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Are Head Start effects sustained?: A longitudinal follow-up comparison of disadvantaged children attending Head Start, no preschool, and other preschool programs
Lee, Valerie E., 1990
Child Development, 61(2), 495-507

A study of the sustained effects in kindergarten and first grade of Project Head Start for disadvantaged black children between 1969 and 1970 in two American cities

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Background literature review pertaining to the Early Head Start study
Raikes, Helen, February, 2013
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78(1), 1-19

An overview of the Early Head Start program model and of the relationship of early childhood program participation to children's school readiness outcomes

Other


Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

An interim report of the random assignment, impact evaluation of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, analyzing child and family outcomes through the first two years of children's lives.

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Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families: Summary report
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

A summary of findings from the interim report of the random assignment, impact evaluation of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project.

Executive Summary


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Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families: Volume II. Technical report appendixes
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

A compendium of studies on the influence of participation in an Early Head Start program on children’s outcomes

Other


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Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families: Volume I. Technical report
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of Early Head Start programs in improving children's outcomes, based on a national assessment of 3,000 children at 17 sites

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CAP Family Life Study: Year 2 report: September 30, 2011-September 29, 2012
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 01 April, 2013
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

The present evaluation of CareerAdvance represents a strong collaboration between university research partners and CAP. The research partnership began in 2008 when nationally-recognized leaders in workforce program and policy development worked with CAP to design CareerAdvance, which was launched in 2009. In early 2010, national experts in developmental science broadened the research scope of the study to focus on children's development and family functioning in addition to parents' education, training, and financial well-being. CAP and its research partners then sought to expand the program and secure funding to examine the short-term synergistic effects of two-generation programs on parents and children. In September 2010, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) at Health and Human Services (HHS) funded a 5-year scale-up of CareerAdvance and a two-part evaluation study through the Health Profession Opportunity Grant (HPOG) Program. The research component of this first HPOG award included: (1) a short-term small-scale outcomes study; and (2) an implementation study. The initial short-term outcomes study has a one-year focus and examines several areas: program participation and advancement; career credentialing; job readiness; earnings; and a small set of child and family outcomes. The implementation study examines the systems-level influences on the structure and implementation of CareerAdvance, focusing on the degree to which the various training pathways are successfully offered, coordinated, and integrated. Recognizing the need to examine the longer-term influences of CareerAdvance, the research team secured funding from Health and Human Services (HHS) Health Profession Opportunity Grant (HPOG) University Partnership in September 2011 to conduct a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study of all CareerAdvance participants and a matched comparison group. The goals of the second award are to examine: (1) possible long-term family, parent, and child outcomes as influenced by participation in CareerAdvance; as well as (2) variations in program participation and their potential links to differential patterns of educational attainment, employment, and family health and well-being. The full research project is now referred to as the CAP Family Life Study. A key goal of Year 2 was to build on and strengthen the organizational capacity to support the ambitious research agenda. During Year 2, the researchers have focused on (1) expanding the research team, developing partnerships, and facilitating team communication; (2) designing measures as informed by our theory of change; (3) collecting data from parents, children, teachers, and staff from both CareerAdvance and CAP using quantitative and qualitative methods; and (4) processing data from multiple sources and preparing it for analysis. (author abstract)

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CAP Family Life Study: Year 2 report: September 30, 2011-September 29, 2012 [Executive summary]
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 01 April, 2013
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

The present evaluation of CareerAdvance represents a strong collaboration between university research partners and CAP. The research partnership began in 2008 when nationally-recognized leaders in workforce program and policy development worked with CAP to design CareerAdvance, which was launched in 2009. In early 2010, national experts in developmental science broadened the research scope of the study to focus on children's development and family functioning in addition to parents' education, training, and financial well-being. CAP and its research partners then sought to expand the program and secure funding to examine the short-term synergistic effects of two-generation programs on parents and children. In September 2010, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) at Health and Human Services (HHS) funded a 5-year scale-up of CareerAdvance and a two-part evaluation study through the Health Profession Opportunity Grant (HPOG) Program. The research component of this first HPOG award included: (1) a short-term small-scale outcomes study; and (2) an implementation study. The initial short-term outcomes study has a one-year focus and examines several areas: program participation and advancement; career credentialing; job readiness; earnings; and a small set of child and family outcomes. The implementation study examines the systems-level influences on the structure and implementation of CareerAdvance, focusing on the degree to which the various training pathways are successfully offered, coordinated, and integrated. Recognizing the need to examine the longer-term influences of CareerAdvance, the research team secured funding from Health and Human Services (HHS) Health Profession Opportunity Grant (HPOG) University Partnership in September 2011 to conduct a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study of all CareerAdvance participants and a matched comparison group. The goals of the second award are to examine: (1) possible long-term family, parent, and child outcomes as influenced by participation in CareerAdvance; as well as (2) variations in program participation and their potential links to differential patterns of educational attainment, employment, and family health and well-being. The full research project is now referred to as the CAP Family Life Study. A key goal of Year 2 was to build on and strengthen the organizational capacity to support the ambitious research agenda. During Year 2, the researchers have focused on (1) expanding the research team, developing partnerships, and facilitating team communication; (2) designing measures as informed by our theory of change; (3) collecting data from parents, children, teachers, and staff from both CareerAdvance and CAP using quantitative and qualitative methods; and (4) processing data from multiple sources and preparing it for analysis. (author abstract)

