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2012 child care market rate survey
Missouri. Department of Social Services. Research and Evaluation Unit,
Jefferson City: Missouri, Division of Children, Early Childhood and Prevention Services Section.

This study examines child care market rates in Missouri. All 3,552 licensed child care facilities in the state were surveyed, with responses received from 1,098. Market rates are calculated for full- and part-time care, by provider type, and by child age, as well as by region. Twenty percent of providers are accredited and more than 86 percent of facilities accept child care subsidies. Facility directors on average earn $17.79 per hour and lead teachers earn $10.13.

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2013 market rate study: Final report: SFY 2013
Rous, Beth, 2013
Lexington: University of Kentucky, Kentucky Partnership for Early Childhood Services.

This study examines child care market rates in Kentucky in 2013. All 2,782 licensed and certified child care facilities in the state were surveyed, with responses received from 1,647. Market rates are calculated for full- and part-time care, by provider type, and by child age, as well as by region. Rates range from to $20 per day for part-time family child care for a school-age child to $28 per day for full-time center-based care for an infant. Rates have increased across the state since 2005, from $3 to $11 per day depending on care type. Rural child care is less expensive than urban child care, though the difference in rates has closed over time. More than 85 percent of facilities accept child care subsidies. Forty-two percent of facilities participate in the state quality rating and improvement system (QRIS), with similar rates charged by QRIS participants and nonparticipants

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2014 report on child care in Cook County: FY2013 (July 1, 2012-June 30, 2013)
Illinois Action for Children, 2014
Chicago: Illinois Action for Children.

This 2014 Report on Child Care in Cook County examines the availability of child care to families in different parts of Cook County. We present the various settings in which child care takes place, the number of children that can be served in each type of care, and the fees that parents pay to different types of providers. Challenges faced by families in relation to the cost of child care and state efforts to subsidize that care are also explored. Finally, we review possible policy options that can make child care more affordable and accessible to families throughout Cook County. (author abstract)

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Access to early childhood education in Australia: Insights from a qualitative study
Hand, Kelly, 2014
(Research Report No. 28). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

This report documents the background, methodology and findings from the Access to Early Childhood Education (AECE): Qualitative Study, undertaken by the Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS) and commissioned by the then Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR; now the Department of Education) on behalf of the Early Childhood Data Subgroup (ECDSG). The AECE Qualitative Study was undertaken in order to develop a qualitative evidence base about how the concept of "access" to early childhood education (ECE) is defined and understood, and to explore the barriers and supports that exist in relation to access to ECE. A particular aim was to identify key factors that influence parents' decisions about the use of ECE programs for children in the year prior to commencing full-time school. The study sought to build on the findings of an earlier research project that used analyses of existing quantitative datasets and consultations with stakeholders to explore the meanings of "access" and how it could be best measured (see Baxter & Hand, 2013). The initial study found that while overall participation in ECE was generally high in Australia, there were particular groups that had lower rates of participation in ECE in the year prior to commencing full-time school. These groups included Indigenous children and children whose parents were not employed, or had lower levels of educational attainment. The initial research also found that access seemed to be affected by whether the delivery of ECE within a particular state or territory was through a primarily government or non-government model. The AECE Qualitative Study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence parents' decisions about ECE through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with 94 parents across a number of different states and territories. Specifically, the research was conducted with parents in Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania between July 2012 and April 2013. The research included both families of children who had and had not accessed ECE, which ensured a greater understanding of the issues around the selection of services, preferences for different models, and how potential barriers to accessing ECE may be overcome. One objective of the AECE Qualitative Study was to gauge the extent to which the availability of different models affects parents' perceptions and/or capacity to send their children to ECE. (author abstract)

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Access to early childhood education in Australia: Insights from a qualitative study [Executive summary]
Hand, Kelly, 2014
(Research Report No. 28). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

