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Analyzing social experiments as implemented: A reexamination of the evidence from the HighScope Perry Preschool Program
Heckman, James J., July, 2010
(Discussion Paper No. 5065). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

A reconceptualized cost-benefit and return-on-investment analysis of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, based on data from the original program participants and matched data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979)

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Analyzing social experiments as implemented: A reexamination of the evidence from the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program
Heckman, James J., July, 2010
(Working Paper No. 16238). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

A reconceptualized cost-benefit and return-on-investment analysis of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, based on data from the original program participants and matched data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979)

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Analyzing social experiments as implemented: A reexamination of evidence from the HighScope Perry Preschool Program
Heckman, James J., 22 July, 2010
Dublin, Republic of Ireland: University College, Dublin, Geary Institute.

A reconceptualized cost-benefit and return-on-investment analysis of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, based on data from the original program participants and matched data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979)

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Analyzing social experiments as implemented: A reexamination of the evidence from the High Scope Perry Preschool Program
Heckman, James J., July, 2010
Quantitative Economics, 1(1), 1-46

A reanalysis of data from the Perry Preschool Project, a longitudinal experimental study of the impact of a preschool education and home visitation intervention on over 715 measured outcome variables of disadvantaged children in preschool, based on data from participants from age 3 through age 40

Reports & Papers


The case for investing in disadvantaged young children
Heckman, James J., 2008
In Big ideas for children: Investing in our nation's future (pp. 49-58). Washington, DC: First Focus.

A discussion of investing in early intervention programs for young disadvantaged children on the grounds that participation in these programs increases economic productivity

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The case for investing in disadvantaged young children
Heckman, James J., January, 2012
(EENEE Policy Brief 1/2012). Munich, Germany: European Expert Network on Economics of Education.

A summary of a discussion of the origins of abilities that predict adult success and the role that early childhood interventions can play in fostering these abilities in disadvantaged children

Fact Sheets & Briefs


The cost-benefit analysis of the Preschool Curriculum Comparison Study
Schweinhart, Lawrence J., September 2010
Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation.

A comparison of the costs and benefits of three preschool curricula, based on longitudinal data collected at age 23 from 68 children who had been randomly assigned to one of the three curricula at age 3

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The cost-benefit analysis of the Preschool Curriculum Comparison Study [Executive summary]
Schweinhart, Lawrence J., September 2010
Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation.

A summary of a comparison of the costs and benefits of three preschool curricula, based on longitudinal data collected at age 23 from 68 children who had been randomly assigned to one of the three curricula at age 3

Executive Summary


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The dollars and cents of investing early: Cost-benefit analysis in early care and education
Heckman, James J., July 2006
Zero to Three, 26(2), 10-17

Overviews of several cost-benefit analyses of early education programs, and a discussion of the use of cost-benefit analysis in efforts to secure funding for early education programs

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Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health
Campbell, Frances A., 28 March, 2014
Science, 343(6178), 1478-1485

High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report on the long-term health effects of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), whereas it is only 126 mm Hg among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, whereas none in the treatment group are affected. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. (author abstract)

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Economic, neurobiological and behavioral perspectives on building America’s future workforce
Knudsen, Eric I., July 2006
(Discussion Paper No. 2190). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

A discussion of research findings from the fields of economics, neurobiology, and behavioral science on the links between early childhood development and a productive adult workforce

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Effective child development strategies
Heckman, James J., 2011
In E.F. Zigler, W.S. Gilliam, & W.S. Barnett (Eds.), The pre-k debates: Current controversies and issues (pp. 2-8). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes

A discussion of the potential role of early education in attempts to improve the adult achievement of individuals and populations with early cognitive, socioemotional, and economic disadvantages

Other


Intergenerational long term effects of preschool: Structural estimates from a discrete dynamic programming model
Heckman, James J., May, 2013
(NBER Working Paper No. 19077). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

This paper formulates a structural dynamic programming model of preschool investment choices of altruistic parents and then empirically estimates the structural parameters of the model using the NLSY79 data. The paper finds that preschool investment significantly boosts cognitive and non-cognitive skills, which enhance earnings and school outcomes. It also finds that a standard Mincer earnings function, by omitting measures of non-cognitive skills on the right hand side, overestimates the rate of return to schooling. From the estimated equilibrium Markov process, the paper studies the nature of within generation earnings distribution and intergenerational earnings and schooling mobility. The paper finds that a tax financed free preschool program for the children of poor socioeconomic status generates positive net gains to the society in terms of average earnings and higher intergenerational earnings and schooling mobility. (author abstract)

