving the Hispanic population. The tool was composed of tasks used by other researchers in English. The tasks included a rhyme-matching task, an alliteration-matching task, and a sentence-segmenting task. The children were assessed on these tasks in both English and Spanish. Additionally, the PRE-LAS 2000 was used to measure oral language proficiency in English and Spanish. Analyses provided quantitative information of individual children's phonological awareness and language proficiency in two languages. A similar relationship was identified between oral language and phonological awareness in both languages, independently. However, the children's oral language skills were much better defined in Spanish. A cross language transfer of phonological awareness skills was also identified with phonological awareness skills in Spanish, along with English oral language skills, playing a major factor in the children's English phonological awareness abilities. Implications include the importance of assessing bilingual children in both languages, as well as the importance of strengthening the child's primary language and literacy skills prior to literacy instruction in the second language.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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48.

Assessing quality in family and provider/teacher relationships: Using the Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality (FPTRQ) measures in conjunction with Strengthening Families (TM) and the Head Start Parent, Family and Community engagement frameworks and self-assessment tools: A research-to-practice brief
Porter, Toni; Bromer, Juliet; Forry, Nicole D.; et al., April, 2015
(OPRE Report 2015-56). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

This research-to-practice brief is intended to help policymakers, program managers, and practitioners learn how the newly released Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality(FPTRQ) measures can be used to complement or supplement two approaches, Strengthening Families (TM) and the Head Start Parent, Family and Community Engagement (PFCE) frameworks, and their related self-assessments, that have been frequently used by Early Care and Education (ECE) stakeholders to support their work with families and to assess their programs, providers and teachers in these efforts. It is based on a systematic review of the Strengthening Families (TM) and the Head Start PFCE frameworks and self-assessment tools, and their alignment with the FPTRQ conceptual model and measures. (author abstract)

Other

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49.

Assessing States' Child Care Quality Rating Systems (QRS)
Kirby, Gretchen; Boller, Kimberly; Tout, Kathryn; et al., 2008
Mathematica Policy Research

Statewide or local child care Quality Rating Systems (QRS) are in place in 26 states and are under consideration in many others as tools to measure, monitor, and promote quality in early child care and education programs. The QRS Assessment produced a series of products as a resource to inform decision-making about and evaluation of QRS. Key products include: (1) a compendium of QRS, (2) two in-depth study reports (one focused on quality measurement and one on the role of QRIS in integration of the early care and education system); (3) a secondary data analysis on quality measurement, and (4) a toolkit for evaluating QRIS. Research questions include: (1) What is the variation in how select QRIS define and measure quality?; (2) What processes are used to measure components and determine an overall rating?; (2) What is the availability (and use) of consistent and reliable data on quality measurement?; (4) What role does QRIS have and to what extent does it contribute to integration of early care and education programs?; (5) How could states and localities monitor and assess the extent to which QRIS contribute to ECE system development?; (6) What is the prevalence of quality rating components across QRIS and at different levels?; (7) How does the prevalence of quality rating components differ between rating levels across QRIS and between types of providers (such as Head Start and accredited centers)?; (8) What is the unique effect of each quality component on observed quality?; and (9) What patterns of quality profiles emerge based on unique effects of components and how do these profiles map to actual rating levels in QRIS?

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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50.

Assessment and Intervention Strategies for Children Attending Head Start with Problems of Impulsivity and Inhibitory Control
Phillips, Beth M., 2000
Florida State University

This study is designed to investigate the predictive validity of a multidimensional assessment strategy for identifying ADHD-related behaviors among Head Start children. Other primary goals for this project are to determine the correspondence between the assessments in the preschool year and children's reading ability the following year, and to determine the degree of agreement of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior with behavioral indices of inhibitory control and impulsivity. This study will also evaluate the utilization of intervention services by families of children in Head Start. Researchers hypothesize that improvements in the assessment process will likely lead to increased identification of children in need of early intervention that may prevent or reduce poor long-term behavioral and academic outcomes. Participants will include two cohorts of 100 three-, four-, and five-year-old Head Start children and their parents and teachers. During the first year of the project children will be administered the Behavioral Battery of Inhibitory Control Tasks (ICTB) during several individual sessions at the beginning of the Head Start school year and again after a three-month interval. In addition, children will be administered a battery of instruments to assess their intellectual and print awareness skills. Parents and teachers will be asked to complete three questionnaires measuring impulsivity and inhibitory control. The second year of the project will focus on assessing the adequacy of the year 1 behavioral measures in predicting behavior and reading ability in kindergarten. Children who participated in the project during the first year will be administered a series of decoding tasks to assess their growth in reading ability. As well, a new cohort of children will be assessed with all measures once during the fall and followed throughout the school year to track their referral for specialized intervention for behavior problems.

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