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1.

24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies display greater academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry
Morgan, Paul L.; Maczuga, Steve; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; et al., September/October 2015
Child Development, 86(5), 1351-1370

Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. (author abstract)

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2.

The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers
Howie, Erin Kaye; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Pate, Russell R.; et al., June, 2014
Health Education Research, 29(3), 491-502

Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools' daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study's physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers' perceptions of barriers to implementation. (author abstract)

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3.

Absenteeism in Head Start and children's academic learning
Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M., 2017
Child Development, , 1-11

Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort (n = 2,842), this study examined the implications of 3- and 4-year-old's absences from Head Start for their early academic learning. The findings from this study revealed that children who missed more days of school, and especially those who were chronically absent, demonstrated fewer gains in areas of math and literacy during the preschool year. Moreover, excessive absenteeism was found to detract from the potential benefits of quality preschool education and was especially problematic for the early learning of children who entered the Head Start program with a less developed skill set. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

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4.

Academic and cognitive functioning in first grade: Associations with earlier home and child care predictors and with concurrent home and classroom experiences
Downer, Jason T.; Pianta, Robert C., March 2006
School Psychology Review, 35(1), 11-30

A study of the association between academic and cognitive development of first graders and the quantity and quality of child care, home learning environment, family demographics, and maternal characteristics of a sample of 832 children from 9 states

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5.

Academic performance of subsequent schools and impacts of early interventions: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Head Start settings
Zhai, Fuhua; Jones, Stephanie M.; Raver, C. Cybele; et al., May, 2012
Children and Youth Services Review, 34(5), 946-954

A comparison of the impact of exposure to the Chicago School Readiness intervention during the Head Start year on children's language, literacy, and math and behavioral outcomes between kindergarteners in both high and low performing schools, based on secondary analysis of data from 361 children who were participants in the Chicago School Readiness Program

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6.

Access to the general education curriculum for preschoolers with disabilities: Children’s school success
Lieber, Joan; Fleming, Kandace; Horn, Eva M.; et al., 2008
Exceptionality, 16(1), 18-32

A study of the academic and social skill gains of 58 children with disabilities during their preschool year in classrooms using the Children’s School Success (CSS) curriculum

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7.

Accidents will happen?: Unintentional injury, maternal employment, and child care policy
Currie, Janet; Hotz, V. Joseph, 2001
(JCPR Working Paper No. 268). Chicago: Joint Center for Poverty Research.

A paper on the impact of selected child care regulations on the risk of injury for children in formal child care settings using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Vital Statistics Detail Mortality (VSDM).

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8.

Achievement in the first 2 years of school: Patterns and processes
Alexander, Karl L.; Entwisle, Doris R., 1988
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 53(2), 1-157

A study of the influence of home and school factors on adaptation to school, using data from the Beginning School Study conducted in Baltimore in 1982

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9.

Activity settings and daily routines in preschool classrooms: Diverse experiences in early learning settings for low-income children
Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; et al., Q2 2012
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(2), 198-209

An identification of two routines profiles--structured-balanced and high free choice, derived from varying proportions of teacher-directed and child-initiated activities during the preschool day, and a study of the relationship between those routine profiles and structural program characteristics, measures of process quality, children's engagement in activities of various academic contents, teachers' instructional strategies, and children's school readiness skills, based on data from 53 public preschool classrooms, 47 private preschool classrooms, and 25 family child care homes that serve low-income children in Los Angeles, California

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10.

Adequacy of responses given by low income and middle income kindergarten children in structured adult-child conversations
Gordon, Alice M., 1984
Developmental Psychology, 20(5), 881-892

A study of structured adult-child conversations, the ability of children to give adequate responses, and the contributing factors of the subjects’ socioeconomic status and child care arrangements; the sample population included 15 black low-income children from a preschool intervention program, 15 black low-income children from a nonintervention program, and 15 middle-income children

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11.

