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1.

10 new ideas for early education in the 111th Congress
Mead, Sara, February, 2009
Washington, DC: New America Foundation.

A discussion of 10 policy proposals to improve early education access, quality, and alignment from preschool through early elementary school

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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2.

10 new ideas for early education in the NCLB reauthorization
Mead, Sara, November 29, 2007
(Issue Brief No. 6). Washington, DC: New America Foundation.

A series of recommendations for strengthening provisions in the reauthorization of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act to better support high-quality early education

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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3.

12 ideas for early education in the 112th Congress
Guernsey, Lisa, February, 2011
Washington, DC: New America Foundation.

A discussion of 12 policy proposals to improve early education access, quality, and alignment from preschool through early elementary school

Fact Sheets & Briefs

4.

21st century teacher education for FirstSchool: A model of collaborative inquiry
New, Rebecca S.; Boone, Harriet A.; Ritchie, Sharon; et al., 2009
(Issues in PreK-3rd Education No. 8). Chapel Hill, NC: FPG Child Development Institute, FirstSchool.

A discussion of the skills and knowledge that early childhood teachers should possess and the role of teacher education programs in facilitating their acquisition

Fact Sheets & Briefs

5.

Accountability comes to preschool: Florida's approach to evaluating pre-kindergarten programs based on their graduates' kindergarten assessments
Miller, Luke; Bassok, Daphna; Johnson, Amanda J.; et al., September, 2015
Charlottesville: University of Virginia, EdPolicyWorks.

This policy brief describes one state's experience using child assessment data to evaluate the quality of early childhood providers. In 2005, Florida introduced its Voluntary Prekindergarten (VPK) program, a free, universal preschool initiative. VPK currently serves about 75 percent of the state's 4-year-olds, and is a national leader with respect to preschool access. Since its inception, Florida has evaluated the quality of VPK programs based on their participants' score on an assessment administered at the beginning of kindergarten. This memo describes Florida's unique approach to program-level accountability and also highlights some potential unintended consequences of Florida's early childhood accountability system. In particular, we focus on the lack of a pre-test and the related possibility of mislabeling programs "low performing." (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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6.

Alabama PK expulsion fact sheet
Gilliam, Walter S., 2005
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

A fact sheet detailing statistics on Alabama's preschool children, including comparing the state's expulsion rate with the nation's expulsion rate

Fact Sheets & Briefs

7.

Alaska PK expulsion fact sheet
Gilliam, Walter S., 2005
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

A statistical fact sheet on the expulsion rate of the Alaska State Funded Head Start program as compared with the national expulsion rate for state funded preschools

Fact Sheets & Briefs

8.

Alignment in action: Prek-3rd at DC Prep
National Black Child Development Institute, June, 2011
Washington, DC: National Black Child Development Institute.

A case study of the implementation of a prekindergarten through third grade education framework in DC Prep, a charter school in Washington, DC

Other

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9.

All together now: State experiences in using community-based child care to provide pre-kindergarten
Schumacher, Rachel; Lombardi, Joan; Ewen, Danielle; et al., 2005
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

A discussion of the findings from a survey of 29 states conducted by the Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), which examined the policies, opportunities, and challenges associated with including community based child care providers as part of the states' prekindergarten programs

Reports & Papers

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10.

Are teachers' education, major, and credentials related to classroom quality and children's academic gains in pre-kindergarten?
Early, Diane Marie; Howes, Carollee; Barbarin, Oscar; et al., 2006
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(2), 174-195

An investigation using data from the NCEDL Multi-State Study of Pre-Kindergarten, 2001-2003, to examine if early educators' education, early childhood major, and credentials are related to classroom quality and preschool children's academic achievements

Reports & Papers

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11.

Arizona PK expulsion fact sheet
Gilliam, Walter S., 2005
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

A statistical fact sheet on the expulsion rate of the Arizona Early Childhood State Block Grant program as compared with the national expulsion rate for state funded preschools

Fact Sheets & Briefs

12.

Arkansas PK expulsion fact sheet
Gilliam, Walter S., 2005
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

A statistical fact sheet on the expulsion rate of the Arkansas Better Chance program, as compared with the national expulsion rate for state funded preschools

Fact Sheets & Briefs

13.

Assessment considerations for young English language learners across different levels of accountability
Espinosa, Linda M.; Lopez, Michael, 11 August, 2007
Philadelphia: National Early Childhood Accountability Task Force.

