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Assessing the New Federalism
Weil, Alan,
Washington, DC: Urban Institute

A multi-year, multi-pronged project that analyzes state policy choices, including policy development and implementation, and family well-being in the context of the significant devolution of responsibility for social programs from the federal government to the states

Major Research Projects


Better for babies: A study of state infant and toddler child care policies
Schmit, Stephanie, August, 2013
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

A study of state policies related to infant and toddler child care, including subsidies, licensing, quality, workforce, professional development, health, family support, and infant-toddler initiatives, based on a survey of state child care administrators

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Building on the promise: State initiatives to expand access to Early Head Start for young children and their families
Schumacher, Rachel, April, 2008
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

Congress' reauthorization of Head Start and Early Head Start in 2007, when fully funded, will present new opportunities for building on and expanding EHS that states should capture. Some states have taken action to expand and enhance Early Head Start services for infants, toddlers, and their families. This brief is an in-depth study of these state efforts, and includes an analysis of the lessons learned from state experiences and recommendations to help other states expand the reach of Early Head Start. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


Changes in Massachusetts welfare and work, child care, and child welfare systems
Kaye, Laura, 2001
(State Update No. 5). Washington DC: Urban Institute.

An overview of the changes in Massachusetts welfare policy as the focus shifts from families on welfare to those leaving welfare

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Child care and the development of behavior problems among economically disadvantaged children in middle childhood
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth, September/October 2010
Child Development, 81(5), 1460-1474

A study of the relationship between low-income children's development of behavior problems during middle childhood and child care quality, extent and type of care, as well as an examination of child characteristics, gender, and race-ethnicity, as moderators of the development of behavior problems, based on data from 349 7- through 11-year-old participants in the Three-City Study

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Child care and low-income children's development: Direct and moderated effects
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth, 2004
Child Development, 75(1), 296-312

A study determining the effect of child care quality on low-income children's cognitive and social development, utilizing data from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study

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Child care arrangements for children under five: Variation across states
Capizzano, Jeffrey, 2000
(Series B, No. B-7). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

A study of the primary child care arrangements of children under five whose mothers are employed, as well as of the variations in patterns of child care arrangements by state, by the child's age, and by the income status of the child's family.

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Child care expenses of America's families
Giannarelli, Linda, 2000
(Occasional Paper No. 40). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

A study of the child care expenses of working families with children under age 13, with particular attention to low-income families.

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Child care experiences in low-income communities: Developmental quality and maternal views
Li-Grining, Christine P., 2006
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(2), 125-141

A study of child care quality in low-income urban communities, including types of child care used and degree to which settings met children’s and mothers’ needs, based on data from a longitudinal welfare study: Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study

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Child care subsidies and leaving welfare: Policy issues and strategies
Adams, Gina, 2006
Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

The second part of a three-part study of the interaction between state and local welfare-to-work programs and child care assistance programs, focusing on child care subsidy use by parents in transition from TANF to employment

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Child care subsidies for TANF families: The nexus of systems and policies
Adams, Gina, 2006
Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

First of a three-part study of the interaction between state and local welfare-to-work programs and child care assistance programs, focusing on administrative structures, protocols and interagency coordination as they affect TANF parents

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Custodial grandmothers' physical, mental, and economic well-being: Comparisons of primary caregivers from low-income neighborhoods
Bachman, Heather J., 2005
Family Relations, 54(4), 475-487

A study of the implications of custodial grandparent care by comparing the material hardship, mental health, and physical well-being of custodial grandmothers and biological mothers using data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study

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Ensuring quality care for low-income babies: Contracting directly with providers to expand and improve infant and toddler care
Matthews, Hannah, July, 2008
(Child Care and Early Education Series Paper No. 3). Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

This paper explores the potential of contracts to address issues of supply and quality in the provision of infant and toddler child care. CLASP interviewed policymakers in five states to understand why and how they use contracts in their state child care subsidy programs for infant and toddler care. CLASP also interviewed representatives of contracted providers. We discussed their thoughts on whether and how contracts could be used to increase quality or supply of infant and toddler child care, as well as implementation challenges and their suggestions for policy changes that would improve the contracts approach. This paper presents the findings of these discussions and offers guidance for other states considering using contracts in this way. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


Expanding access to Early Head Start: State initiatives for infants & toddlers at risk
Colvard, Jamie, September, 2012
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

In 2008, ZERO TO THREE and CLASP released Building on the Promise: State Initiatives to Expand Access to Early Head Start for Young Children and their Families, which outlined the diverse ways states expanded upon or enhanced EHS services for infants, toddlers, and their families. At that time, the researchers found 20 states with some efforts to expand or enhance EHS services at the state level. This report provides updated information on how states are supplementing EHS four years later. (author abstract)

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Getting and retaining child care assistance: How policy and practice influence parents experiences
Adams, Gina, 2002
(Occasional Paper No. 55). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

A study of parents' interaction with the child care subsidy system and how state and local subsidy policies and practices affect parents' experiences. Particular attention is paid to the process of applying for and retaining subsidies.

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Getting organized: Unionizing home-based child care providers
Chalfie, Deborah, 2007
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

An examination of statewide efforts to allow home-based child care workers, including licensed family child care providers and regulation-exempt family, friend, and neighbor caregivers receiving subsidies, to join unions

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The hours that children under five spend in child care: Variation across states
Capizzano, Jeffrey, 2000
(Series B, No. B-8). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

A study of the number of hours that children under five spent in child care while their mothers were at work and the variations in child care use by state, by the child's age, and by the income status of the child's family.

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Nonstandard schedules and young children's behavioral outcomes among working low-income families
Joshi, Pamela, February 2007
Journal of Marriage and the Family, 69(1), 139-156

An examination of how mothers' nonstandard night, weekend, or rotating work schedules affect their preschool children's behavior

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The number of child care arrangements used by children under five: Variation across states
Capizzano, Jeffrey, 2000
(Series B, No. B-12). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

A study of the consistent weekly use of multiple child care arrangements by employed mothers of preschool children, examining variations by state, child age, and family income level, and analyzing combinations of child care types, based on data from the 1997 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF)

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Out-of-school care and problem behavior trajectories among low-income adolescents: Individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics as added risks
Coley, Rebekah L., 2004
Child Development, 75(3), 948-965

A study examining the effects of out-of-school care on at risk adolescents' behavioral outcomes, utilizing longitudinal data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study

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Predictors of paternal involvement for resident and nonresident low-income fathers
Coley, Rebekah L., 2006
Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1041-1056

An evaluation of a conceptual model assessing how child, father, and mother characteristics predict paternal involvement in low-income families

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State child care profile for children with employed mothers: Massachusetts
Snyder, Kathleen, 2001
(State Profiles No. 01-18). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

A profile of child care in Massachusetts that analyzed the types and number of child care arrangements used by families, the hours children spent in care, and the amount of money families spent on care, as well as variations by the child's age and family income status

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Supporting family, friend and neighbor caregivers: Findings from a survey of state policies
Porter, Toni, 2005
New York: Bank Street College of Education, Institute for a Child Care Continuum. (No longer accessible as of August 16, 2012)

An examination of state regulatory policies for kith and kin child care providers receiving government subsidies

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Who's caring for our youngest children?: Child care patterns of infants and toddlers
Ehrle, Jennifer, 2001
(Occasional Paper No. 42). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

A compendium of child care arrangements and characteristics for children under three years old, based on data from the 1997 National Survey of America’s Families (NSAF)

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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