African American fathers: Myths and realities about their involvement with their firstborn children
Smith, Carolyn A.; Chu, Rebekah; Krohn, Marvin D.; et al., 2005
Journal of Family Issues, 26(7), 975-1001

An examination of the extent and predictors of parental involvment among young, urban, African-American fathers, using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal survey following 1,000 adolescents in 1987-1988 Rochester, New York

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12.

After-school program engagement: Links to child competence and program quality and content
Mahoney, Joseph L.; Parente, Maria E.; Lord, Heather; et al., March, 2007
Elementary School Journal, 107(4), 385-404

A two-year study of variability in after school program-level engagement, and its association with both the social and academic competence of participants, and the process quality and content of programs, based on data from 141 children in 9 after school programs in a disadvantaged city in the United States

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13.

Afterschool program participation and the development of child obesity and peer acceptance
Mahoney, Joseph L.; Lord, Heather; Carryl, Erica; et al., 2005
Applied Developmental Science, 9(4), 202-215

A longitudinal study of the relationship between after school program participation and the obesity and peer acceptance of early elementary school children

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14.

Age 21 cost-benefit analysis of the Title I Chicago child-parent centers
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Mann, Emily A.; et al., 2002
(Discussion Paper No. 1245-02). University of Wisconsin--Madison, Institute for Research on Poverty.

A cost benefit analysis of the federally funded Chicago Child-Parent Center program using data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study from a cohort of children born in 1980.

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15.

Age 21 cost-benefit analysis of the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Mann, Emily A.; et al., 2002
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 24(4), 267-303

A cost benefit analysis of the federally funded Chicago Child-Parent Center program using data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study from a cohort of children born in 1980

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16.

Age 26 cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Center early education program
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; et al., January/February 2011
Child Development, 82(1), 379-404

A societal cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Centers, based on findings from a complete cohort of over 1,400 program and comparison group participant data collected up to age 26

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17.

Alterable predictors of child well-being in the Chicago Longitudinal Study
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu, 2004
Children and Youth Services Review, 26(1), 1-14

An overview of the major findings from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, including summaries of child well-being indicators and estimated effects of participation in preschool programs

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18.

America's kindergartners
West, Jerry; Denton, Kristin L.; Hausken, Elvira Germino; et al., 2000
(NCES 2000-070). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

A compilation of descriptive statistics and findings on first-time kindergarten students from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K).

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19.

America's kindergartners [Executive summary]
West, Jerry; Denton, Kristin L.; Hausken, Elvira Germino; et al., 2000
(NCES 2000-070). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

A summary of findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten class of 1998-99, an assessment of the cognitive skills, social skills, health, and well being of a nationally representative sample of kindergarten children

Executive Summary

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20.

Analyzing social experiments as implemented: A reexamination of the evidence from the HighScope Perry Preschool Program
Heckman, James J. (James Joseph); Pinto, Rodrigo; Moon, Seong Hyeok; et al., July, 2010
(Discussion Paper No. 5065). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

A reconceptualized cost-benefit and return-on-investment analysis of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, based on data from the original program participants and matched data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979)

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21.

Antecedents and correlates of the popular-aggressive phenomenon in elementary school
Rodkin, Philip C.; Roisman, Glenn I., May/June 2010
Early Child Development and Care, 81(3), 837-850

A study of the relationship between popular-aggressive behavior in grades 3 through 6 and cognitive functioning, maternal sensitivity, and participation in child care through age 4.5 from a secondary analysis of data from 1022 children

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22.

Appendix
Burchinal, Margaret, June, 2016
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 81(2), 95-98

This appendix provides two tables of information related to a study of the relationship between children's development and quality levels, quality features, and the extent of children's exposure to early care and education, based on secondary data analyses of eight large-scale studies of preschool children. The tables consist of child and family characteristics for matched and unmatched child samples in the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2006 and 2009) and the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS).

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23.