This report documents the background, methodology and findings from the Access to Early Childhood Education (AECE): Qualitative Study, undertaken by the Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS) and commissioned by the then Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR; now the Department of Education) on behalf of the Early Childhood Data Subgroup (ECDSG). The AECE Qualitative Study was undertaken in order to develop a qualitative evidence base about how the concept of "access" to early childhood education (ECE) is defined and understood, and to explore the barriers and supports that exist in relation to access to ECE. A particular aim was to identify key factors that influence parents' decisions about the use of ECE programs for children in the year prior to commencing full-time school. The study sought to build on the findings of an earlier research project that used analyses of existing quantitative datasets and consultations with stakeholders to explore the meanings of "access" and how it could be best measured (see Baxter & Hand, 2013). The initial study found that while overall participation in ECE was generally high in Australia, there were particular groups that had lower rates of participation in ECE in the year prior to commencing full-time school. These groups included Indigenous children and children whose parents were not employed, or had lower levels of educational attainment. The initial research also found that access seemed to be affected by whether the delivery of ECE within a particular state or territory was through a primarily government or non-government model. The AECE Qualitative Study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence parents' decisions about ECE through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with 94 parents across a number of different states and territories. Specifically, the research was conducted with parents in Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania between July 2012 and April 2013. The research included both families of children who had and had not accessed ECE, which ensured a greater understanding of the issues around the selection of services, preferences for different models, and how potential barriers to accessing ECE may be overcome. One objective of the AECE Qualitative Study was to gauge the extent to which the availability of different models affects parents' perceptions and/or capacity to send their children to ECE. (author abstract)

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Capacity building in high-need communities
Colvard, Jamie, June, 2014
Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

This fact sheet presents the strategies planned by the states of Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Vermont to build capacity chiefly in high-need rural communities with funding from Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge grants.

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Child care affordability in Australia
Phillips, Ben, June, 2014
(AMP.NATSEM Income and Wealth Report Issue 35). Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: AMP Society.

Many Australian families are juggling paid work with raising children. Child care, both formal and informal, makes this intricate balancing act possible. The decision around whether to return to work after having children is not an easy one. Child care is expensive and families have to manage many important financial, family and social obligations. Families making the difficult decision about a return to work have to not only consider upfront child care costs, but also the potential impact of paid work on the Government benefits they may receive. Where a person lives will also have a big impact on their child care costs, with some daily rates as high as $170 a day. An important focus of this report is the affordability of child care for families and the impact child care costs have on the decision to work. The report outlines the trends in child care use and costs and then considers the complicated interactions between returning to work, the loss of Government benefits and the costs of increasing child care use. There is great variation in the cost of child care across the country and the report explores Australia's most and least affordable regions. The Government subsidises child care through a number of benefits, but the current system is expensive and complicated. The report considers Government benefits received by families using child care and their effectiveness and explores possible alternative support systems. While providing benefits to working parents is expensive, Australia needs women to work and contribute to the tax system to help the nation manage the cost of an ageing population. (author abstract)

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Childcare availability, fertility and female labor force participation in Japan
Lee, Grace H. Y., June, 2014
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 32(), 71-85

This paper seeks to address the problems of childcare scarcity, declining fertility rates and work-family conflict faced by the growing female labor force in Japan. Japan's total fertility rate has been declining since the 1970s and it fell below the replacement level of 1.3 in 2003. Since the 1990s, the Japanese government has implemented pro-natal policies such as childcare market deregulation, childcare center expansion in the Angel Plan and New Angel Plan, and provision of childbirth grants. However, these policies have failed to encourage childbirth. With rising labor force participation among Japanese women, the insufficiency of existing childcare center capacity to accommodate children of working mothers has resulted in the problem of wait-listed children. In addition, the failure of childcare centers to mitigate the conflict between women's work and child raising duties has discouraged women from childbearing. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship and causality between childcare availability (CA), female labor force participation rate (LFPR) and fertility (TFR) in Japan for the period 1971-2009. A bounds test approach to cointegration establishes the existence of long-run equilibrium relations between CA, TFR and LFPR. Applying the Granger causality method, our results show the absence of Granger-causality running from childcare availability to fertility among females aged 30-39. In the long run, our results show that having more children at home does not discourage the female labor force participation. In addition, we find no evidence which suggests that working women tend to have fewer children. Overall, this study suggests the importance of the Japanese childcare system in supporting female employment. (author abstract)

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Child care in America: 2014 state fact sheets
Child Care Aware of America, March, 2014
Arlington, VA: Child Care Aware of America.

