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2012 child care data report: January-December 2012
Child Care Aware of Washington, 31 January, 2013
Tacoma, WA: Child Care Aware of Washington.

An examination of demand for child care resource and referral services, child care provider capacity and characteristics, and child care prices in Washington State and its counties in 2012, based on child care resource and referral agency data

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2012 child care data report: January-December 2012 [Executive summary]
Child Care Aware of Washington, 30 January, 2013
Tacoma, WA: Child Care Aware of Washington.

A summary of an examination of demand for child care resource and referral services, child care provider capacity and characteristics, and child care prices in Washington State and its counties in 2012, based on child care resource and referral agency data

Executive Summary


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2012 District of Columbia child care market rates and capacity utilization: A study of licensed family home and child care center providers in the District of Columbia: Final report
University of the District of Columbia. Center for Applied Research and Urban Policy, March, 2013
Washington, DC: District of Columbia, Office of the State Superintendent of Education.

A study of child care market rates in the District of Columbia in 2012 by provider type and child age, and also including information on provider characteristics, compensation, benefits, and out-of-school time services offered, based on a survey of 106 family child care providers and 237 child care centers

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2012 District of Columbia child care market rates and capacity utilization: A study of licensed family home and child care center providers in the District of Columbia: Final report [Executive summary]
University of the District of Columbia. Center for Applied Research and Urban Policy, March, 2013
Washington, DC: District of Columbia, Office of the State Superintendent of Education.

A summary of a study of child care market rates in the District of Columbia in 2012 by provider type and child age, and also including information on provider characteristics, compensation, benefits, and out-of-school time services offered, based on a survey of 106 family child care providers and 237 child care centers

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2012 Texas child care market rate survey: Final report
University of Texas at Austin. Child and Family Research Institute,
Austin: University of Texas at Austin, Child and Family Research Institute.

A study of child care market rates and their geographic distribution across the state of Texas by care type, child age, and full-day or part-day status, and also including information on nontraditional hours care, transportation services offered, accreditation status, quality rating and improvement system level, subsidies, and sponsorship, based on surveys from 1,322 licensed child care centers, 445 licensed child care homes, and 718 registered child care homes

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2013 Alaska child care market price survey report
Alaska. Child Care Program Office, 15 June, 2013
Anchorage: Alaska, Child Care Program Office.

A study of child care market rates and their geographic distribution across the state of Alaska in 2013 by provider type and child age, based on administrative data and a survey of 470 providers

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2013 Alaska child care market price survey report [Executive summary]
Alaska. Child Care Program Office, 15 June, 2013
Anchorage: Alaska, Child Care Program Office.

A summary of a study of child care market rates and their geographic distribution across the state of Alaska in 2013 by provider type and child age, based on administrative data and a survey of 470 providers

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2013 market rate study: Final report: SFY 2013
Rous, Beth, 2013
Lexington: University of Kentucky, Kentucky Partnership for Early Childhood Services.

This study examines child care market rates in Kentucky in 2013. All 2,782 licensed and certified child care facilities in the state were surveyed, with responses received from 1,647. Market rates are calculated for full- and part-time care, by provider type, and by child age, as well as by region. Rates range from to $20 per day for part-time family child care for a school-age child to $28 per day for full-time center-based care for an infant. Rates have increased across the state since 2005, from $3 to $11 per day depending on care type. Rural child care is less expensive than urban child care, though the difference in rates has closed over time. More than 85 percent of facilities accept child care subsidies. Forty-two percent of facilities participate in the state quality rating and improvement system (QRIS), with similar rates charged by QRIS participants and nonparticipants

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The 2013 Scottish childcare report
Family and Childcare Trust, May, 2013
London: Family and Childcare Trust.

A study of child care prices and supply in Scotland, based on a survey of local authorities

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The 2014 Scottish childcare report
Rutter, Jill,
London: Family and Childcare Trust.

