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1.

Absenteeism, childcare and the effectiveness of pension reforms
Moscarola, Flavia Coda; Fornero, Elsa; Strom, Steinar; et al., 2016
IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 5, 1-18

Both economic and epidemiological literature have shown that perceived high strain at work and lack of social infrastructures are good predictors of sick leave. The latter is particularly relevant in countries where facilities for children and care services are scarce and women are asked to fill the gap. The Italian 2011 pension reform significantly restricted age and seniority requirements for retirement, especially for women in private employment. We investigated whether older Italian employed women reacted to the postponement of retirement by increasing their sick leave. The empirical analysis offers unequivocal evidence that this has indeed been the case, in particular, for low-income grandmothers living in regions with a poor supply of childcare services. Radical reforms risk losing some of their effectiveness if they are not accompanied by parallel measures designed to introduce the welfare provisions previously indirectly and inadequately provided by the pension system, such as care facilities. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

2.

Alabama First Class Pre-K
University of California, Berkeley. Center for the Study of Child Care Employment,
Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment.

This document provides background and financing information on Alabama's prekindergarten program; the current status of improving compensation for prekindergarten teachers; the rationale, approach/strategy, and helpful factors for advancing compensation parity; outcomes; and challenges.

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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3.

Analysis and recommendations regarding the impact of SB 3 on child care in California
Child Care Law Center (San Francisco, Calif.), April, 2016
San Francisco, CA: Child Care Law Center.

This analysis examines SB 3, a bill designed to incrementally raise California's minimum wage to $15 per hour by 2022. The focus is on possible associated changes in the field of childcare, particularly in the areas of workforce wages, subsidy eligibility, and child care operating costs. Recommendations, which include the creation of a state task force, are presented to guide the state moving forward.

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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4.

Assessing the optimal length of parental leave for child and parental well-being: How can research inform policy?
Galtry, Judith; Callister, Paul, 2005
Journal of Family Issues, 26(2), 219-246

A review of literature on concerns associated with parental leave, encompassing mothers' labor market outcomes, childbirth and maternal recovery, parent-infant bonding, children’s cognitive development, breastfeeding, and gender equity objectives

Literature Review

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5.

Beyond work-family balance: Are family-friendly organizations more attractive?
Bourhis, Anne; Mekkaoui, Redouane, Winter 2010
Relations Industrielles, 65(1), 98-117

A study of 4 distinct effects of family friendly practices (FFP) namely, on-site child care, generous personal leaves, flexible scheduling, and telecommuting, as well as candidates' desires for role segmentation and corporate reputation on organizational attractiveness, from 5 scenarios presented to 110 subjects in a Canadian university continuing education management class

Reports & Papers

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6.

The business case for work-family programs
Johnson, Arlene, 1995
Journal of Accountancy, 180(2), 53-unspecified

Highlights of the cost benefits of employer-supported child care services

Other

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7.

Caring and learning together: Exploring the relationship between parental leave and early childhood education and care
Moss, Peter, December, 2012
European Journal of Education, 47(4), 482-493

An examination of the relationship between parental leave entitlements and availability of early childhood education and care services in a range of high-income European countries, based on data from 25 countries in the 2012 annual review of leave policies

Reports & Papers

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8.

Caring as social right: Cash for child care and daddy leave
Leira, Arnlaug, 1998
Social Politics, 5(3), 362-378

A study of policies aimed at gender division in family child care and employment policies in Finland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway

Other

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9.

Can child care assistance in welfare and employment programs support the employment of low-income families?
Gennetian, Lisa A.; Crosby, Danielle A.; Huston, Aletha C.; et al., 2004
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 23(4), 723-743

An investigation of different welfare and employment programs with child care assistance policies and their effects on employment rates and child care decisions of low income families

Reports & Papers

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10.

Child care services in the JOBS program
Hagen, Jan, 2004
Children and Youth Services Review, 26(8), 697-710

A study on the implementation of child care services under the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program from 1990 to 1992 in 10 states.

Reports & Papers

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11.

Child care subsidies and employment behavior among very-low-income populations in three states
Cochi Ficano, Carlena K.; Morris, Pamela A.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; et al., May 2006
The Review of Policy Research, 23(3), 681-698

An empirical analysis of the effects of child care subsidies on recipients' transition times to substantial employment, using merged administrative data from Florida, Minnesota, and Connecticut's welfare reform evaluations

Reports & Papers

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12.

