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1.

The 101st Congress: An emerging agenda for children in poverty
Hofferth, Sandra L., 1993
In J. Chafel (Ed.), Child Poverty and Public Policy (pp. 203-243). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press

A review of the legislative issues surrounding Project Head Start's reauthorization, the expansion of Medicare, the Family and Medical Leave Act, and the Child Care and Development Block Grant by the 101st United States Congress

Other

2.

10 new ideas for early education in the 111th Congress
Mead, Sara, February, 2009
Washington, DC: New America Foundation.

A discussion of 10 policy proposals to improve early education access, quality, and alignment from preschool through early elementary school

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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3.

10 new ideas for early education in the NCLB reauthorization
Mead, Sara, November 29, 2007
(Issue Brief No. 6). Washington, DC: New America Foundation.

A series of recommendations for strengthening provisions in the reauthorization of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act to better support high-quality early education

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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4.

1+1=0?: Why a strong evidence base on early care and education does not add up to change
Finch, Jenna E., Q2 2014
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(2), 227-229

A review of the book The Pre-K Debates: Current Controversies and Issues

Book Reviews

5.

$1.2 billion investment needed in 2017 to implement CCDBG reauthorization
Center for Law and Social Policy, March, 2016
Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

States are currently working to implement the CCDBG Act of 2014. Many new requirements--including minimum health and safety training and on-site monitoring of child care providers--were long overdue to ensure the well-being of children in CCDBG-funded care. However, the law was not accompanied with a guarantee of new federal funds. States are facing increased, and in some cases significant, costs associated with the law. In the FY 2016 omnibus spending bill, enacted in December 2015, Congress increased funding for CCDBG by $326 million. This will provide essential funding for states to begin implementation of the new law. However, far more resources will be needed to implement the law and stem the tide of declining access to CCDBG. Moreover, not providing the resources needed to implement the law will prevent states from seizing this opportunity and will be a missed opportunity for improving an important program for parents and children. Analyses included in proposed regulations issued by HHS to implement the CCDBG Act estimate the first year costs of implementation at $722 million. This amount does not account for the costs of maintaining current caseloads. CLASP estimates that an additional $503 million would be necessary to prevent additional children from losing child care assistance in 2017. The combined costs for 2017 are, therefore, $1.2 billion--and further investments will be needed over time to implement additional provisions of the reauthorization and expand assistance for more eligible families. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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6.

12 ideas for early education in the 112th Congress
Guernsey, Lisa, February, 2011
Washington, DC: New America Foundation.

A discussion of 12 policy proposals to improve early education access, quality, and alignment from preschool through early elementary school

Fact Sheets & Briefs

7.

13 indicators of quality child care: Research update
Fiene, Richard, 2002
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

An annotated bibliography of research conducted since 1992 on thirteen key child care quality indicators used in developing child care licensing regulations.

Methods

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8.

15 by 15: A comprehensive policy framework for early human capital investment in BC
Kershaw, Paul; Anderson, Lynell; Hertzman, Clyde; et al., August, 2009
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: University of British Columbia, Human Early Learning Partnership.

An argument for reducing the percentage of developmentally vulnerable children in British Columbia, Canada, to 15 by 2015, including a policy framework to achieve the goal

Other

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9.

15 by 15: A comprehensive policy framework for early human capital investment in BC [Executive summary]
Kershaw, Paul; Anderson, Lynell; Hertzman, Clyde; et al., August, 2009
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: University of British Columbia, Human Early Learning Partnership.

A summary of an argument for reducing the percentage of developmentally vulnerable children in British Columbia, Canada, to 15 by 2015, including a policy framework to achieve the goal

Executive Summary

10.

The $17.5 billion question: Has the Universal Child Care Benefit given families "choice in child care"?
Friendly, Martha, 15 October, 2013
Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Toronto, Childcare Resource and Research Unit.

An account of changes in child care-related trends since the debut of Canada's Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB) allowance

Other

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11.

The 2003 California child care portfolio
California Child Care Resource and Referral Network, 2004
San Francisco: California Child Care Resource and Referral Network.

A report providing statewide and county-by-county statistics regarding child care supply and demand, costs, and current policy trends in the state of California

Other

12.

2004 supplement to Making care less taxing
National Women's Law Center, 2004
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

A chart supplementing Appendix A of the 2002 report, ''Making Care Less Taxing: Improving State Child and Dependent Care Tax Provisions,'' which describes state child and dependent care for tax year 2003

Other

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13.