The approximate number system and its relation to early math achievement: Evidence from the preschool years
Bonny, Justin W.; Lourenco, Stella F., March, 2013
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114(3), 375-388

Humans rely on two main systems of quantification; one is nonsymbolic and involves approximate number representations (known as the approximate number system or ANS), and the other is symbolic and allows for exact calculations of number. Despite the pervasiveness of the ANS across development, recent studies with adolescents and school-aged children point to individual differences in the precision of these representations that, importantly, have been shown to relate to symbolic math competence even after controlling for general aspects of intelligence. Such findings suggest that the ANS, which humans share with nonhuman animals, interfaces specifically with a uniquely human system of formal mathematics. Other findings, however, point to a less straightforward picture, leaving open questions about the nature and ontogenetic origins of the relation between these two systems. Testing children across the preschool period, we found that ANS precision correlated with early math achievement but, critically, that this relation was nonlinear. More specifically, the correlation between ANS precision and math competence was stronger for children with lower math scores than for children with higher math scores. Taken together, our findings suggest that early developing connections between the ANS and mathematics may be fundamentally discontinuous. Possible mechanisms underlying such nonlinearity are discussed. (author abstract)

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24.

Are child developmental outcomes related to before- and after-school care arrangements?: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2004
Child Development, 75(1), 280-295

A study determining the effects of family factors, child care types, and child care hours on children's functioning, utilizing data from the National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care (SECC)

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25.

Are insecure-avoidant infants with extensive day-care experience less stressed by and more independent in the Strange Situation
Belsky, Jay; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M., 1991
Child Development, 62(3), 567-571

A study of the relationship between child reactions to stressful situations and the amount of non-parental child care experienced by the child in his or her first year, in a sample of 20 insecure-avoidant infants

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26.

Are minority children disproportionately represented in early intervention and early childhood special education?
Morgan, Paul L.; Maczuga, Steve; Farkas, George; et al., December, 2012
Educational Researcher, 41(9), 339-351

An examination of the extent to which racial-ethnic minority children are proportionately represented in early intervention and/or early childhood special education, based on data from approximately 7,950 48-month-old children participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative data set of children born in the United States in 2001

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27.

Are poor neighborhoods resource deprived?: A case study of childcare centers in New York
Small, Mario Luis; Stark, Laura, 2005
Social Science Quarterly, 86(Suppl. 1), 1013-1036

An inquiry into the availability of child care centers in poor neighborhoods, using geocoded data from all licensed child care facilities in New York City

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28.

Are there long-term effects of early child care?
Belsky, Jay; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; NICHD Early Child Care Research Network; et al., March/April 2007
Child Development, 78(2), 681-701

An analysis of the links between early child care and school-age children's development, socioemotional functioning, and academic performance, based on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

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29.

Assessing the phonological skills of bilingual children from preschool through kindergarten: Developmental progression and cross-language transfer
Lopez, Lisa M., October-December 2012
Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 26(4), 371-391

The developmental progression hypothesis for phonological awareness states that children perform better on lower level tasks and has been addressed mainly in the literature with children beginning at age 5. In addition, there has been a limited amount of research done regarding the performance of dual-language learners younger than age 5 on phonological awareness tasks. There is a need for a valid measure of phonological awareness for bilingual preschool children at an earlier age. This article addresses three purposes: (1) developing a reliable measure of phonological awareness for bilingual preschool children, (2) testing the developmental progression hypothesis in English and Spanish, and (3) comparing longitudinal performance across language on the measure. Two hundred and forty-one Spanish-English bilingual children were assessed on the author-developed Phonological Awareness Test at three time points (mean age of 4.58, mean age of 4.96, mean age of 5.94). Findings indicate differences in developmental progression by language as well as shifts in performance across language as children go through school. The children in this study transition from a language-specific model of phonological awareness to a more skill specific model of phonological awareness as they progress through school. (author abstract)

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30.

Assessment and early instruction of preschool children at risk for reading disability
Hindson, Barbara; Newman, Cara; Hine, Donald; et al., 2005
Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(4), 687-704

An evaluation of an intervention to detect developmental delays of emergent literacy skills in preschool students, based on a sample of 169 students in Sydney, Australia

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31.