A study of child care prices and supply in Scotland, based on a survey of local authorities

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2014 trends in child care
Maryland Child Care Resource Network, 2014
Baltimore: Maryland Family Network.

An overview of trends in child care demand, supply, and price in Maryland from 2009 through 2018

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The $4 billion deficit: Ratcheting up investment in early childhood education
New York (N.Y.). Office of the Comptroller, June, 2013
New York: New York City, Office of the Comptroller.

An overview of the benefits of investing in early care and education (ECE), and a discussion of policy and funding proposals to increase ECE access in New York City

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Access to early childhood education in Australia: Insights from a qualitative study
Hand, Kelly, 2014
(Research Report No. 28). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

This report documents the background, methodology and findings from the Access to Early Childhood Education (AECE): Qualitative Study, undertaken by the Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS) and commissioned by the then Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR; now the Department of Education) on behalf of the Early Childhood Data Subgroup (ECDSG). The AECE Qualitative Study was undertaken in order to develop a qualitative evidence base about how the concept of "access" to early childhood education (ECE) is defined and understood, and to explore the barriers and supports that exist in relation to access to ECE. A particular aim was to identify key factors that influence parents' decisions about the use of ECE programs for children in the year prior to commencing full-time school. The study sought to build on the findings of an earlier research project that used analyses of existing quantitative datasets and consultations with stakeholders to explore the meanings of "access" and how it could be best measured (see Baxter & Hand, 2013). The initial study found that while overall participation in ECE was generally high in Australia, there were particular groups that had lower rates of participation in ECE in the year prior to commencing full-time school. These groups included Indigenous children and children whose parents were not employed, or had lower levels of educational attainment. The initial research also found that access seemed to be affected by whether the delivery of ECE within a particular state or territory was through a primarily government or non-government model. The AECE Qualitative Study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence parents' decisions about ECE through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with 94 parents across a number of different states and territories. Specifically, the research was conducted with parents in Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania between July 2012 and April 2013. The research included both families of children who had and had not accessed ECE, which ensured a greater understanding of the issues around the selection of services, preferences for different models, and how potential barriers to accessing ECE may be overcome. One objective of the AECE Qualitative Study was to gauge the extent to which the availability of different models affects parents' perceptions and/or capacity to send their children to ECE. (author abstract)

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Access to early childhood education in Australia: Insights from a qualitative study [Executive summary]
Hand, Kelly, 2014
(Research Report No. 28). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

This report documents the background, methodology and findings from the Access to Early Childhood Education (AECE): Qualitative Study, undertaken by the Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS) and commissioned by the then Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR; now the Department of Education) on behalf of the Early Childhood Data Subgroup (ECDSG). The AECE Qualitative Study was undertaken in order to develop a qualitative evidence base about how the concept of "access" to early childhood education (ECE) is defined and understood, and to explore the barriers and supports that exist in relation to access to ECE. A particular aim was to identify key factors that influence parents' decisions about the use of ECE programs for children in the year prior to commencing full-time school. The study sought to build on the findings of an earlier research project that used analyses of existing quantitative datasets and consultations with stakeholders to explore the meanings of "access" and how it could be best measured (see Baxter & Hand, 2013). The initial study found that while overall participation in ECE was generally high in Australia, there were particular groups that had lower rates of participation in ECE in the year prior to commencing full-time school. These groups included Indigenous children and children whose parents were not employed, or had lower levels of educational attainment. The initial research also found that access seemed to be affected by whether the delivery of ECE within a particular state or territory was through a primarily government or non-government model. The AECE Qualitative Study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence parents' decisions about ECE through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with 94 parents across a number of different states and territories. Specifically, the research was conducted with parents in Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania between July 2012 and April 2013. The research included both families of children who had and had not accessed ECE, which ensured a greater understanding of the issues around the selection of services, preferences for different models, and how potential barriers to accessing ECE may be overcome. One objective of the AECE Qualitative Study was to gauge the extent to which the availability of different models affects parents' perceptions and/or capacity to send their children to ECE. (author abstract)

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Access to high quality early care and education: Readiness and opportunity gaps in America
Nores, Milagros, May, 2014
New Brunswick, NJ: Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes.