The 2005 Child Care Licensing Study: Executive summary
National Association for Regulatory Administration; National Child Care Information Center (U.S.),
Conyers, GA: National Association for Regulatory Administration.

Summary of a compilation of survey data on state child care licensing programs and policies, including staffing, monitoring, and enforcement, and child care center licensing regulations, for all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2005

Executive Summary

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14.

The 2005 child care licensing study: Final report
National Association for Regulatory Administration; National Child Care Information Center (U.S.), December, 2006
Conyers, GA: National Association for Regulatory Administration.

A compilation of survey data on state child care licensing programs and policies, including staffing, monitoring, and enforcement, and child care center licensing regulations, for all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2005

Reports & Papers

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15.

The 2007 Child Care Licensing Study: Final report
National Child Care Information Center (U.S.); National Association for Regulatory Administration, February, 2009
Lexington, KY: National Association for Regulatory Administration.

A compilation of survey data on state licensing programs and policies for child care centers and small and large family child care homes in all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2007

Reports & Papers

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16.

2007 EFA Global Monitoring Report: Strong foundations: Early childhood care and education
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 2006
Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

An assessment of the progress made by countries and national organizations toward meeting the goals of equitable provision of learning opportunities to all citizens from infancy to adulthood, expressed at the Jomtien World Conference on Education for All, based on cross-national education statistics, household surveys, consultations, literature reviews and commissioned papers, with a focus on national strategies for creating programs and improving services devoted to early childhood care and education

Reports & Papers

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17.

2007 EFA Global Monitoring Report: Strong foundations: Early childhood care and education [Summary]
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 2006
Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

A summary of an assessment of the progress made by countries and national organizations toward meeting the goals of equitable provision of learning opportunities to all citizens from infancy to adulthood, expressed at the Jomtien World Conference on Education for All, based on cross-national education statistics, household surveys, consultations, literature reviews and commissioned papers, with a focus on national strategies for creating programs and improving services devoted to early childhood care and education

Executive Summary

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18.

The 2008 child care licensing study
National Child Care Information Center (U.S.); National Association for Regulatory Administration, May, 2010
Lexington, KY: National Association for Regulatory Administration.

A compilation of survey data on state licensing programs and policies for child care centers and small and large family child care homes in all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2007

Reports & Papers

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19.

2008 supplement to Making care less taxing
National Women's Law Center, February, 2008
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

An update listing changes to state child and dependent care income tax provisions since December 2005 that are in effect for the 2007 tax year

Other

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20.

2009 child nutrition reauthorization: Child and Adult Care Food Program preschool recommendations
National Women's Law Center, April, 2009
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

A discussion of policy recommendations for legislation reauthorizing the Child and Adult Care Food Program

Fact Sheets & Briefs

21.

2009 supplement to Making care less taxing
National Women's Law Center, April, 2009
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

An update listing changes to state child and dependent care income tax provisions since December 2005 that are in effect for the 2008 tax year

Other

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22.

2010 strategic report to the governor on the status of early childhood: Executive summary
Nebraska. Early Childhood Interagency Coordinating Council,
Lincoln: Nebraska, Early Childhood Interagency Coordinating Council.

A summary of an overview of early childhood services in Nebraska related to parent education and family support, socioemotional development and mental health, early care and education, and medical and dental homes, with an examination of the system of public supports for early care and education in the state

Executive Summary

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23.

2013-14: Expansion of the SC Child Development Education Pilot Program (CDEPP): Report
South Carolina Education Oversight Committee, 21 January, 2014
Columbia: South Carolina Education Oversight Committee.