A discussion of considerations and recommendations for assessing young English language learners in programs with different levels of accountability and an overview of current assessment measurements and strategies for English language learners

Other

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14.

Assessment in a continuous improvement cycle: New Jersey's Abbott Preschool Program
Frede, Ellen, September, 2005
Philadelphia: National Early Childhood Accountability Task Force.

A discussion of efforts to implement an assessment system for New Jersey Abbott Preschool Program, a publicly-funded, high-quality preschool program for children in high-poverty school districts

Other

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15.

Assistant teachers in prekindergarten programs: What roles do lead teachers feel assistants play in classroom management and teaching?
Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Gilliam, Walter S., July, 2011
Early Education and Development, 22(4), 676-706

A survey of variations in the number and educational backgrounds of classroom educational assistants employed in prekindergarten classrooms, a study of lead teachers' perceptions of the usefulness of assistants, and a study of differences in lead-teacher planning time in classrooms with and without assistants, based on data collected from a nationally representative sample of prekindergarten classes during the 2003-2004 school year

Reports & Papers

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16.

Association of a full-day vs part-day preschool intervention with school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Warner-Richter, Mallory; Richardson, Brandt A.; et al., 26 November, 2014
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 312(20), 2126-2134

Early childhood interventions have demonstrated positive effects on well-being. Whether full-day vs part-day attendance improves outcomes is unknown. Objective To evaluate the association between a full- vs part-day early childhood program and school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement. Design, setting, and participants End-of-preschool follow-up of a nonrandomized, matched-group cohort of predominantly low-income, ethnic minority children enrolled in the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for the full day (7 hours; n = 409) or part day (3 hours on average; n = 573) in the 2012-2013 school year in 11 schools in Chicago, Illinois. Intervention The Midwest CPC Education Program provides comprehensive instruction, family-support, and health services from preschool to third grade. Main outcomes and measures School readiness skills at the end of preschool, attendance and chronic absences, and parental involvement. The readiness domains in the Teaching Strategies GOLD Assessment System include a total of 49 items with a score range of 105-418. The specific domains are socioemotional with 9 items (score range, 20-81), language with 6 items (score range, 15-54), literacy with 12 items (score range, 9-104), math with 7 items (score, 8-60), physical health with 5 items (score range, 14-45), and cognitive development with 10 items (score range, 18-90). Results Full-day preschool participants had higher scores than part-day peers on socioemotional development (58.6 vs 54.5; difference, 4.1; 95% CI, 0.5-7.6; P = .03), language (39.9 vs 37.3; difference, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.6-4.6; P = .01), math (40.0 vs 36.4; difference, 3.6; 95% CI, 0.5-6.7; P = .02), physical health (35.5 vs 33.6; difference, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.5-3.2; P = .006), and the total score (298.1 vs 278.2; difference, 19.9; 95% CI, 1.2-38.4; P = .04). Literacy (64.5 vs 58.6; difference, 5.9; 95% CI, -0.07 to 12.4; P = .08) and cognitive development (59.7 vs 57.7; difference, 2.0; 95 CI, -2.4 to 6.3; P = .38) were not significant. Full-day preschool graduates also had higher rates of attendance (85.9%vs 80.4%; difference, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.6-8.4; P = .001) and lower rates of chronic absences ([greater than or equal to]10% days missed; 53.0% vs 71.6%; difference, -18.6; 95% CI, -28.5 to -8.7; P = .001;[greater than or equal to]20%days missed; 21.2% vs 38.8%; difference -17.6%; 95% CI, -25.6 to -9.7; P < .001) but no differences in parental involvement. Conclusions and relevance In an expansion of the CPCs in Chicago, a full-day preschool intervention was associated with increased school readiness skills in 4 of 6 domains, attendance, and reduced chronic absences compared with a part-day program. These findings should be replicated in other programs and contexts. (author abstract)

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17.

Austin Two-Generation Pilot Project evaluation
Juniper, Cynthia; Roelofs, Tanlyn, August, 2015
Austin: University of Texas at Austin, Ray Marshall Center for the Study of Human Resources.