This state-by-state compilation of statistics presents state-level averages of the number of families, children under 6, working mothers, child care sites, demand for types of care, child care prices, subsidy use, and workforce data for each state. The section for each state provides a side-by-side comparison of the statewide and national averages. The data was compiled through a survey of state child care resource and referral networks and sources of secondary data

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Child care prices and affordability: A struggle for Colorado families & providers
Qualistar Colorado, June, 2014
Denver, CO: Qualistar Colorado.

In 2013 The Women's Foundation of Colorado produced a comprehensive research report entitled The Status of Women & Girls in Colorado. Throughout the research phase for that report, many questions and concerns about child care access and affordability were raised. In particular, single mothers were found to be struggling with the price of child care. As a direct result, The Women's Foundation of Colorado provided a grant to Qualistar Colorado to investigate and address the barriers to affordable child care. Qualistar Colorado has produced this brief with that generous funding. Additional effort on this project has been provided by the Colorado Children's Campaign. This brief is the first in a series to be produced in conjunction with this project. (author abstract)

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Disparities in access to preschool in Illinois
Gee, Lisa Christensen, August, 2014
Chicago: Voices for Illinois Children.

Decades of research have identified substantial benefits from participation in high-quality preschool programs for both individual children and their communities. The purpose of this report is to aid efforts to realize these benefits for children and communities across Illinois by providing an overview and analysis of existing preschool opportunities and outstanding needs in our state. The report begins with a discussion of the importance of preschool, particularly for certain populations of children, followed by an overview of research evidence on preschool disparities from nationally representative studies. We then present findings on funding and enrollment trends for state-funded preschool in Illinois, as well as findings from American Community Survey (ACS) data on participation in all public and private preschool programs in Illinois and other large states. We examine disparities related to family income and race-ethnicity, as well as geographic areas within Illinois. Appendices referenced throughout provide supplemental data and are located in the back of the report. (author abstract)

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Disparities in access to preschool in Illinois [Executive summary]
Gee, Lisa Christensen, August, 2014
Chicago: Voices for Illinois Children.

Decades of research have identified substantial benefits from participation in high-quality preschool programs for both individual children and their communities. The purpose of this report is to aid efforts to realize these benefits for children and communities across Illinois by providing an overview and analysis of existing preschool opportunities and outstanding needs in our state. The report begins with a discussion of the importance of preschool, particularly for certain populations of children, followed by an overview of research evidence on preschool disparities from nationally representative studies. We then present findings on funding and enrollment trends for state-funded preschool in Illinois, as well as findings from American Community Survey (ACS) data on participation in all public and private preschool programs in Illinois and other large states. We examine disparities related to family income and race-ethnicity, as well as geographic areas within Illinois. Appendices referenced throughout provide supplemental data and are located in the back of the report. (author abstract)

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Disparities in access to preschool in Illinois: Overview of key findings
Gee, Lisa Christensen, August, 2014
Chicago: Voices for Illinois Children.

Decades of research have identified substantial benefits from participation in high-quality preschool programs for both individual children and their communities. This issue brief summarizes key findings from a study of disparities in access to preschool in Illinois. The purpose of the study is to aid efforts to realize these benefits for children and communities across Illinois by providing an overview and analysis of existing preschool opportunities and outstanding needs in our state. This issue brief begins with an overview of research evidence on preschool disparities from nationally representative studies, followed by an examination of the impact of funding cuts to Preschool for All in Illinois. We then present findings on participation in all public and private preschool programs in Illinois from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS), examining disparities related to family income and race-ethnicity, as well as geographic areas within the state. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications for Illinois. We emphasize the need to provide new funding for preschool, target resources to increase enrollment of underserved populations, invest in quality improvements, and strengthen community capacity to offer early learning opportunities. (author abstract)