Assessment of preschool early literacy skills: Linking children's educational needs with empirically supported instructional activities
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Lerner, Matthew D.; et al., May, 2011
Psychology in the Schools, 48(5), 488-501

The importance of the preschool period in becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at risk of later reading difficulties to acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings require the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this article, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment. (author abstract)

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32.

The association between preschool children's social functioning and their emergent academic skills
Arnold, David H.; Marshall, Nastassja A.; Kupersmidt, Janis; et al., Q3 2012
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(3), 376-386

A study of the relationship between social functioning and emergent academic development that includes an examination of gender, ethnicity, and children's feelings about school as moderators of that relationship, based on data from 467 preschool children from 84 classrooms at 44 different centers, as part of a larger study on preventing academic and externalizing difficulties

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33.

Association of a full-day vs part-day preschool intervention with school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Warner-Richter, Mallory; Richardson, Brandt A.; et al., 26 November, 2014
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 312(20), 2126-2134

Early childhood interventions have demonstrated positive effects on well-being. Whether full-day vs part-day attendance improves outcomes is unknown. Objective To evaluate the association between a full- vs part-day early childhood program and school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement. Design, setting, and participants End-of-preschool follow-up of a nonrandomized, matched-group cohort of predominantly low-income, ethnic minority children enrolled in the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for the full day (7 hours; n = 409) or part day (3 hours on average; n = 573) in the 2012-2013 school year in 11 schools in Chicago, Illinois. Intervention The Midwest CPC Education Program provides comprehensive instruction, family-support, and health services from preschool to third grade. Main outcomes and measures School readiness skills at the end of preschool, attendance and chronic absences, and parental involvement. The readiness domains in the Teaching Strategies GOLD Assessment System include a total of 49 items with a score range of 105-418. The specific domains are socioemotional with 9 items (score range, 20-81), language with 6 items (score range, 15-54), literacy with 12 items (score range, 9-104), math with 7 items (score, 8-60), physical health with 5 items (score range, 14-45), and cognitive development with 10 items (score range, 18-90). Results Full-day preschool participants had higher scores than part-day peers on socioemotional development (58.6 vs 54.5; difference, 4.1; 95% CI, 0.5-7.6; P = .03), language (39.9 vs 37.3; difference, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.6-4.6; P = .01), math (40.0 vs 36.4; difference, 3.6; 95% CI, 0.5-6.7; P = .02), physical health (35.5 vs 33.6; difference, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.5-3.2; P = .006), and the total score (298.1 vs 278.2; difference, 19.9; 95% CI, 1.2-38.4; P = .04). Literacy (64.5 vs 58.6; difference, 5.9; 95% CI, -0.07 to 12.4; P = .08) and cognitive development (59.7 vs 57.7; difference, 2.0; 95 CI, -2.4 to 6.3; P = .38) were not significant. Full-day preschool graduates also had higher rates of attendance (85.9%vs 80.4%; difference, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.6-8.4; P = .001) and lower rates of chronic absences ([greater than or equal to]10% days missed; 53.0% vs 71.6%; difference, -18.6; 95% CI, -28.5 to -8.7; P = .001;[greater than or equal to]20%days missed; 21.2% vs 38.8%; difference -17.6%; 95% CI, -25.6 to -9.7; P < .001) but no differences in parental involvement. Conclusions and relevance In an expansion of the CPCs in Chicago, a full-day preschool intervention was associated with increased school readiness skills in 4 of 6 domains, attendance, and reduced chronic absences compared with a part-day program. These findings should be replicated in other programs and contexts. (author abstract)

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34.

Associations among family environment, sustained attention, and school readiness for low-income children
Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; et al., November, 2010
Developmental Psychology, 46(6), 1528-1542

A study of sustained attention as a mediator of the relationship between family environment and school readiness, based on data from 1,046 low income children, with family environment data collected at 3-years-old and both attention and school readiness data collected at 5-years of age

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35.