The project evaluated in this report, the Austin Two-Generation Pilot Project, provided English as a Second Language classes three mornings a week in the spring semester 2015 for adults with children enrolled in two different Austin Independent School District sites: Uphaus Early Childhood Center and Linder Elementary school. The project was designed to gain an understanding of the implementation process and participant experience of a two-generation project in Austin, TX to inform future two-generation project development in the region. This two-generation pilot project was evaluated using the following means: a review of student goal setting forms, an interview with the ESL teacher, student surveys and focus group transcripts, a classroom observation, student attendance related to a pre- and post-test of student English literacy skills, and a comparison of the spring semester school attendance of the Uphaus children whose parents participated in the project, to the larger group of Uphaus students. Participants indicated that their primary reason for participating in the program was to help their children with homework and to learn to use a computer for work and finding a job. Parents identified that quality child care services for their younger children were essential to their participation in the program. Parents reported increasing the amount of time they spend reading to their children, listening and talking to their children each day after school, reading the school newsletter, talking with their child's teacher and attending parent events. The majority of participants experienced improvements in listening (77%), pronunciation (61%), speaking (61%), and writing (77%) as a result of their participation in the class. (author abstract)

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18.

Behavior Problems Index
Peterson, James L.; Zill, Nicholas, 1986
Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48(2), 295-307

Instruments

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19.

Beyond the mandate: An analysis of a survey of school district early learning programs in Washington state
Speck, Erin, 2004
Seattle, WA: Economic Opportunity Institute.

An analysis of a state representative survey administered to Washington State school districts to evaluate the quantity and quality of their early learning programs for the 2003-2004 academic year, particularly those that were more extensive than required by state law

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20.

Beyond the mandate: An analysis of a survey of school district early learning programs in Washington state [Executive Summary]
Speck, Erin, 2004
Seattle, WA: Economic Opportunity Institute.

A summary of an analysis of a state representative survey administered to Washington State school districts to evaluate the quantity and quality of their early learning programs for the 2003-2004 academic year, particularly those that were more extensive than required by state law

Executive Summary

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21.

Building a 21st century economy: The case for investing in early education reform
Boots, Shelley Waters, 2005
(Issue Brief No. 1). Washington, DC: New America Foundation.

A discussion of the need for a universal, coordinated prekindergarten through third grade program in the United States in order maintain academic equality with other countries like Great Britain and China

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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22.

Building early learning leaders: New Jersey's prek-3rd leadership training: A case study
Rice, Cynthia; Costanza, Vincent, March, 2011
Newark, NJ: Advocates for Children of New Jersey.

A case study of a professional development training program for New Jersey school district administrators to implement and evaluate high-quality prekindergarten through third grade systems

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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23.

Building an early learning system beyond the schoolhouse walls
Rice, Cynthia, October, 2011
Newark, NJ: Advocates for Children of New Jersey.

A discussion of collaboration and cooperation among school districts and child care and early education providers

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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24.

Building strong rungs to build sturdy ladders: The status of preschool-3rd grade systems in New Jersey
Rice, Cynthia, January, 2007
Newark, NJ: Association for Children of New Jersey.

Findings from a study of New Jersey’s attempts at aligning preschool through third grade education (P-3) to insure continuity for students

Fact Sheets & Briefs

25.

Business leaders as legislative advocates for children
Blood, Margaret; Ludtke, Melissa, September, 1999
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

A discussion of the contribution of business leaders' advocacy efforts to the passing of three child-focused pieces of legislation in Massachusetts

Other

26.

Business leaders as legislative advocates for children: A case study from Boston
Blood, Margaret; Ludtke, Melissa, February 2000
Boston: Strategies for Children.

A discussion of the contribution of business leaders' advocacy efforts to the passing of three child-focused pieces of legislation in Massachusetts

Other

27.

California PK expulsion fact sheet
Gilliam, Walter S., 2005
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

A statistical fact sheet on the expulsion rates for the California State Preschool Half Day Program and the California State Preschool Full Day program, as compared with the national expulsion rate for state funded preschools

Fact Sheets & Briefs

28.

A case study of the Pre-k for All DC campaign: How pre-k for all became the law of the land in Washington, DC
Watson, Bernardine H., November, 2010
Washington, DC: Pre-k for All DC.

A study of the history of the campaign to make prekindergarten universally available in the District of Columbia

Reports & Papers

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29.

