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The $4 billion deficit: Ratcheting up investment in early childhood education
New York (N.Y.). Office of the Comptroller, June, 2013
New York: New York City, Office of the Comptroller.

An overview of the benefits of investing in early care and education (ECE), and a discussion of policy and funding proposals to increase ECE access in New York City

Other


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A commitment to pre-kindergarten is a commitment to national security: High-quality early childhood education saves billions while strengthening our military and our nation
Mission: Readiness (U.S.), 2013
Washington, DC: Mission Readiness.

A discussion of the role that high-quality early childhood education can play in supporting the national security of the United States

Other


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Current Population Survey: Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement Survey, 2007
United States. Bureau of the Census, June, 2013
United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census, and United States Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Current Population Survey: Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement Survey, 2007. ICPSR21321-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-07-29. doi:10.3886/ICPSR21321.v1

This data collection is comprised of data from the 2007 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), and is a part of the Current Population Survey (CPS) Series. The Census Bureau conducts the ASEC (known as the Annual Demographic File prior to 2003) over a three-month period, in February, March, and April, with most of the data collected in the month of March. The ASEC uses two sets of survey questions, the basic CPS and a set of supplemental questions. The CPS, administered monthly, is a labor force survey providing current estimates of the economic status and activities of the population of the United States. Specifically, the CPS provides estimates of total employment (both farm and nonfarm), nonfarm self-employed persons, domestics, and unpaid helpers in nonfarm family enterprises, wage and salaried employees, and estimates of total unemployment. In addition to the basic CPS questions, respondents were asked questions from the ASEC, which provides supplemental data on poverty, geographic mobility/migration, and work experience. Comprehensive work experience information was given on the employment status, occupation, and industry of persons aged 15 and over. Additional data for persons aged 15 and older were available concerning weeks worked and hours per week worked, reason not working full time, total income and supplemental income components. Additional data are included that cover training and assistance received under welfare reform programs such as job readiness training, child care services, or job skill training. Data covering nine noncash income sources: food stamps, school lunch program, employer-provided group health insurance plan, employer-provided pension plan, personal health insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, CHAMPUS or military health care, and energy assistance are also included. Demographic variables include age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, veteran status, educational attainment, occupation, and income. Data on employment and income refer to the previous calendar year, although demographic data refer to the time of the survey. The original ASEC data provided by the Census Bureau are distributed in a hierarchical file structure, with three record types present: Household, Family, and Person. The ASEC is designed to be a multistage stratified sample of housing units, where the hierarchical file structure can be thought of as a person within a family within a household unit. Here the main unit of analysis is the household unit. For ease of analysis at the person-level, ICPSR created a rectangular file structure that contains a record for every person with the respective Household and Family variables prepended to the Person variables. Part 1 contains the rectangular data file and Part 2 contains the original hierarchical data file.

Data Sets


Current Population Survey: Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement Survey, 2010
United States. Bureau of the Census, June, 2013
United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census, and United States Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Current Population Survey: Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement Survey, 2010. ICPSR29652-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2010-11-22. doi:10.3886/ICPSR29652.v1