Executive Summary


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CAP Family Life Study: Year 3 report: September, 2012-December, 2013
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 01 April, 2014
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

CareerAdvance--administered by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP Tulsa)--combines Head Start services with education and stackable training in the healthcare sector. The program draws on the best innovations from the adult education literature by offering a sequence of programs in partnership with community colleges so that participants can make concrete progress, exit at various points with certificates, and then return for further advancement. CareerAdvance also provides a number of key supportive components, including career coaches, financial incentives, and peer group meetings, to prepare parents for high-demand jobs in the healthcare sector. CareerAdvance is one of the only fully-operating, two-generation, human capital programs in the country. The CAP Family Life Study is a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods, multi-level study of CareerAdvance, in which we examine the short-term and longer-term effects of the program on family, parent, and child outcomes. The research team for the CAP Family Life Study includes P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Teresa Eckrich Sommer, and Terri Sabol from Northwestern University, Christopher King from the University of Texas at Austin, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn at Columbia University, and Hirokazu Yoshikawa at New York University. The current study investigates how variation in program participation is linked to different subgroup patterns of educational attainment, employment, and family health and well-being. The CAP Family Life Study includes a combination of primary quantitative and qualitative data collection and secondary data. For primary data collection, we conduct an array of parent, child, and teacher assessments and surveys. We are implementing a qualitative study that includes intensive individual interviews and focus groups with parents and CAP staff. We also collect and integrate existing data resources to enhance our primary data collection, including data from CAP Tulsa and Oklahoma administrative data. Collectively, the primary and secondary data provide an unprecedented opportunity to address the effects of a dual-generation workforce development program on low-income parents' and children's well-being. This report presents our progress in Year 3 of the CAP Family Life Study. This year we advanced the development and implementation of our two-generation evaluation design and conducted our first study on program persistence and educational success for CareerAdvance parents. We expanded our data collection to include Wave 3 data collection for Cohort 4, Wave 2 data collection for Cohorts 5 and 6, and baseline data collection for Cohorts 7 and 8. We also selected the matched comparison group for Cohorts 7 and 8, using the same advanced statistical matching technique used for previous cohorts to select parents who closely match CareerAdvance participants. We continue to find that the matched comparison and CareerAdvance groups have similar baseline characteristics, which is central to the success of the study (see Section 2). In addition, a key goal of Year 3 was to better understand how participants progress through CareerAdvance, and how this program compares to similar workforce training and education programs for low-income students. We made important progress in defining and coding participants' progress in CareerAdvance to understand educational persistence, advancement, and achievement. We also conducted a literature review on existing workforce development programs and find that persistence in CareerAdvance after one year is equal to and some cases surpasses that of similar programs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


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CAP Family Life Study: Year 3 report: September, 2012-December, 2013 [Executive summary]
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 01 April, 2014
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