Child care subsidy receipt, employment, and child care choices of single mothers
Tekin, Erdal, 2004
(NBER Working Paper Series No. 10459). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

A study of the influence of subsidy receipt on the employment rates and child care choices of single mothers, based on questionnaire responses, collected in 1999, from 2,226 single mothers in a nationally representative sample of American families

Reports & Papers

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13.

Determinants of maternity leave duration in Australia: Evidence from the HILDA survey
Ulker, Aydogan; Guven, Cahit, September, 2011
The Economic Record, 87(278), 399-413

A study of predictors of maternity leave taken by employed mothers of newborns in Australia that includes child care access, based on data from 401 women in the first five waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey

Reports & Papers

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14.

Does the motherhood wage penalty differ by individual skill and country family policy? A longitudinal study of ten European countries
Hallden, Karin; Kricheli-Katz, Tamar; Levanon, Asaf; et al., Fall 2016
Social Politics, 23(3), 363-388

Previous research shows considerable variation in the strength of the motherhood wage penalty across countries, which has partially been attributed to differences in policies supporting maternal employment. Although such policies are usually understood to be complementary, their effects on workers--and especially on employees in jobs of diverse skills levels--may differ. Using longitudinal data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) for ten countries, this article describes the associations of different maternal employment policies with the motherhood wage penalty by skill. Findings from Hausman-Taylor panel models indicate that both a high share of small children in publicly funded child care facilities and long paid maternity leave are associated with a decrease in the motherhood wage penalty regardless of skill level. The standardized total effects were larger for the latter policy. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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15.

The effects of family policy on maternal labor supply: Combining evidence from a structural model and a quasi-experimental approach
Geyer, Johannes; Haan, Peter; Wrohlich, Katharina; et al., October, 2015
Labour Economics, 36, 84-98

Parental leave and subsidized child care are prominent examples of family policies supporting the reconciliation of family life and labor market careers for mothers. In this paper, we combine different empirical strategies to evaluate the employment effects of these policies for mothers with young children. In particular we estimate a structural labor supply model and exploit quasi-experimental variation from a parental leave reform in Germany. Our findings suggest that a combination of parental leave benefits and subsidized child care leads to sizable employment effects of mothers. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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16.

Effects of public and private policies on working after childbirth
Hofferth, Sandra L., 1996
Work and Occupations, 23(4), 378-404

A study of the influence of state and employer policies on the employment behavior of mothers

Reports & Papers

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17.

Effects of welfare and employment policies on young children: New findings on policy experiments conducted in the early 1990s
Morris, Pamela A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; et al., 2005
Social Policy Report, 19(2)

A policy report analyzing previous research on how preschool children's development is affected by welfare policies, particularly those that increase parental employment and income

Other

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18.

Employer characteristics and the provision of family responsive policies
Glass, Jennifer; Fujimoto, Tetsushi, 1995
Work and Occupations, 22(4), 380-411

A discussion of family benefits, level of job-family stress and working conditions among American employers

Reports & Papers

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19.

Employers' perspective on childcare services for hired farm workers
Lee, Barbara C.; Salzwedel, Marsha; Chyou, Po-Huang; et al., 2017
Journal of Agromedicine, 22(4), 376-383

The goal of this project was to protect children while parents work in agriculture by improving off-farm services for children of migrant and seasonal farm workers. Large agricultural enterprises have policies forbidding children in the worksite. At the same time, their employees, who are trying to generate income, seek as many work hours as possible but often lack viable options for childcare services. As employers strive to increase their labor pool, and workers seek off-farm childcare, there is mutual interest in improving access to childcare services in agricultural regions dependent on large numbers of full-time and seasonal workers. This report describes the employers' perspectives on childcare needs of hired farm workers' families and their barriers and motivators to facilitating off-farm childcare services. Using descriptive survey research methodology, data were collected from a convenience sample of 102 agribusiness owners and Human Resource directors attending an agricultural conference regarding labor laws or personnel management. Results revealed significant differences for those companies employing more than 25 workers compared to their counterparts. Primary motivators for offering childcare as an employment benefit were improved employee morale, enhanced company reputation, and a more stable workforce. A major barrier was that half of large-scale enterprises lack guidance on how to provide childcare options for their workers. Survey results are being used to facilitate collaboration among employers, farm workers, and childcare providers to offer a safe, nurturing environment for children while their parents work in agriculture. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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20.

Employer supports for parents with young children
Friedman, Dana E., 2001
The Future of Children, 11(1), 63-78

A review of support provided by employers to parents of young children, including such traditional benefits as vacation and health insurance and such family friendly initiatives as on-site child care, paid time off, flexible schedules, and counseling and information.