Center-based child care and cognitive skills development: Importance of timing and household resources
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Koury, Amanda; et al., August, 2013
Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 821-838

Growing evidence has linked center-based early care and education settings to improvements in children's cognitive skills. Additional research is needed to more carefully delineate when and for whom these associations are most pronounced. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 6,350; Flanagan & West, 2004), this study examined whether the beneficial effects of center-based care settings for children's cognitive skills at age 5 differ by the age at which children experience these settings and for subgroups based on household income, parental education, and quality of the home learning environment. The results suggest that center-based preschool was supportive of the math and reading skills development of the sample as a whole. However, both center- and home-based care for 2-year-olds as well as 4-year-olds were beneficial for children from lower income, less educated, and less enriching family contexts, helping to diminish the cognitive skills gap between more and less advantaged children.

Reports & Papers

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30.

Center-based preschool and school readiness skills of children from immigrant families
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Miller, Portia; et al., May, 2015
Early Education and Development, 26(4), 549-573

Children from immigrant families are more likely than children of native parents to start school with fewer of the academic skills that are important for long-term success, although evidence on behavioral skills is mixed. Center-based early education and care (EEC) programs, which have been linked to improvements in academic functioning in disadvantaged samples, may serve as a potent resource for children from immigrant families, but important questions remain about their benefits and drawbacks for academic and behavioral outcomes across the diverse population of children from immigrant families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N [is approximately] 6,550), this study examined prospective associations between center-based EEC at age 4 and school readiness skills at age 5 among children from immigrant families. Practice or Policy: The results suggest that center-based EEC is associated with heightened math, reading, and expressive language skills and also with lower parent-rated externalizing behaviors for children of immigrants in comparison to children of native parents. Results also revealed heterogeneity in associations between center-based EEC attendance and school readiness skills among children of immigrants based on parental region of origin, household language use, and the language used in EEC settings. (author abstract)

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31.

Challenges in accessing early childhood education and care for children in refugee families in Massachusetts
Gross, Jeff; Ntagengwa, Christine, March, 2016
Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.

This report begins with an overview of ECEC service provision in the United States. It then describes refugee populations in Massachusetts and how refugee families access child-care services, including the process of obtaining child-care vouchers and connecting with ECEC providers. It reviews the challenges to ECEC access faced by refugee families and then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the existing ECEC system, including the frameworks of case management, public benefits, and provider referrals that shape access to ECEC services. Next, the report examines national, state, and local initiatives that seek to improve how refugees access ECEC services, and how stakeholders can work together more effectively to strengthen this process. Finally, it offers a set of Massachusetts-specific policy and program recommendations for resettlement agencies, the Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants (ORI), the Massachusetts Department of Early Education and Care (MDEEC), and other state agencies to help address system barriers in this area and provide refugee families access to the widest possible range of ECEC options. (author abstract)

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32.

Challenges in accessing early childhood education and care for children in refugee families in Massachusetts [Executive summary]
Gross, Jeff; Ntagengwa, Christine, March, 2016
Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.

This report begins with an overview of ECEC service provision in the United States. It then describes refugee populations in Massachusetts and how refugee families access child-care services, including the process of obtaining child-care vouchers and connecting with ECEC providers. It reviews the challenges to ECEC access faced by refugee families and then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the existing ECEC system, including the frameworks of case management, public benefits, and provider referrals that shape access to ECEC services. Next, the report examines national, state, and local initiatives that seek to improve how refugees access ECEC services, and how stakeholders can work together more effectively to strengthen this process. Finally, it offers a set of Massachusetts-specific policy and program recommendations for resettlement agencies, the Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants (ORI), the Massachusetts Department of Early Education and Care (MDEEC), and other state agencies to help address system barriers in this area and provide refugee families access to the widest possible range of ECEC options. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

33.

The challenges of change: Learning from the child care and early education experiences of immigrant families
Matthews, Hannah; Jang, Deeana, May, 2007
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

A study of the child care and early education participation of children of immigrants and barriers to accessing child care and early education services for immigrant families, based on interviews with local leaders, policymakers, child care and early education service providers, and immigrant parents conducted during community site visits

Reports & Papers

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34.

The challenges of change: Learning from the child care and early education experiences of immigrant families [Executive summary]
Matthews, Hannah; Jang, Deeana, May, 2007
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

A summary of a study of the child care and early education participation of children of immigrants and barriers to accessing child care and early education services for immigrant families, based on interviews with local leaders, policymakers, child care and early education service providers, and immigrant parents conducted during community site visits

Executive Summary

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35.