CareerAdvance--administered by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP Tulsa)--combines Head Start services with education and stackable training in the healthcare sector. The program draws on the best innovations from the adult education literature by offering a sequence of programs in partnership with community colleges so that participants can make concrete progress, exit at various points with certificates, and then return for further advancement. CareerAdvance also provides a number of key supportive components, including career coaches, financial incentives, and peer group meetings, to prepare parents for high-demand jobs in the healthcare sector. CareerAdvance is one of the only fully-operating, two-generation, human capital programs in the country. The CAP Family Life Study is a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods, multi-level study of CareerAdvance, in which we examine the short-term and longer-term effects of the program on family, parent, and child outcomes. The research team for the CAP Family Life Study includes P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Teresa Eckrich Sommer, and Terri Sabol from Northwestern University, Christopher King from the University of Texas at Austin, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn at Columbia University, and Hirokazu Yoshikawa at New York University. The current study investigates how variation in program participation is linked to different subgroup patterns of educational attainment, employment, and family health and well-being. The CAP Family Life Study includes a combination of primary quantitative and qualitative data collection and secondary data. For primary data collection, we conduct an array of parent, child, and teacher assessments and surveys. We are implementing a qualitative study that includes intensive individual interviews and focus groups with parents and CAP staff. We also collect and integrate existing data resources to enhance our primary data collection, including data from CAP Tulsa and Oklahoma administrative data. Collectively, the primary and secondary data provide an unprecedented opportunity to address the effects of a dual-generation workforce development program on low-income parents' and children's well-being. This report presents our progress in Year 3 of the CAP Family Life Study. This year we advanced the development and implementation of our two-generation evaluation design and conducted our first study on program persistence and educational success for CareerAdvance parents. We expanded our data collection to include Wave 3 data collection for Cohort 4, Wave 2 data collection for Cohorts 5 and 6, and baseline data collection for Cohorts 7 and 8. We also selected the matched comparison group for Cohorts 7 and 8, using the same advanced statistical matching technique used for previous cohorts to select parents who closely match CareerAdvance participants. We continue to find that the matched comparison and CareerAdvance groups have similar baseline characteristics, which is central to the success of the study (see Section 2). In addition, a key goal of Year 3 was to better understand how participants progress through CareerAdvance, and how this program compares to similar workforce training and education programs for low-income students. We made important progress in defining and coding participants' progress in CareerAdvance to understand educational persistence, advancement, and achievement. We also conducted a literature review on existing workforce development programs and find that persistence in CareerAdvance after one year is equal to and some cases surpasses that of similar programs. (author abstract)

Executive Summary


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CareerAdvance Outcomes Study: Year 1 report: September 30, 2010-September 29, 2011
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 09 February, 2012
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

The CAP Family Life Study has demonstrated a promising start in supporting the ambitious research agenda. Thus far, the university partners have developed the design and infrastructure across multiple institutions and agencies. These include: (1) creating the organizational capacity of the research team; (2) designing the quasi-experimental design of the study; (3) developing data systems; (4) designing the parent survey; and (5) selecting and recruiting families into the study. Although CAP enrolled 3 cohorts of participants between 2009 and 2011, the Family Life Study, as funded by ACF, begins with Cohort 4. Cohort 1-3 includes 35 parents in the nursing track. The health information technology (HIT) was added for Cohort 4, and so Cohort 4 includes 14 parents in the nursing track, and 15 parents in HIT. (A detailed description of Cohorts 1-3 can be found in the Implementation Report; see Section 1 Appendix). A key goal of Year 1 was also to develop a theory of change (presented in Section 3 of this report) and design a study that examines the influence of CareerAdvance on children and parents. In terms of testing possible change in parents and children over time, ideally we would have employed a randomized control trial to examine the causal effects of CareerAdvance on short- and long-term outcomes. However, the program is relatively new, and CAP's immediate goal is to expand CareerAdvance to all of its early childhood education centers with a seven-fold increase in participants over five years (from 29 participants in 2011 to approximately 210 participants in 2015). A randomized trial from a waitlist will be feasible only when the program is oversubscribed. In order to account for the potentially non-random selection of participants in CareerAdvance, we employed propensity score matching to identify pairs of families who are statistically indistinguishable on observable characteristics and behaviors except for the fact that one parent is enrolled in CareerAdvance and one is not. Propensity score matching used CAP's data set that was drawn from families' enrollment forms and meetings with support staff. As of January 2012, the CAP Family Life Study included all 29 Cohort 4 CareerAdvance participants and 30 matched-comparison families. Overall, our results indicate that the comparison group is relatively well-matched to Cohort 4 CareerAdvance participants across a number of demographic and psychological characteristics. Of note is that independent data from our individual interviews with parents confirm the strong equivalence of the matched-comparison group to the CareerAdvance participants. Focus group data collected in December 2011 with 25 of the 29 CareerAdvance Cohort 4 Nursing and Health Information Track participants indicate that CareerAdvance is highly valued by parents and may have important dual-generation influences. Parents seem to gain, for example, from increased confidence in returning to school, intensive peer and staff support, and enrolling in an all-expense paid training program. Children and parents appear to benefit from the learning and role modeling that occurs when their parents return to school. We find support for the peer cohort model of the program, especially its potential influence on educational persistence. Moreover, we have initial indications of important changes in parent-child interactions in the home that may influence positively children's development and academic achievement, as well as improve parenting practices. Bi-annual focus groups and longitudinal interview data will test further these hypotheses and provide important insights into the most effective elements of the CareerAdvance training program and its potential for longer term impact on the academic, career, and financial success of parents and children. This report reflects the development of a dual-generation evaluation design and initial baseline characteristics of the first cohort under study. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