Other

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21.

Employment protection and parental child care
Olsson, Martin, 14 January, 2013
(Working Paper 2013:2). Uppsala, Sweden: Institutet for arbetsmarknads- och utbildningspolitisk utvardering (Sweden) (Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (Sweden)).

I examine if employment protection affects parental childcare. I find that a softer employment protection has a substantial effect on how parents use and divide paid childcare between them. The identification relies on a reform that made it easier for employers in Sweden to dismiss workers in small firms. I estimate that a softer employment protection reduces the total days of parental childcare in targeted firms, measured as total days of parental leave or temporary parental leave. Both a sorting effect and a behavioral effect can explain the reduced childcare. I also find evidence of a redistribution effect of paid parental childcare within households if only one partner was affected by the reform. I interpret the redistribution effect as a way of evading an external cost on the child. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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22.

Equal parenthood and social policy: Lessons from a study on parental leave in Sweden
Haas, Linda, 1991
In J.S. Hyde & M.J. Essex (Eds.), Parental leave and child care: Setting a research and policy agenda. (pp. 375-405). Philadelphia: Temple University Press

A discussion on Swedish parental leave policy and use and its implications on the United States

Reports & Papers

23.

Estimating the cost of raising child care workers' wages for state subsidy programs: A methodology applied to California's new state minimum wage law
Thomason, Sarah; Bernhardt, Annette, December, 2016
Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Center for Labor Research and Education.

In April 2016, California passed legislation to increase the state minimum wage annually until it reaches $15 an hour in 2023 for all businesses. As a result, child care centers and licensed in-home providers will be required to increase the wages of their employees who currently earn less than the new minimum wage. Because a large proportion of workers in the child care industry is low-wage, this could have a significant impact on providers. Providers with private clients may respond by raising their prices to cover the cost of the wage increase. However, the amount providers receive for caring for children covered by state child care subsidy programs is determined by state and county reimbursement rates. Without the ability to change the amount charged for caring for subsidized children, child care centers or licensed in-home facilities may not be able to cover the cost of raising workers' wages to the new minimum wage. In this memo, we describe a methodology we have developed for estimating the additional child care subsidy funding needed to cover the cost of a state minimum wage increase for programs administered by the California Department of Education (CDE) and the Department of Social Services through the CalWORKs 1 (Welfare to Work) program. (author abstract)

Other

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24.

Evidence from maternity leave expansions of the impact of maternal care on early child development
Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin, Winter 2010
Journal of Human Resources, 45(1), 1-32

An exploration of changes to both child care use and child development indicators following Canada's year 2000 6-month increase in the length of maternal leave entitlements for employed mothers

Reports & Papers

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25.

Evidence from maternity leave expansions of the impact of maternal care on early child development
Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin, February, 2008
(NBER Working Paper Series No. 13826) Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

An exploration of changes to child care use and child development indicators after Canada's year 2000 6-month increase in the length of maternal leave entitlements for employed mothers

Reports & Papers

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26.

Families that work: Policies for reconciling parenthood and employment
Gornick, Janet C.; Meyers, Marcia K., 2005
New York: Russell Sage Foundation

A comparison of the United States' work-family policies to policies of other industrialized nations, which proposes that international work-family policy models could be successfully employed in the United States

Other

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27.

Family and medical leave: Making time for family is everyone's business
Asher, Lauren; Lenhoff, Donna, 2001
The Future of Children, 11(1), 115-121

A description of the development and achievements of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

Other

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28.

Federal legislation to improve job schedules and child care access for low-wage workers
Ben-Ishai, Elizabeth; Matthews, Hannah, 19 November, 2014
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

A new law and legislation under consideration in Congress could both make a significant difference in the lives of working parents who struggle to arrange and hold onto child care in the face of volatile job schedules: The Child Care and Development Block Grant Act (CCDBG) of 2014, signed into law on November 19, 2014, makes improvements to the health, safety and quality of child care, while also providing better and sustained access to child care assistance for low-income working parents. The Schedules that Work Act (SWA) of 2014 would enable workers to have more predictable, stable, and flexible job schedules, and compensate those who are subject to unpredictability. This fact sheet highlights key provisions that would improve working parents' access to quality child care. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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29.

The future European labor supply: The critical role of the family
Rubery, Jill; Flood, Lennart; Anxo, Dominique; et al., 2001
Feminist Economics, 7(3), 33-69

A review of articles discussing the role of the family and strategies to integrate women into the European workforce

Other

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30.

Futurework: Trends and challenges for work in the 21st century
United States. Department of Labor. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy, 1999
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.