This brief is organized into four main sections. The first describes the "readiness gaps" at kindergarten entry as of 2010. The remaining sections examine the extent to which there are "opportunity gaps" in the early care and education services that may be associated with those readiness gaps. We begin with the care arrangements at age 2 and then examine early care and education arrangements for children aged 3 and 4. Finally, we turn to state pre-K policy and its impacts on enrollment, quality standards, and funding for children ages 3 and 4. The information presented is based on analyses of three main sources of data: the State of the Preschool series, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- Kindergarten Cohort 2010/11 (ECLS-K) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort 2001 (ECLS-B). (author abstract)

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Access to preschool for Hispanic and Latino children
Lindsey, Kevin, October, 2013
Washington, DC: First Focus.

An overview of obstacles and a discussion of potential academic benefits of increased enrollment of Latino children in early education

Fact Sheets & Briefs


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Assessing the need for evidence-based home visiting (EBHV): Experiences of EBHV grantees
Paulsell, Diane, July, 2010
(Brief 1). Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.

The Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program, authorized by Section 2951 of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-148), will provide $1.5 billion to states over five years to provide comprehensive, evidence-based home visiting services to improve a range of outcomes for families and children residing in at-risk communities (due to high rates of poverty, violence, poor health outcomes, and other factors). To receive the funds, each state must conduct a statewide needs assessment that (1) identifies at-risk communities, (2) assesses the state's capacity to provide substance abuse treatment and counseling, and (3) documents the quality and capacity of existing early childhood home visiting programs as well as gaps in these services. A number of the grantees participating in the Children's Bureau's Supporting Evidence-Based Home Visiting (EBHV) to Prevent Child Maltreatment grantee cluster prepared needs assessments to plan for implementing or expanding grant-related evidence-based home visiting services. This brief provides information about how grantees planned the assessments and collected the data, as well as facilitators and barriers to carrying out the assessments. It also describes lessons identified by grantees. (author abstract)

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The beneficiaries of childcare expansion
Ghysels, Joris, March, 2012
(CSB Working Paper No. 12/02). Antwerp, Belgium: Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck (Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy).

This paper investigates how expansion of the supply of childcare is likely to change the use of childcare services and especially the extent to which the social imbalance in its use is corrected. The empirical case at hand is Flanders, the largest region of Belgium, which has a comparatively speaking large offer of formal childcare slots, but continues to struggle with excess demand and uneven access. The latter is crucial for policy makers. Is rationing to be blamed for the underrepresentation of certain social groups in formal childcare or is an explanation to be found in other circumstances such as poor employment prospects or more traditional family values? In this paper we simulate a simple expansion of the number of formal childcare slots and investigate its consequences, in terms of how this expansion affects the use of both formal and informal childcare, keeping all other circumstances constant. We show that a large increase in use can be expected for those groups that are currently underrepresented in the formal childcare sector, even without a change in the mix of subsidised and non-subsidised service providers and without other contextual changes (e.g. maintaining the small monetary gain from paid employment for low-skilled mothers when making use of formal childcare at its current prices). Yet, we also show that while the social gap is narrowed, the childcare sector cannot be expected to close the gap entirely by itself. Furthermore our estimates suggest that the expansion of formal childcare is likely to result in part-time combinations of formal and informal care, rather than in complete crowding-out of informal care. (author abstract)

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Building strong foundations: Pre-k, strong communities and a strong economy
Idaho Kids Count (Program), March, 2014
Boise, ID: Idaho Kids Count.