The General Assembly created and funded the Child Development Education Pilot Program (CDEPP) with a budget proviso in Fiscal Year 2006-07. CDEPP provides for a full-day early childhood education for at-risk children who are four-year-olds by September 1. The definition of at-risk is eligibility for the free or reduced-price Federal lunch program and/or Medicaid. Both public schools and private childcare centers licensed by the South Carolina Department of Social Services may participate in the program. The South Carolina Department of Education oversees implementation of CDEPP in public schools while the Office of First Steps to School Readiness oversees implementation by private providers. Between school years 2006-07 and 2012-13, CDEPP services targeted eligible children residing in the plaintiff and trial districts in the Abbeville equity lawsuit, Abbeville County School District et. al. vs. South Carolina. In Fiscal Year 2013-14, the General Assembly expanded CDEPP to include children who met the same age and socioeconomic criteria and who resided in a district with a poverty index of 75 percent or more. The poverty index is a measure of the percentage of students who are eligible for the free or reduced-price Federal lunch program and/or Medicaid. The CDEPP expansion included 17 eligible school districts that were not original trial and plaintiff districts. The legislature appropriated additional state funds of $26.1 million to provide the educational services to children residing in these districts. Of the funds appropriated for CDEPP in Fiscal Year 2013-14, the legislature allocated $300,000 to the Education Oversight Committee (EOC) to perform an evaluation of the program. The attached is a preliminary report that: 1. Documents the expansion of CDEPP in Fiscal Year 2013-14. The EOC will provide additional information on the program in July of 2014; 2. Updates the projections for the number of at-risk four-year-olds in each school district and the number of at-risk four-year-olds served in a publicly funded program using available information; 3. Analyzes the results of the 2013 administration of the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) and the academic achievement of students who had previously participated in CDEPP; and 4. Proposes a framework for a longitudinal evaluation of the program. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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24.

2013 legislative session: P-3 policies
Workman, Emily, November, 2013
Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States.

This report provides summaries of 38 bills from 25 states that illustrate the breadth and depth of P-3 policies enacted in 2013 legislative sessions. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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25.

2014 Child Care and Development Block Grant Reauthorization Act: Implications and opportunities for state legislatures
National Conference of State Legislatures,
Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures.

In November 2014, Congress reauthorized the Child Care and Development Block (CCDBG) grant for the first time since 1996. The new law gives legislators an opportunity to take leadership not only to implement the required policy changes to comply with the reauthorization but also to weigh in on designing a child care system that meets the needs of children and their families as well as how to connect this work to the broader early learning efforts in their states. This policy primer provides background on and a snapshot of the major provisions of CCDBG Act of 2014 as well as information on state flexibility and opportunities, recent state legislative examples and actions currently being considered by states. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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26.

2014 child care reauthorization and opportunities for TANF and CCDF
United States. Office of Child Care; United States. Office of Family Assistance, 09 February, 2016
(Log No: CCDF-ACF-IM-2016-02 TANF-ACF-IM-2016-02). Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Child Care.

The purpose of this Information Memorandum is to provide key information on the recent reauthorization of CCDF and its implications and opportunities for TANF and CCDF. Lead Agencies from both programs can work together to implement the reauthorization and leverage this opportunity to support family economic security and well-being. (author abstract)

Other

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27.

2015 enacted legislation on early care & education
National Conference of State Legislatures,
Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures.

The National Conference of State Legislatures' (NCSL) Early Care and Education Project in the Children and Families Program tracks introduced and enacted legislation related to child care, early education and parent engagement and support. During the 2015 legislative session, lawmakers introduced nearly 900 bills on the topic of early care and education. Of those, 124 bills have been signed into law in 39 states. This report provides an overview of the significant 2015 legislative enactments in the following major topic areas: child care (subsidy, quality, and access), early childhood workforce, pre-K/ and school readiness, early childhood governance and systems, early childhood services, data strategies, home visiting and parent education, and finance strategies and appropriations. The largest number of legislative enactments occurred in the topic area of child care. (author abstract)

Other

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28.

2015 enacted legislation on early care & education (noted by state)
National Conference of State Legislatures,
Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures.

A summary of an overview of changes to state child care and early education legislation in 2015, arranged by state

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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29.

2015 fact sheets: QRIS mission & goals
QRIS National Learning Network,
Denver, CO: QRIS National Learning Network.

This fact sheet presents top-ranked quality rating and improvement (QRIS) mission and goal statements, based on analyzed 2015 data collected from 40 systems, reflecting the most commonly occurring themes. Examples from states are included.

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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30.

2015 progress update: Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge
United States. Department of Education; United States. Department of Health and Human Services, August, 2016
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

The Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge grants, authorized by Congress in 2011, are designed to improve the quality of early learning and development programs for children from birth through age 5. This discretionary grant program is administered jointly by the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This document provides a summary of States' progress on key performance measures, as well as some States' explanations for their progress on some of these measures. (author abstract)

Other

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31.

2017 accountability report: Early childhood
New Mexico. Legislature. Finance Committee,
Santa Fe, NM: New Mexico, Legislature, Finance Committee.