Associations among name writing and alphabetic skills in prekindergarten and kindergarten children at risk of school failure
Diamond, Karen E.; Baroody, Alison E., March, 2013
Journal of Early Intervention, 35(1), 20-39

Associations among children's writing and alphabetic skills were examined in a sample of 502 prekindergarten children who were at risk of academic failure because they came from poor families, spoke a language other than English at home, or had an identified disability. In this sample of children at risk of school failure, 16% had an identified disability and an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). Children's name writing skills in prekindergarten were compared with their letter knowledge and word decoding skills in prekindergarten and kindergarten. Two writing scores reflected the overall quality of children's writing and children's use of letters. By the end of prekindergarten, almost half of children wrote their first names correctly, and two thirds used only letters when writing their name. Children's name writing in prekindergarten was associated, concurrently, with letter and word decoding skills. Children's use of letters when writing their name in prekindergarten predicted growth of emergent literacy skills related to letter knowledge and to decoding and identifying words, even if the name was not written entirely correctly. While children who had an IEP had, on average, slightly lower levels of achievement than their peers, the pattern of associations among variables was similar for all children. Results are discussed in relation to the use of writing as a tool that teachers and interventionists can use in understanding and promoting children's early literacy skills. (author abstract)

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36.

Associations among parental education, home environment quality, effortful control, and preacademic knowledge
Merz, Emily C.; Landry, Susan H.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; et al., July/August 2014
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(4), 304-315

This study used a longitudinal design to examine whether effortful control mediated the associations of parental education and home environment quality with preacademic knowledge in toddlers and young preschoolers. The sample consisted of 226 children (2 to 4 years of age at T1) from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. Parents provided data on parent education and home environment quality. Children completed effortful control, early literacy, and early math assessments. T2 effortful control partially mediated the associations of T1 parental education and T1 home environment quality with T3 emergent literacy after accounting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, T1 effortful control, and T2 early literacy. T2 effortful control partially mediated the association between T1 parental education and T3 emergent math after accounting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, T1 effortful control, and T2 early math. Prior to entry into preschool, parental education and home environment quality may shape effortful control which in turn influences preacademic knowledge. (author abstract)

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37.

Associations between preschoolers' social-emotional competence and preliteracy skills
Curby, Timothy W.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Denham, Susanne A.; et al., September/October 2015
Infant and Child Development, 24(5), 549-570

Identifying and understanding the predictors of preliteracy skills can set the stage for success in a child's academic career. Recent literature has implicated social-emotional competence as a potential component in helping children learn preliteracy skills. To further understand the role of social-emotional competence in preliteracy, the associations between various social-emotional competencies and preliteracy skills in 91 preschool children attending seven Head Start classrooms were examined. Results of structural equation modelling indicated that preschoolers' expressiveness/regulation (angry/aggressive, cooperative/sensitive or anxious/withdrawn) and emotion knowledge predicted preliteracy performance (alphabet knowledge and print and phonological awareness), above and beyond gender, age, maternal education, attentional abilities and classroom emotional support. These findings serve to broaden the research surrounding social-emotional competence and highlight its association with academic readiness. (author abstract)

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38.

Attitudes about shared reading among at-risk mothers of newborn babies
Berkule, Samantha B.; Dreyer, Bernard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; et al., January-February 2007
Ambulatory Pediatrics, 7(1), 45-50

An examination of low income, multi ethnic mothers' attitudes in terms of shared book reading with their infants, the number of books in their homes and the relation between sociodemographic characteristics and the mothers' attitudes

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39.

Beginning school for children at risk
Ramey, Craig T.; Ramey, Sharon L., 1999
In R.C. Pianta & M.J. Cox (Eds.), The transition to kindergarten (pp. 217-251). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

A review of why the transition to school is considered an important period for scientific inquiry, educational improvement, and societal concern

Other

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40.

Behavioral and cognitive readiness for school: Cross-domain associations for children attending Head Start
Bierman, Karen L.; Torres, Marcela; Gest, Scott D.; et al., May, 2009
Social Development, 18(2), 305-323

An examination of the correlations between behavioral measures of school readiness and both academic knowledge and executive function in a sample of 356 4-year-old children in Head Start programs in three Pennsylvania counties

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41.