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CareerAdvance Outcomes Study: Year 1 report: September 30, 2010-September 29, 2011 [Executive summary]
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 09 February, 2012
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

The CAP Family Life Study has demonstrated a promising start in supporting the ambitious research agenda. Thus far, the university partners have developed the design and infrastructure across multiple institutions and agencies. These include: (1) creating the organizational capacity of the research team; (2) designing the quasi-experimental design of the study; (3) developing data systems; (4) designing the parent survey; and (5) selecting and recruiting families into the study. Although CAP enrolled 3 cohorts of participants between 2009 and 2011, the Family Life Study, as funded by ACF, begins with Cohort 4. Cohort 1-3 includes 35 parents in the nursing track. The health information technology (HIT) was added for Cohort 4, and so Cohort 4 includes 14 parents in the nursing track, and 15 parents in HIT. (A detailed description of Cohorts 1-3 can be found in the Implementation Report; see Section 1 Appendix). A key goal of Year 1 was also to develop a theory of change (presented in Section 3 of this report) and design a study that examines the influence of CareerAdvance on children and parents. In terms of testing possible change in parents and children over time, ideally we would have employed a randomized control trial to examine the causal effects of CareerAdvance on short- and long-term outcomes. However, the program is relatively new, and CAP's immediate goal is to expand CareerAdvance to all of its early childhood education centers with a seven-fold increase in participants over five years (from 29 participants in 2011 to approximately 210 participants in 2015). A randomized trial from a waitlist will be feasible only when the program is oversubscribed. In order to account for the potentially non-random selection of participants in CareerAdvance, we employed propensity score matching to identify pairs of families who are statistically indistinguishable on observable characteristics and behaviors except for the fact that one parent is enrolled in CareerAdvance and one is not. Propensity score matching used CAP's data set that was drawn from families' enrollment forms and meetings with support staff. As of January 2012, the CAP Family Life Study included all 29 Cohort 4 CareerAdvance participants and 30 matched-comparison families. Overall, our results indicate that the comparison group is relatively well-matched to Cohort 4 CareerAdvance participants across a number of demographic and psychological characteristics. Of note is that independent data from our individual interviews with parents confirm the strong equivalence of the matched-comparison group to the CareerAdvance participants. Focus group data collected in December 2011 with 25 of the 29 CareerAdvance Cohort 4 Nursing and Health Information Track participants indicate that CareerAdvance is highly valued by parents and may have important dual-generation influences. Parents seem to gain, for example, from increased confidence in returning to school, intensive peer and staff support, and enrolling in an all-expense paid training program. Children and parents appear to benefit from the learning and role modeling that occurs when their parents return to school. We find support for the peer cohort model of the program, especially its potential influence on educational persistence. Moreover, we have initial indications of important changes in parent-child interactions in the home that may influence positively children's development and academic achievement, as well as improve parenting practices. Bi-annual focus groups and longitudinal interview data will test further these hypotheses and provide important insights into the most effective elements of the CareerAdvance training program and its potential for longer term impact on the academic, career, and financial success of parents and children. This report reflects the development of a dual-generation evaluation design and initial baseline characteristics of the first cohort under study. (author abstract)

Executive Summary


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Child welfare and mental health initiatives
Kupersmidt, Janis, 2003
In J. Brooks-Gunn, A.S. Fuligni, & L.J. Berlin (Eds.), Early Child Development in the 21st Century: Profiles of Current Research Initiatives (pp. 163-180). New York: Teachers College Press

An examination of three national, multi-site child welfare research initiatives: the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies in Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN), the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), and the Head Start Mental Health Research Consortium (HSMHRC)

Other


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Conclusions and implications
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, February, 2013
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78(1), 130-143

A summary and discussion of implications from a special issue of the Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development focusing on the impacts of Early Head Start on child and family outcomes, including children's socioemotional and cognitive development and families' well-being and home environments, based on data for 3,001 randomly-assigned low income families

Other


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Differential effects of high-quality child care
Hill, Jennifer, 2002
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 21(4), 601-627