This data collection is comprised of data from the 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), and is a part of the Current Population Survey (CPS) Series. The Census Bureau conducts the ASEC (known as the Annual Demographic File prior to 2003) over a three-month period, in February, March, and April, with most of the data collected in the month of March. The ASEC uses two sets of survey questions, the basic CPS and a set of supplemental questions. The CPS, administered monthly, is a labor force survey providing current estimates of the economic status and activities of the population of the United States. Specifically, the CPS provides estimates of total employment (both farm and nonfarm), nonfarm self-employed persons, domestics, and unpaid helpers in nonfarm family enterprises, wage and salaried employees, and estimates of total unemployment. In addition to the basic CPS questions, respondents were asked questions from the ASEC, which provides supplemental data on poverty, geographic mobility/migration, and work experience. Comprehensive work experience information was given on the employment status, occupation, and industry of persons aged 15 and over. Additional data for persons aged 15 and older were available concerning weeks worked and hours per week worked, reason not working full time, total income and supplemental income components. Additional data are included that cover training and assistance received under welfare reform programs such as job readiness training, child care services, or job skill training. Data covering nine noncash income sources: food stamps, school lunch program, employer-provided group health insurance plan, employer-provided pension plan, personal health insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, CHAMPUS or military health care, and energy assistance are also included. Demographic variables include age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, veteran status, educational attainment, occupation, and income. Data on employment and income refer to the previous calendar year, although demographic data refer to the time of the survey. The original ASEC data provided by the Census Bureau are distributed in a hierarchical file structure, with three record types present: Household, Family, and Person. The ASEC is designed to be a multistage stratified sample of housing units, where the hierarchical file structure can be thought of as a person within a family within a household unit. Here the main unit of analysis is the household unit.

Data Sets


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Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health
Campbell, Frances A., 28 March, 2014
Science, 343(6178), 1478-1485

High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report on the long-term health effects of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), whereas it is only 126 mm Hg among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, whereas none in the treatment group are affected. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


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Early childhood pay for success social impact finance: Organizational steps, memorandum of understanding and contract outlines
ReadyNation. Working Group on Contracts in Early Childhood Social Impact Finance, 10 June, 2013
Washington, DC: ReadyNation.

A discussion and presentation of contract models for funding early childhood care and education (ECCE) programs through the use of pay for success social impact financing, which funds ECCE services and then repays investors out of savings arising from reduced special education costs in the future

Other


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The economic impact of the early care and education industry in New Mexico
Insight Center for Community Economic Development,
Oakland, CA: Insight Center for Community Economic Development.

A summary of an analysis of the economic role of the early care and education industry in New Mexico, in terms of individuals employed and spending on services, as well as its role in supporting other industries, parental labor force participation, and child development

Executive Summary


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The economic impact of early care and education in New Mexico
Mangat, Ravinder, December, 2010
Oakland, CA: Insight Center for Community Economic Development.

An analysis of the economic role of the early care and education industry in New Mexico, in terms of individuals employed and spending on services, as well as its role in supporting other industries, parental labor force participation, and child development

Reports & Papers


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Effect of the Nurse Family Partnership on government expenditures for vulnerable first-time mothers and their children in Elmira, New York, Memphis, Tennessee, and Denver, Colorado
Glazner, Judy,
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families.

We conducted an economic analysis of the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) in the context of three randomized trials we are carrying out to examine long-term effects of the NFP on maternal, child, and family functioning. The study we have conducted is a net-cost analysis from the standpoint of government spending. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


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Executive summary: Investments in early care and education in Nevada
Brown, Brentt, 2011
Oakland, CA: Insight Center for Community Economic Development.

A summary of an analysis of the economic role of the early care and education industry in Nevada, in terms of individuals employed and spending on services, as well as its role in supporting other industries, parental labor force participation, and child development

Executive Summary


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Financing human capital development for economically disadvantaged children: Applying pay for success social impact finance to early child development
Dubno, Janis A., 10 June, 2013
Washington, DC: ReadyNation.

A discussion of two models for funding early childhood care and education (ECCE) programs through the use of pay for success social impact financing, which funds ECCE services and then repays investors out of savings arising from reduced special education costs in the future

Other


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Getting the most bang for the buck: Quality early education and care: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children and Families of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First session, On examining quality early education and care, June 9, 2011
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. Subcommittee on Children and Families, 2013
(S. Hrg. 112-801). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

A hearing on the role of high-quality early education and care in supporting children's development

Other


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High-quality prekindergarten is a wise investment
National Women's Law Center, March, 2013
Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center.

An overview of evidence on the long-term benefits of high-quality early education and of federal and state early education programs

Fact Sheets & Briefs


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I'm the guy you pay later: Sheriffs, chiefs and prosecutors urge America to cut crime by investing now in high-quality early education and care
Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, 2013
Washington, DC: Fight Crime: Invest in Kids.