Change and stability among publicly subsidized license-exempt child care providers
Whitebook, Marcy; Jo, Joon Yong; Crowell, Nancy A.; et al., 2003
University of California, Berkeley, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment.

A study assessing the characteristics of subsidized license-exempt child care providers within Alameda County, California

Reports & Papers

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36.

Child care after leaving welfare: Early evidence from state studies
Schumacher, Rachel; Greenberg, Mark H., 1999
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

A review of findings from studies of child care subsidy use and child care arrangements among welfare leavers.

Other

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37.

Child care after leaving welfare: Early evidence from state studies [Executive summary]
Schumacher, Rachel; Greenberg, Mark H., 1999
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

A summary of findings from studies of child care subsidy use and child care arrangements among welfare leavers.

Executive Summary

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38.

The Child Care and Development Fund: An overview
Greenberg, Mark H.; Lombardi, Joan; Schumacher, Rachel; et al., June, 2000
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

An overview of the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), a main source of funding for child care subsidies and quality initiatives in the states

Other

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39.

Child care and early education coordination in the states: A statutory overview
Groginsky, Scott, 2002
Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures. (No longer accessible as of September 25, 2013).

An overview of the coordination and integration of child care and early education policies at the state level

Reports & Papers

40.

The child care arrangements of preschool children in immigrant families in the United States
Brandon, Peter D., April, 2002
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

An analysis of the types of child care arrangements used by immigrant families

Reports & Papers

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41.

Child care for children in poverty: Opportunity or inequality?
Phillips, Deborah A.; Voran, Miriam; Whitebook, Marcy; et al., 1991
Child Development, 65(1), 472-492

A study of child care quality in child care centers serving children from low-income families, its relationship to type of center-based programming, and its comparability to child care quality in centers serving upper- and middle-income families, based on data from the nationally representative Profile of Child Care Settings study and the National Child Care Staffing Study, which collected observational data on child care quality in 227 child care centers in five cities

Reports & Papers

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42.

Child care initiatives in the states
American Public Welfare Association, 1995
Public Welfare, 53(4), 44-48

A report of findings from an informal survey of state child care efforts and innovations as well as concerns over child care policies

Reports & Papers

43.

The child care protection under TANF
Greenberg, Mark H., 1998
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

A brief on child care protection under Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and its relation to work requirements and time limits

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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44.

Child care services in the JOBS program
Hagen, Jan, 2004
Children and Youth Services Review, 26(8), 697-710

A study on the implementation of child care services under the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program from 1990 to 1992 in 10 states.

Reports & Papers

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45.

Child care worker advocacy: Georgia--executive summary
Askew, Rachel; Wallace, Sally, 2002
Washington, DC: Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy (Urban Institute).

An executive summary of a report on the effectiveness of child care worker advocacy in Georgia in increasing child care worker compensation.

Executive Summary

46.

Child care worker advocacy in Georgia: Site report
Askew, Rachel; Wallace, Sally, 2002
Washington, DC: Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy (Urban Institute).

A report on the effectiveness of child care worker advocacy in Georgia at increasing child care worker compensation

Reports & Papers

47.

Child care workers in the aftermath of September 11th
Phillips, Deborah A.; Jo, Joon Yong; Whitebook, Marcy; et al., 2003
University of California, Berkeley, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment.

A survey of the impact of September 11, 2001 on 174 early childhood workers and the children in their care approximately 4-6 months after the tragic event in Alameda County, California

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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48.

Children at home and in day care
Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Gruber, Christian P.; Fitzgerald, Linda M.; et al., 1994
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Reports & Papers

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49.

Children enrolled in public pre-K: The relation of family life, neighborhood quality, and socioeconomic resources to early competence
Barbarin, Oscar; Howes, Carollee; Pianta, Robert C.; et al., 2006
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(2), 265-276

An examination of the relations of young children's sociodemographic characteristics, parental well-being, family functioning, and neighborhood quality to their early academic achievements and socioemotional competence

Reports & Papers

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50.

Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: A unique research opportunity
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Mott, Frank L.; Phillips, Deborah A.; et al., 1991
Developmental Psychology, 27(6), 918-931

A description of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data set and its importance and relevance to future studies in multiple disciplines

Reports & Papers

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