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Intergenerational long term effects of preschool: Structural estimates from a discrete dynamic programming model
Heckman, James J., May, 2013
(Discussion Paper No. 7415). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

This paper formulates a structural dynamic programming model of preschool investment choices of altruistic parents and then empirically estimates the structural parameters of the model using the NLSY79 data. The paper finds that preschool investment significantly boosts cognitive and non-cognitive skills, which enhance earnings and school outcomes. It also finds that a standard Mincer earnings function, by omitting measures of non-cognitive skills on the right hand side, overestimates the rate of return to schooling. From the estimated equilibrium Markov process, the paper studies the nature of within generation earnings distribution and intergenerational earnings and schooling mobility. The paper finds that a tax financed free preschool program for the children of poor socioeconomic status generates positive net gains to the society in terms of average earnings and higher intergenerational earnings and schooling mobility. (author abstract)

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Investing in early human development: Timing and economic efficiency
Doyle, Orla, March, 2009
Economics and Human Biology, 7(1), 1-6

A description of the risk factors that motivate early intervention, an overview of both the economic rationale for investing in early childhood and the evidence on the optimal timing of intervention to reduce inequalities, a presentation of the antenatal investment hypothesis which suggests that investments made during the pregnancy period may yield the highest return, and a discussion of European interventions that could provide evidence in support of that hypothesis

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A new cost-benefit and rate of return analysis for the Perry Preschool Program: A summary
Heckman, James J., July 2010
(Policy Paper No. 17). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

An overview of a reconceptualized cost-benefit and return-on-investment analysis of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, based on data from the original program participants and matched data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) and the March 2002 Current Population Survey

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A new cost-benefit and rate of return analysis for the Perry Preschool Program: A summary
Heckman, James J., July 2010
(NBER Working Paper Series No. 16180). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

An overview of a reconceptualized cost-benefit and return-on-investment analysis of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, based on data from the original program participants and matched data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1929) and the March 2002 Current Population Survey

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Prepared statement of Dr. James J. Heckman, recipient of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences and the Henry Schultz Distinguished Service Professor of Economics, University of Chicago, American Bar Foundation
Heckman, James J., 2007
In Investing in young children pays dividends: The economic case for early care and education: Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States. 110th Cong., 1st Sess.

Congressional testimony on the economic benefits of investing in early care and education programs targeted at disadvantaged young children

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The productivity argument for investing in young children
Heckman, James J., April 2007
(NBER Working Paper Series No. 13016). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

An argument for investing in early intervention programs for young disadvantaged children on the grounds that participation in these programs increases economic productivity and skills and reduces crime

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The productivity argument for investing in young children
Heckman, James J., 2007
Review of Agricultural Economics, 29(3), 446-493

An argument for investing in early intervention programs for young disadvantaged children on the grounds that participation in these programs increases economic productivity and skills and reduces crime

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The productivity argument for investing in young children
Heckman, James J., 2004
(Invest in Kids Working Group Working Paper No. 5). Washington, DC: Committee for Economic Development.

A report discussing the outcomes of early intervention and early childhood education for at risk children from low income families; previous research on crime prevention and economic development is cited

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The productivity argument for investing in young children [Executive summary]
Heckman, James J., 2004
Washington, DC: Committee for Economic Development.

An executive summary of a report examining the benefits of early intervention and preschool programs for at risk children from low income families

Executive Summary


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The rate of return to the HighScope Perry Preschool Program
Heckman, James J., February 2010
Journal of Public Economics, 94(1-2), 114-128

An estimation of the cost-benefit ratio and rate of return for the High/Scope Perry Preschool program, with a focus on the economic benefits and impact on crime

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The rate of return to the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program
Heckman, James J., November 2009
(NBER Working Paper Series No. 15471). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

An estimation of the cost-benefit ratio and rate of return for the High/Scope Perry Preschool program, with a focus on the economic benefits and impact on crime

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The rate of return to the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program
Heckman, James J., October 2009
(Discussion Paper No. 4533). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

An estimation of the cost-benefit ratio and rate of return for the High/Scope Perry Preschool program, with a focus on the economic benefits and impact on crime

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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