Currently, Idaho does not invest in early education, except in the case of special needs children. This brief outlines how increased access to early education in Idaho would increase student achievement, strengthen communities, and save public dollars. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs


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Capacity building in high-need communities
Colvard, Jamie, June, 2014
Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

This fact sheet presents the strategies planned by the states of Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Vermont to build capacity chiefly in high-need rural communities with funding from Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge grants.

Fact Sheets & Briefs


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Caring for the Dallas community's littlest learners: A case study of child care supply, affordability, and quality
Texans Care For Children,
Austin, TX: Texans Care for Children.

This portfolio provides a snapshot of child care in the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex community. It includes information on the 12 counties in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA): Collin, Dallas, Delta, Denton, Ellis, Hunt, Johnson, Kaufman, Parker, Rockwall, Tarrant, and Wise. Until 2008, the Texas Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (TACCRRA) produced county-level data on child care and demographics for every county in Texas. This year Texans Care for Children collaborated with the TACCRRA network, and particularly ChildCareGroup of Dallas, to update and expand upon child care data in the DFW area. This report also includes detailed county-by-county data on child population, demographics, and issues of early care and education in the Appendix. Throughout the portfolio are spotlights on Dallas County that provide a more in-depth examination of child care needs. Much of this data was obtained through a survey Texans Care for Children issued to child care providers in Dallas County. Due to the small sample size and voluntary nature of the survey, the data collected is not necessarily representative of all child care providers in Dallas. However, the information gathered does provide insight into some of the most pressing challenges and opportunities facing children, families, and child care providers in the broader Dallas community. As reflected in the report, many working families in the community rely on child care providers outside the home, but the availability of quality, affordable care that meets individual family needs is limited. (author abstract)

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Child care and education in Oregon and its counties: 2012
Weber, Roberta B. (Bobbie), May, 2013
Corvallis: Oregon Child Care Research Partnership.

A profile of the utilization, affordability, and availability of child care in Oregon in 2012

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Childcare availability, fertility and female labor force participation in Japan
Lee, Grace H. Y., June, 2014
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 32(), 71-85

This paper seeks to address the problems of childcare scarcity, declining fertility rates and work-family conflict faced by the growing female labor force in Japan. Japan's total fertility rate has been declining since the 1970s and it fell below the replacement level of 1.3 in 2003. Since the 1990s, the Japanese government has implemented pro-natal policies such as childcare market deregulation, childcare center expansion in the Angel Plan and New Angel Plan, and provision of childbirth grants. However, these policies have failed to encourage childbirth. With rising labor force participation among Japanese women, the insufficiency of existing childcare center capacity to accommodate children of working mothers has resulted in the problem of wait-listed children. In addition, the failure of childcare centers to mitigate the conflict between women's work and child raising duties has discouraged women from childbearing. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship and causality between childcare availability (CA), female labor force participation rate (LFPR) and fertility (TFR) in Japan for the period 1971-2009. A bounds test approach to cointegration establishes the existence of long-run equilibrium relations between CA, TFR and LFPR. Applying the Granger causality method, our results show the absence of Granger-causality running from childcare availability to fertility among females aged 30-39. In the long run, our results show that having more children at home does not discourage the female labor force participation. In addition, we find no evidence which suggests that working women tend to have fewer children. Overall, this study suggests the importance of the Japanese childcare system in supporting female employment. (author abstract)

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Childcare costs survey 2010
Daycare Trust (Organization), February, 2010
London: Daycare Trust.

A study of child care prices and availability in England, Scotland, and Wales

Reports & Papers


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Childcare Costs Survey 2011
Daycare Trust (Organization), February, 2011
London: Daycare Trust.

Each year, Daycare Trust conducts a survey of local authority Family Information Services (FIS) to find out the average cost of different forms of childcare across Britain, and the availability of childcare for different groups of parents. The aim of the research is to provide information for parents, childcare providers, researchers and government, and to help inform policy development. The survey enables us to analyse the differences in costs between regions, and how costs are changing over time. This is the tenth annual childcare costs survey conducted by Daycare Trust. (author abstract)

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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