New Mexico's early childhood care and education system begins prenatally and extends through age 8. Services for improving the health, safety, stability, and education of New Mexico's children span several state agencies, including the Children, Youth and Families Department (CYFD), the Department of Health (DOH), the Human Services Department (HSD), and the Public Education Department (PED). Concern regarding low or declining performance in key indicators such as the rate of repeat child maltreatment, immunization, and reading proficiency of low-income children have been raised. With this knowledge, the Legislature invested in multiple prevention and intervention strategies over the last several years, such as home visiting and prekindergarten. The Early Childhood Accountability Report is intended to provide a system-wide look at key early childhood indicators across state agencies and consolidate information regarding expenditures and outcomes. The report provides trend data indicating mixed performance results on measures reported last year. (author abstract)

Other

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32.

21st Century Community Learning Centers: A foundation for progress
Afterschool Alliance, 2006
Washington, DC: Afterschool Alliance.

A description of the programs implemented through the use of federal funds supplied through the 21st Century Community Learning Center (CCLC) initiative

Fact Sheets & Briefs

33.

28 million poor and lower-middle income children would not qualify for Dole child tax credit
Larin, Kathryn; Greenstein, Robert, 1996
Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.

A policy brief on the ramifications of proposed changes to the child tax credit by then-Presidential candidate Bob Dole.

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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34.

The $4 billion deficit: Ratcheting up investment in early childhood education
New York (N.Y.). Office of the Comptroller, June, 2013
New York: New York (N.Y.), Office of the Comptroller.

An overview of the benefits of investing in early care and education (ECE), and a discussion of policy and funding proposals to increase ECE access in New York City

Other

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35.

The 50-state Child Care Licensing Study: 2011-2013 edition
National Association for Regulatory Administration,
Lexington, KY: National Association for Regulatory Administration

A study of licensing procedures in each state, including licensing practices, regulatory requirements, and operations for family child care providers, group child care homes, and child care centers, based on a survey of state child care licensing agencies, an online database of regulatory requirements, and follow-up contacts with states to verify information in the database

Reports & Papers

36.

50-state comparison: K-3 quality
Auck, Alyssa; Atchison, Bruce, July, 2016
Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States.

This brief accompanies and summarizes key findings from a 50-state tool developed by the Education Commission of the States to compare state kindergarten through third grade policies in six areas: basic requirements; school readiness and transitions; assessment, intervention and retention; instructional quality; family engagement; and social-emotional learning.

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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37.

5 ideas for children five years and younger
Stedron, Jennifer; Clothier, Steffanie, June, 2008
Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures.

An overview of five types of policies to support children's development and early learning, with examples from individual states

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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38.

6 policies to support the early childhood workforce
Ullrich, Rebecca; Schochet, Leila; Hamm, Katie; et al., February, 2017
Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.

Moving forward, the workforce must be a priority in comprehensive legislation for early childhood care and education. In addition to increasing funding levels, the federal government must craft comprehensive policies to ensure that early childhood workers receive adequate compensation, benefits, and support for their professional growth--no matter where they work or who they serve. This report identifies six policies that the federal government should include as part of significant federal financing reform for early care and education. These policies will be implemented in partnership with states and communities. (author abstract)

Other

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39.

The ABC of child care politics
Brennan, Deborah, Winter 2007
Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(2), 213-225

A study of the growth of private and for-profit child care services, the adequacy of regulations and standards, the cost of care, and the implications for both politics and public policy, with an argument for a more robust approach to regulation and quality control due to the emergence of ABC Learning as the dominant corporate provider of child care services in Australia

Other

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40.

Absenteeism, childcare and the effectiveness of pension reforms
Moscarola, Flavia Coda; Fornero, Elsa; Strom, Steinar; et al., 2016
IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 5, 1-18

Both economic and epidemiological literature have shown that perceived high strain at work and lack of social infrastructures are good predictors of sick leave. The latter is particularly relevant in countries where facilities for children and care services are scarce and women are asked to fill the gap. The Italian 2011 pension reform significantly restricted age and seniority requirements for retirement, especially for women in private employment. We investigated whether older Italian employed women reacted to the postponement of retirement by increasing their sick leave. The empirical analysis offers unequivocal evidence that this has indeed been the case, in particular, for low-income grandmothers living in regions with a poor supply of childcare services. Radical reforms risk losing some of their effectiveness if they are not accompanied by parallel measures designed to introduce the welfare provisions previously indirectly and inadequately provided by the pension system, such as care facilities. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

41.