Beyond an "either-or" approach to home- and center-based child care: Comparing children and families who combine care types with those who use just one
Gordon, Rachel A.; Colaner, Anna C.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; et al., Q4 2013
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(4), 918-935

Most research focuses on preschoolers' primary non-parental child care arrangement despite evidence that multiple arrangements are relatively common. Using the nationally-representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, we compare characteristics and outcomes of families whose 4-year olds attend both home- and center-based child care with those who attend either home- or center-based care exclusively or receive no non-parental care at all. We find that about one fifth of 4-year olds attend both home- and center-based child care. Mothers' priorities for care (getting their child ready for school, matching their families' cultural background) and perceptions of good local care options predict their combining home- and center-based care. Preschoolers score higher on reading and math assessments, on average, when they attend centers, alone or in combination with home-based child care, than when they are cared for only in homes, either by their parents or by others. Preschoolers' average socioemotional outcomes generally do not differ between families who do and who do not combine care types. Implications for research and policy are discussed. (author abstract)

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42.

Bidirectionality in self-regulation and expressive vocabulary: Comparisons between monolingual and dual language learners in preschool
Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia; Maier, Michelle F.; et al., July/August 2015
Child Development, 86(4), 1094-1111

Significant differences in language and self-regulation skills exist among children when they enter formal schooling. Contributing to these language differences is a growing population of dual language learners (DLLs) in the United States. Given evidence linking self-regulatory processes and language development, this study explored bidirectional associations between English expressive vocabulary and self-regulation skills for monolingual English and DLL preschool children (N = 250) from mixed-income families in Los Angeles. Across three time points, findings provide initial support for bidirectionality between these developing skills for both monolinguals and DLLs. Results provide strong empirical support for vocabulary serving as a leading indicator of self-regulation skills in preschool. Findings also suggest that early self-regulation skills play a particularly important role for vocabulary development. (author abstract)

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43.

Bidirectional relations between intrusive caregiving among parents and teachers and children's externalizing behavior problems
Yan, Ni; Ansari, Arya, Q4 2017
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 41, 13-20

Informed by the transactional and bioecological theories, this study examined the bidirectional relations between intrusive caregiving and children's externalizing behaviors across the family and school systems during the early elementary school years. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N=1364), these bidirectional associations were examined from 54 months of age through third grade. Both mothers' and teachers' intrusive caregiving behaviors contributed to the development of children's externalizing behaviors in the first three years of elementary school, and children's externalizing behaviors consistently predicted mothers' intrusive caregiving behaviors. Children's externalizing behaviors mediated the relation between teachers' intrusiveness and mothers' intrusive caregiving. These bidirectional associations did not vary across child gender, but tended to be stronger among non-White children than their White peers. These findings suggest that children's own behaviors can serve as a key connection between the two core institutions of child development--the family and school systems. (author abstract)

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44.

Bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and letter knowledge in preschool revisited: A growth curve analysis of the relation between two code-related skills
Lerner, Matthew D.; Lonigan, Christopher J., April, 2016
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 144, 166-183

Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age = 48.60 months, SD = 7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bidirectionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills. (author abstract)

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45.

Body mass index mediates the effects of low income on preschool children's executive control, with implications for behavior and academics
Tandon, Pooja S.; Thompson, Stephanie F.; Moran, Lyndsey R.; et al., October, 2015
Childhood Obesity, 11(5), 569-576