An examination of projected demographic and workplace trends in the 21st century and their implications for workers

Other

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31.

Futurework: Trends and challenges for work in the 21st century [Executive summary]
United States. Department of Labor. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy, 1999
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.

The summary of a report examining projected demographic and workplace trends in the 21st century and their implications for workers

Executive Summary

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32.

Gender-equalizing family policies and mothers' entry into paid work: Recent evidence from Norway
Ronsen, Marit; Kitterod, Ragni Hege, January, 2015
Feminist Economics, 21(1), 59-89

Universal parental leaves with job protection and earnings compensation increase women's labor market attachment, but very long leaves may have negative consequences at both individual and societal levels. Using panel data from the period 1996-2010, we study whether it is possible to offset the potential negative effects on women's labor supply of long parental leaves by policies targeted especially at fathers, and policies making formal daycare cheaper and more easily available. Norway is used as example, since all recent extensions in the parental leave scheme have been reserved for fathers and at the same time the daycare sector has expanded rapidly. We find that Norwegian mothers did enter work faster after childbirth in the late 2000s than a decade earlier. The latest initiatives may thus have contributed to a shortening of women's career interruptions and a more equal division of paid and unpaid work among parents. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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33.

Georgia Pre-K
University of California, Berkeley. Center for the Study of Child Care Employment,
Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment.

This document provides background and financing information on Georgia's prekindergarten program; the current status of improving compensation for prekindergarten teachers; the rationale, approach/strategy, and helpful factors for advancing compensation parity; outcomes; and challenges.

Fact Sheets & Briefs

get fulltext

34.

Get the prescription: Child care workers need paid sick days
Center for Law and Social Policy, 2006
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

A brief arguing for the importance of policies to provide paid sick days to child care workers

Fact Sheets & Briefs

35.

Growing Up in Poverty Project 
Fuller, Bruce,
Berkeley, CA: Policy Analysis for California Education

A longitudinal study of the effects of mothers moving from welfare-to-work on their economic well-being, home environment, child care quality and use, and their young children's early development

Major Research Projects

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36.

''Head Start works because we do'': Head Start programs, community action agencies, and the struggle over unionization
Pasachoff, Eloise, 2003
Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 38(1), 247-277

An examination of the clash between Head Start employees’ efforts for unionization and Community Action Agency employers, analyzing the conflict’s practical, rhetorical and legal arenas and proposing strategies for change

Reports & Papers

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37.

How can family policies reconcile fertility and women's employment? Comparisons between South Korea and Sweden
Lee, Soomi; Zarit, Steven H.; Duvander, Ann-Zofie; et al., September, 2016
Asian Journal of Women's Studies, 22(3), 269-288

South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women's employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women's employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women's workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes. (author abstract)

Other

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38.

The impact of family policy and career interruptions on women's perceptions of the negative occupational consequences of full-time home care
Ejrnaes, Anders, May, 2011
European Societies, 13(2), 239-256

A study of the relationship between parental leave and child care policies in five European countries and perceived negative occupational consequences of career interruptions for mothers who spend time on full-time caring, based on data from 1,249 respondents from the second round of the 2004-2005 European Social Survey

Reports & Papers

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39.

The impact of minimum wage regulations on the early care and education industry in California: A study conducted for the Alameda County Early Care and Education Planning Council, Oakland, California
Welsh-Loveman, Jeremy, May, 2015
Oakland, CA: Alameda County Early Care & Education Planning Council.

This analysis looks at the ramifications of minimum wage increases on state subsidized early care and education in California, with a particular focus on Oakland and centers regulated through Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations. Topics covered include early care and education, minimum wage, wages and costs, and the consequences of minimum wage increases. The author considers ways in which centers and state policies could address the resulting cost increases and provides a recommendation for state policy.

Other

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40.

The impact of minimum wage regulations on the early care and education industry in California: A study conducted for the Alameda County Early Care and Education Planning Council, Oakland, California
Welsh-Loveman, Jeremy, May, 2015
Oakland, CA: Alameda County Early Care & Education Planning Council.

This is a summary of an analysis that looks at the ramifications of minimum wage increases on state subsidized early care and education in California, with a particular focus on Oakland and centers regulated through Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations. Topics covered include early care and education, minimum wage, wages and costs, and the consequences of minimum wage increases. The author considers ways in which centers and state policies could address the resulting cost increases and provides a recommendation for state policy.

Executive Summary

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41.