A discussion of the role that investing in early learning programs can play in crime prevention

Other


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Intergenerational long term effects of preschool: Structural estimates from a discrete dynamic programming model
Heckman, James J., May, 2013
(NBER Working Paper No. 19077). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

This paper formulates a structural dynamic programming model of preschool investment choices of altruistic parents and then empirically estimates the structural parameters of the model using the NLSY79 data. The paper finds that preschool investment significantly boosts cognitive and non-cognitive skills, which enhance earnings and school outcomes. It also finds that a standard Mincer earnings function, by omitting measures of non-cognitive skills on the right hand side, overestimates the rate of return to schooling. From the estimated equilibrium Markov process, the paper studies the nature of within generation earnings distribution and intergenerational earnings and schooling mobility. The paper finds that a tax financed free preschool program for the children of poor socioeconomic status generates positive net gains to the society in terms of average earnings and higher intergenerational earnings and schooling mobility. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


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Intergenerational long term effects of preschool: Structural estimates from a discrete dynamic programming model
Heckman, James J., May, 2013
(Discussion Paper No. 7415). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

This paper formulates a structural dynamic programming model of preschool investment choices of altruistic parents and then empirically estimates the structural parameters of the model using the NLSY79 data. The paper finds that preschool investment significantly boosts cognitive and non-cognitive skills, which enhance earnings and school outcomes. It also finds that a standard Mincer earnings function, by omitting measures of non-cognitive skills on the right hand side, overestimates the rate of return to schooling. From the estimated equilibrium Markov process, the paper studies the nature of within generation earnings distribution and intergenerational earnings and schooling mobility. The paper finds that a tax financed free preschool program for the children of poor socioeconomic status generates positive net gains to the society in terms of average earnings and higher intergenerational earnings and schooling mobility. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


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Investing in preschool programs
Duncan, Greg, Spring 2013
Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27(2), 109-132

At the beginning of kindergarten, the math and reading achievement gaps between children in the bottom and top income quintiles amount to more than a full standard deviation. Early childhood education programs provide child care services and may facilitate the labor market careers of parents, but their greatest potential value is as a human capital investment in young children, particularly children from economically disadvantaged families (Heckman 2006). After all, both human and animal studies highlight the critical importance of experiences in the earliest years of life for establishing the brain architecture that will shape future cognitive, social, and emotional development, as well as physical and mental health (Sapolsky 2004; Knudsen, Heckman, Cameron, and Shonkoff 2006). Moreover, research on the malleability (plasticity) of cognitive abilities finds these skills to be highly responsive to environmental enrichment during the early childhood period (Nelson and Sheridan 2011). Perhaps early childhood education programs can be designed to provide the kinds of enrichment that low-income children most need to do well in school and succeed in the labor market. We summarize the available evidence on the extent to which expenditures on early childhood education programs constitute worthy social investments in the human capital of children. We begin with a short overview of existing early childhood education programs, and then summarize results from a substantial body of methodologically sound evaluations of the impacts of early childhood education. We find that the evidence supports few unqualified conclusions. Many early childhood Investing in Preschool Programs education programs appear to boost cognitive ability and early school achievement in the short run. However, most of them show smaller impacts than those generated by the best-known programs, and their cognitive impacts largely disappear within a few years. Despite this fade-out, long-run follow-ups from a handful of well-known programs show lasting positive effects on such outcomes as greater educational attainment, higher earnings, and lower rates of crime. Since findings regarding short and longer-run impacts on ?noncognitive? outcomes are mixed, it is uncertain what skills, behaviors, or developmental processes are particularly important in producing these longer-run impacts. Our review also describes different models of human development used by social scientists, examines heterogeneous results across groups, and tries to identify the ingredients of early childhood education programs that are most likely to improve the performance of these programs. We use the terms ?early childhood education? and ?preschool? interchangeably to denote the subset of programs that provide group-based care in a center setting and offer some kind of developmental and educational focus. This definition is intentionally broad, as historical distinctions between early education and other kinds of center-based child care programs have blurred. Many early education programs now claim the dual goals of supporting working families and providing enriched learning environments to children, while many child care centers also foster early learning and development (Adams and Rohacek 2002). (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


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Investments in early care and education in Nevada
Brown, Brentt, 2011
Oakland, CA: Insight Center for Community Economic Development.