An analysis of data collected from the Infant Health and Development Program examining the differential causal effects of access to high quality child care for at risk children who would otherwise have participated in one of three child care options: no non-maternal care, home-based non-maternal care, and center-based care

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Differential exposure to early childhood education services and mother-toddler interaction
Klebanov, Pamela Kato, Q2 2008
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(2), 213-232

A study of the effect of early childhood education services on toddler task persistence and enthusiasm, as well as maternal authoritarian behavior and support stimulation, among a sample of 880 families participating in the Infant Health and Development Program in eight states

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Does the amount of participation in afterschool programs relate to developmental outcomes?: A review of the literature
Roth, Jodie L., June 2010
American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(3-4), 310-324

A review of literature on the relationship between participation in after school programs and academic, behavioral, or socioemotional outcomes, based on 35 studies

Literature Review


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Does Head Start work?: A 1-year follow-up comparison of disadvantaged children attending Head Start, no preschool, and other preschool programs
Lee, Valerie E., 1988
Developmental Psychology, 24(2), 210-222

A comparison of cognitive outcomes among Head Start children, children without any preschool experience, and children enrolled in other preschool programs

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Does the neighborhood context alter the link between youth's after-school time activities and developmental outcomes? A multilevel analysis
Fauth, Rebecca, May, 2007
Developmental Psychology, 43(3), 760-777

A longitudinal analysis of the links between neighborhood characteristics and participation in after school activities, and anxiety/depression, delinquency, and substance use among a sample of 9- and 12-year-old youths, using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN)

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Do you believe in magic?: What can we expect from early childhood intervention programs
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, 2003
Social Policy Report, 17(1)

A brief on the development of vulnerable children and the efficacy of early intervention program for altering their development

Fact Sheets & Briefs


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Early childhood intervention in family literacy programs
Fuligni, Allison Sidle, 2004
In The handbook of family literacy (pp. 117-136). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Recommendations for the future implementation and evaluation of family literacy programs supported by research regarding early childhood interventions and family literacy.

Other


Early childhood intervention research initiatives
Berlin, Lisa, 2003
In J. Brooks-Gunn, A.S. Fuligini, & L.J. Berlin (Eds.). Early Child Development in the 21st Century: Profiles of Current Research Initiatives (pp. 65-89). New York: Teachers College Press

An evaluation of two early childhood interventions: the Comprehensive Child Development Program (CCDP), and the Early Head Start (EHS) Research and Evaluation Project

Other


Early enrichment opportunities: Participation and cognitive benefits in kindergarten
Malone, Lizabeth M.,
New York: Columbia University, National Center for Children and Families.

Children's out-of-school time in elementary school can include after-school programs, informal child care, extracurricular activities, and experiences and activities with family in the home and community. This paper focuses on kindergartners' extracurricular activities and use of community resources and impact of participation on spring achievement. (author abstract)

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Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project
United States. Administration for Children and Families,
Education Resources Information Center

This project involves both a cross-site national study and local longitudinal studies of low-income families with young children in Early Head Start sites in 17 communities in the United States. The project was funded in two waves: Birth to Three (1996-2001) and Pre-Kindergarten Follow-Up (2001-2004). The five major components of the project are: an implementation study, an impact evaluation, local research studies, policy studies, and efforts toward continuous program improvement. The implementation study assessed the level and quality of implementation of EHS at each site, as well as variations across sites, with regard to five program areas: child development and health care; family partnerships; community involvement and partnerships; staff development; and program management. Results include a profile of each of the 17 research programs, their services and expected outcomes. The information gathered was critical for the development of the impact evaluation analyses and the identification of pathways to full implementation. The impact evaluation followed a random assignment, longitudinal design to examine how child, parent and family outcomes were influenced by EHS programs, as well as by variations in program approaches and community contexts, program implementation and services, and the characteristics of children and their families. The third component involves 16 local research projects conducted by 15 university-based researchers who partnered with Early Head Start research programs. Designed to investigate the unique outcomes and program functions of each Early Head Start program, these longitudinal studies continue through the second phase of the project, Pre-Kindergarten Follow-up (2001-2004). The policy studies component focuses on issues related to welfare reform, health and disabilities, child-care and fatherhood. The component of continuous program improvement consists of reports and presentations disseminating new information that can help all Early Head Start programs to increase their ability to meet the needs of families.

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The effectiveness of Early Head Start for 3-year-old children and their parents: Lessons for policy and programs
Love, John M., 2005
Developmental Psychology, 41(6), 885-901

A summary of the evaluated impacts of Early Head Start on child and parent outcomes near the end of program participation

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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