The impact of welfare reform on parents' ability to care for their children's health
Heymann, Jody; Earle, Alison, 1999
American Journal of Public Health, 89(4), 502-505

A study of the conditions faced by mothers who leave welfare to work and the availability of work benefits that address the children’s health needs, such as paid sick leave and flexible hours

Reports & Papers

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42.

Implementing family-friendly employment practices in banking industry: Evidences from some African and Asian countries
Wang, Peng; Shi, Kan; Lawler, John J.; et al., September, 2011
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(3), 493-517

We examined the effects of family-friendly policies (child-care benefits and work flexibility benefits) on organizational commitment and work-family conflict in four developing countries: China, India, Kenya, and Thailand. We also explored the boundary condition (e.g., perceived importance of family-friendly programmes) under which family-friendly policies are more (or less) effective in influencing organizational commitment and reducing work-family conflict. Results revealed national similarities on the effect of flexibility benefits on organizational commitment and work-family conflict. Specifically, we found that across the four countries work flexibility-related family-friendly policy was positively related to organizational commitment and negatively to perceived work-family conflict among those who perceived this policy as more important than less important. Instead, national variations are found in the results regarding child-care benefits. Among these four countries, Kenya and Thailand are two countries in which child-care-related family-friendly policies showed a significant and positive relationship with organizational commitment and/or a significant and negative relationship with work-family conflict. We also found child-care-related family-friendly policies had differential effect among people with various perception of policy importance in Kenya and Thailand, but not in China and India. Particularly, child-care-related family-friendly policy results in greater organizational commitment and lower work-family conflict among those who perceived this policy as more important than less important in Kenya and Thailand. Implications for cross-cultural research, theory and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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43.

The incentives of government programs and the well-being of families
Meyer, Bruce D.; Duncan, Greg J., 2000
Chicago: Joint Center for Poverty Research.

An examination of the material conditions of single mothers and their families before and soon after welfare reform in order to assess the net effect of policy changes on the well-being of families, using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics

Other

44.

In pursuit of pre-K parity: A proposed framework for understanding and advancing policy and practice
Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin, April, 2017
Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment.

Many pre-K teachers across the nation are expected to earn a bachelor's degree, similar to their peers teaching older children. Yet salaries and benefits remain consistently lower for pre-K teachers than for elementary school teachers. Increasingly, compensation parity is perceived as an achievable policy goal rather than a lofty ideal, yet there is confusion across the field about what parity means. This brief develops a framework for understanding compensation parity in contrast to other forms of compensation improvement. Applying this framework to current state efforts to move toward compensation parity reveals a great deal of variability across states. While some states approach compensation parity, at least for some pre-K teachers, and several states have pursued parity in salaries only, the majority of states do not have any explicit policies intended to move toward parity for pre-K teachers. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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45.

Leave arrangements and childcare services in Central Europe: Policies and practices before and after the transition
Kocourková, Jiøina, 2002
Community, Work & Family, 5(3), 301-318

A comparative research study focusing on childcare services and leave arrangements of Central European countries from the 1960’s to the post 1990’s

Reports & Papers

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46.

The little engine that hasn't: The poor performance of employer tax credits for child care
Smith-Fitzpatrick, Christina; Campbell, Nancy D., 2002
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

A study of the implications of state tax credits for employers that provide some form of child care assistance to their employees

Reports & Papers

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47.

The long-term effects on children and adolescents of a policy providing work supports for low-income parents
Huston, Aletha C.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; et al., Fall 2011
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 30(4), 729-754

A longitudinal study of the effects of family participation in the New Hope employment-based poverty intervention on the social, academic, and behavioral development of several hundred children eight years after participation

Reports & Papers

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48.

Making single mothers work: Recent tax and welfare policy and its effects
Meyer, Bruce D.; Rosenbaum, Dan T., 2000
(NBER Working Paper Series No. 7491). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

A description of changes in United States social and tax policy encouraging single mothers to work and an econometric examination of the changes on employment

Reports & Papers

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49.

Managing work and child care responsibilities in the retail sector: Informal relationships and their limits
Henly, Julia R., 2003
(JCPR Working Paper No. 343). Chicago: Joint Center for Poverty Research.

A study on the child care demands and constraints of low-income parents working in retail, actions taken by employers to alleviate them, and strategies for accommodating the parental workforce

Reports & Papers

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50.

Maternalism redefined: Gender, the state, and the politics of day care, 1945-1962
Zylan, Yvonne, 2000
Gender & Society, 14(5), 608-629

An exploration of the relationship between publicly funded child care policies and welfare program policies in the United States

Reports & Papers

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