Background: Children from low-income backgrounds are more likely to have cognitive impairments, academic problems, and obesity. Biological mechanisms for the relationship between adiposity and neurocognitive functioning have been suggested, but the direction of effects is unclear. Methods: The relations among income, BMI, and cognitive-behavioral functioning were modeled longitudinally. Children (n = 306) were assessed at 36-39 months (Time 1; T1) and 63-67 months (Time 4; T4) through anthropometry, measures of executive control (EC), delay ability (DA), and questionnaires on academic readiness, social competence, and behavioral adjustment. Results: Income was positively related to T1 EC and DA and negatively related to T1 BMI. T1 BMI was negatively related to T4 EC, after controlling for T1 EC, but was unrelated to changes in DA. Neither T1 EC nor DA was related to changes in BMI. T4 EC predicted greater academic readiness and social competence and lower adjustment problems at T4. T4 BMI was related to higher T4 adjustment problems. There was an indirect effect of income on T4 EC through T1 BMI. There were indirect effects of T1 BMI on academic readiness, social competence, and adjustment through T4 EC. Children who were obese at T1 had a 19% lower rate of growth of EC, compared to nonobese children. Conclusions: BMI mediates the effect of income on children's EC and has negative implications for academic readiness, social competence, and behavioral adjustment. The dual impact of obesity and cognitive-behavioral problems underscores the importance of early identification of and intervention for overweight children which could have neurocognitive and social-emotional benefits. What's New: BMI mediates the effect of income on preschoolers' executive control (EC) and has negative implications for academic readiness and behavioral adjustment. EC and delay ability did not predict changes in BMI. Early identification of, and intervention for, overweight children may have neurocognitive and social-emotional benefits. (author abstract)

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46.

Book reading interactions between African American and Puerto Rican Head Start children and their mothers
Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Johnson, Amy A.; Cohen, Risa; et al., December 2005
Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 5(3), 195-227

An observational study examining and comparing the interaction styles between African American and Puerto Rican mothers and their Head Start children during shared book reading

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47.

Books and toddlers in child care: Under what conditions are children most engaged?
Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Odom, Samuel L.; et al., August, 2017
Child & Youth Care Forum, 46(4), 473-493

Background Although shared book reading is seen as an effective way to support children's early literacy and language development, less is known about the factors associated with toddlers' engagement with books. Objective The goal of the current study was to examine younger and older toddlers' engagement with books during one-on-one reading with a teacher in an interactive versus non-interactive manner and during independent exploration. Method Using single-case design, the study examined how engagement among toddlers (N = 6) in a childcare classroom varied under different book reading/exploration conditions. Results Results indicated that overall engagement was greater when teachers read interactively compared to when children explored books on their own, with this effect differing for younger versus older toddlers. Conclusions Understanding how teachers reading to younger and older toddlers is associated with children's engagement with books compared to children's engagement when exploring books on their own can inform early care and education reading practices with toddlers. Implications for book reading with toddlers in group childcare are discussed. (author abstract)

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48.

Boosting school readiness with preschool curricula
Duncan, Greg J.; Bitler, Marianne; Jenkins, Jade Marcus; et al., March, 2015
Irvine, CA: Irvine Network on Interventions in Development.

Both federal and state governments regulate the quality and curricula of early childhood education programs in hopes of promoting the school readiness of disadvantaged children. We draw on data from the experimental Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Initiative Study to provide an aggregated look at the impacts of four types of preschool curricula (literacy-focused, math-focused, whole-child and locally developed) on classroom processes as well as children's academic and socioemotional outcomes. The math curriculum included in the study boosted both classroom math activities and children's math achievement relative to the two whole-child curricula (HighScope and Creative Curriculum) found in most Head Start and pre-K classrooms. Also relative to HighScope and Creative Curriculum, the literacy curricula increased early literacy achievement despite producing no statistically significant differences in classroom activities or teacher-child interactions. Although Creative Curriculum produced much more positive classroom processes than locally developed curricula, it failed to improve either the academic achievement or behavior of preschool children relative to the local curricula. Implications for Head Start and pre-K curricula choice and the utility of widely used classroom rating scales are discussed. (author abstract)

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49.

Brains, genes, and environment in reading development
Olson, Richard K.; Gayan, Javier, 2001
In S.B. Neuman & D.K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 1, pp. 81-94). New York: Guilford Press

A discussion of the research of genetics versus environmental influences on children's literacy

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50.

Building kindergartners' number sense: A randomized controlled study
Jordan, Nancy C.; Irwin, Casey; Dyson, Nancy; et al., August, 2012
Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(3), 647-660

A study of impact of a targeted small-group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners' understanding of numbers and operations, based on data from 132 kindergarten children from low income communities

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