Access to child care for low-income working families
United States. Administration for Children and Families; United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 1999
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families.

An exploration of the magnitude of the gap between demand for, and actual acquisition of, child care subsidy assistance among low income, subsidy eligible families

Reports & Papers

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42.

Access to child care for low-income working families [Executive summary]
United States. Administration for Children and Families; United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 1999
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families.

The executive summary of a research report that explores the gap between the demand for child care subsidy assistance and the actual receipt by low-income, subsidy eligible families.

Executive Summary

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43.

Access to childcare services: The role of demand and supply-side policies
Farfan-Portet, Maria-Isabel; Petrella, Francesca; Lorant, Vincent; et al., April, 2011
Population Research and Policy Review, 30(2), 165-183

A study of the relationships between the probability of low income parental use of child care and both individual and contextual variables, different child care tax deduction policies, and the provision of subsidized child care slots, based on nationally representative data from Belgium from the years 1994 through 2000

Reports & Papers

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44.

Access to Early Care and Education (ECE) for Disadvantaged Families
Madill, Rebecca, 2015
Child Trends

The purpose of the present study is to understand the role that state-level child care subsidy policies play in predicting disadvantaged families' access to high-quality early care and education (ECE). The federal Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) has dual goals of supporting parental employment and providing high-quality ECE to children. States set many of their own policies for administering child care subsidies to disadvantaged families, but it is unclear how different subsidy policies are related to access to ECE in different populations--especially ethnic minorities and families with limited English proficiency. This study has three objectives: 1. Provide descriptive information comparing the ECE experiences of subsidy-eligible and ineligible children 2. Determine whether certain combinations of subsidies (i.e., subsidy profiles) are associated with whether economically-disadvantaged children receive subsidies. 3. Determine how subsidy policy profiles are associated with economically-disadvantaged families' access to ECE.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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45.

Access to early childhood programs for children at risk
Hofferth, Sandra L.; West, Jerry; Henke, Robin R.; et al., 1994
(NCES 93-372). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

An investigation into the degree of access at-risk children have to programs providing early childhood education and care services and the quality of those programs, using data from the National Household Education Survey

Other

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46.

Access to early childhood programs for children at risk [Executive summary]
Hofferth, Sandra L.; West, Jerry; Henke, Robin R.; et al., 1994
(NCES 93-372). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

A summary of an investigation into the degree of access at-risk children have to programs providing early childhood education and care services and the quality of those programs, using data from the National Household Education Survey

Executive Summary

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47.

The Access to Nutritious Meals for Young Children Act of 2009, S. 2749/H.R. 4402
National Women's Law Center, 2009
Washington, DC: National Women’s Law Center.

A description of a 2009 legislative proposal for the expansion of the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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48.

Access to pre-k education under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act
Boylan, Ellen; Splansky, Deborah, February, 2010
Newark, NJ: Education Law Center.

Under federal law, states are required to ensure that homeless children have equal access to the same free, appropriate public education, including a public preschool education, as provided to other children and youths. This policy brief provides an overview of the law and its limitations and describes policies that can help increase the number of homeless children included in pre-k programs. (author abstract)

Other

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49.

Access to programs
Ranck, Edna Runnels, 2003
In D. Cryer & R.M. Clifford (Eds.), Early childhood education and care in the USA (pp. 47-63). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

A review of longstanding problems involved with the supply and demand of early childhood education and care, which offers potential solutions to these problems

Other

50.

Access to quality: Early learning for California preschoolers in subsidized license-exempt settings
University of California, Berkeley. Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, June, 2013
Sacramento: California, Department of Education.

To address the reality that many of California's at-risk preschool-age children receiving subsidized child care services could benefit from, but do not participate in, organized, high-quality preschool or school-readiness experiences, CDD provided support to the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment at the University of California, Berkeley, for an Access to Quality Early Learning Project to examine: 1) the reasons why parents choose license-exempt child care, and their knowledge of the options that may be available to them; 2) the opportunities for and barriers to improving school readiness experiences for at-risk children who attend full-time, license-exempt child care; and 3) how license-exempt providers, and school readiness and preschool programs, might better coordinate and blend their offerings for families. This report summarizes the findings of this exploration, and offers recommendations that can be used to inform policy strategies promoting greater participation by high-need children, now cared for exclusively in license-exempt settings, in quality educational environments that ready them for elementary school. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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