An analysis of the economic role of the early care and education industry in Nevada, in terms of individuals employed and spending on services, as well as its role in supporting other industries, parental labor force participation, and child development

Reports & Papers


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Long-term follow-up of a preschool experiment
Schweinhart, Lawrence J., December, 2013
Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9(4), 389-409

This study was designed to provide experimental evidence of the effects of a preschool program on young children living in poverty. It began as a program evaluation but now, half a century later, serves as a test of the long-term effects and return on investment of high-quality preschool education for young children living in poverty. Methods This study was conducted in the U.S., beginning in the 1960s, and has generated data on study participants from birth through 40, with new data now being collected at age 50. The study used random assignment procedures to assign 123 children to a preschool program and a control group who receive no preschool program. Results Program participants surpassed non-participants in intellectual performance at school entry, school achievement throughout schooling, commitment to schooling, high school graduation rate, adult employment rate and earnings, reduced childhood antisocial behavior, and reduced adult crime and incarceration. The program's return on investment was at least seven times as great as its operating cost. Conclusions While these powerful results have been found not only in this study but in several similar studies, they have not been found in studies of larger preschool programs, such as the Head Start Impact Study. This discrepancy suggests that differences between the two types of programs account for the better results found in studies such as this one. Among these differences are highly qualified teachers, a valid child development curriculum, extensive engagement of parents, and regular assessment of program implementation and children's development (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


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Making Maine work: Investment in young children = real economic development
Maine Development Foundation, January, 2012
Augusta, ME: Maine Development Foundation.

An overview of the long-term benefits of high-quality early care and education, and recommendations to improve the early care and education offerings in Maine

Other


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Making Maine work: Investment in young children = real economic development [Executive summary]
Maine Development Foundation, January, 2012
Augusta, ME: Maine Development Foundation.

A summary of an overview of the long-term benefits of high-quality early care and education, and recommendations to improve the early care and education offerings in Maine

Executive Summary


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Nurse-Family Partnership home visitation: Costs, outcomes, and return on investment
Miller, Ted R., 30 April, 2013
Washington, DC: Pew Center on the States.

This study aims to analyze costs, life status outcomes, functional outcomes, and return on investment in NFP services. It provides a more comprehensive and current view of effectiveness and accurately appraises program costs. It adjusts welfare costs to mirror current welfare funding. From the improved estimates, we plan to create a spreadsheet model that serves as a state-specific financial planning tool to guide NFP funding decisions. The model will let states and communities analyze the economics of investing in NFP. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers


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Nurse-Family Partnership home visitation: Costs, outcomes, and return on investment: Executive summary
Miller, Ted R., 30 April, 2013
Washington, DC: Pew Center on the States.

This study aims to analyze costs, life status outcomes, functional outcomes, and return on investment in NFP services. (author abstract)

Executive Summary


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Path to a better future: The fiscal payoff of investment in early childhood development in Maine
Trostel, Philip A., April, 2013
Augusta: Maine, Children's Growth Council.

An estimation of the fiscal costs and benefits produced by a proposed system of high-quality early care and education for Maine, based on estimates of the economic cost and benefits of early childhood education programs from research literature

Reports & Papers


Path to a better future: The fiscal payoff of investment in early childhood in Maine
Maine. Children's Growth Council,
Augusta: Maine, Children's Growth Council.

A summary of an estimation of the fiscal costs and benefits produced by a proposed system of high-quality early care and education for Maine, based on estimates of the economic costs and benefits of early childhood education programs from research literature

Executive Summary


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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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