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Does reform in Kazakhstan improve access to childcare?: Evidence from nationally-representative surveys
Habibov, Nazim, May, 2014
Children and Youth Services Review, 40(), 13-19

During Soviet era, Kazakhstan enjoyed universal free-of-charge access to childcare. After the commencement of economic and political transition, and the achievement of independence in 1991, attendance in childcare programs dropped significantly. This reduction in attendance was accompanied by a growing gap in access caused by wealth, language, mother's education, and regional disparities. Responding to the reduction in attendance as well as growing inequalities with respect to attendance, the government of Kazakhstan initiated a bold program of reforms aimed at improving access to childcare. This paper represents an initial assessment of the success of these reforms using a unique set of nationally-representative surveys. We found that, in general, the reform was successful in increasing childcare attendance. However, the results of the reform fell short of their target. However, the reform significantly reduced the role of household wealth as a barrier to attendance. Nevertheless, the wealth of a household remains an important determinant of attendance. Additionally, although the reform successfully mitigated gaps in attendance which were based on language spoken and education of mother, regional disparities remain significant. (author abstract)

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Early childhood education for low-income students: A review of the evidence and benefit-cost analysis
Kay, Noa A., January, 2014
(Document No. 14-01-2201). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

The 2013 Washington State Legislature directed the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) to review "the research evidence on components of successful early education program strategies" for low-income children. In this report, we present findings from our analysis of early childhood education (ECE) research. We conducted this analysis by reviewing all credible evaluation studies from the United States and elsewhere. We systematically analyzed the studies to estimate whether various approaches to ECE have a cause-and-effect relationship with outcomes for low-income students. We then calculated whether the long-term monetary benefits of ECE investments outweigh the costs. Research on ECE programs serving low-income children can provide insight on the effectiveness of Washington's own program, the Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP). The 2013 Legislature also directed WSIPP to "conduct a comprehensive retrospective outcome evaluation and return on investment analysis" of ECEAP. That evaluation will be completed by December 2014. The full legislative direction to WSIPP is in Exhibit 1 (next page). In this report, we first describe WSIPP's approach to systematic research reviews and benefit-cost analysis. We then highlight our findings on the average effectiveness of ECE for low-income children. (author abstract)

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Evaluation of Children's Centres in England (ECCE): The extent to which centres 'reach' eligible families, their neighbourhood characteristics and levels of use: Research brief
Smith, George, June, 2014
(DFE-RB358). Manchester, United Kingdom: Great Britain, Department for Education.

This report forms part of the national Evaluation of Children's Centres in England (ECCE) research study. The overall research focuses on national samples of children's centres set up in the first two phases of the national programme, which particularly focused on the 30% most disadvantaged areas in England. The evaluation as a whole studies the management, organisation and programmes offered in the centres; it includes a longitudinal study of families and children who used these children's centres, and a cost-benefit analysis of the programme. A key objective of the Sure Start Children's Centre programme was that centres should serve areas, families and children with high social needs. This report addresses three main questions: 1. How were the local areas, served or ?reached' by each centre, defined? 2. What were the principal characteristics of these areas and how were they changing over time? 3. How well were centres serving these areas in terms of take-up or ?reach' and levels of use? This study draws on three sets of data, which in combination address these three main questions: 1. A survey of local authorities that contained one or more of the 128 centres from the national sample (Stage 1) (see Appendix A for the sampling process). 2. An analysis of a wide range of relevant national neighbourhood data for each centre (Stage 2). 3. A follow-up survey of the local authorities that processed children's centre data centrally, to estimate take-up and usage (Stage 3). The aim was to provide new and up-to-date information on the areas served by the children's centres and how well these were covered. The data collected will also contribute to the impact evaluation by providing robust information on the local context for each centre in the study. (author abstract)

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Evaluation of Children's Centres in England (ECCE): The extent to which centres 'reach' eligible families, their neighbourhood characteristics and levels of use: Research report
Smith, George, June, 2014
(DFE-RR358). Manchester, United Kingdom: Great Britain, Department for Education.

This report forms part of the national Evaluation of Children's Centres in England (ECCE) research study. The overall research focuses on national samples of children's centres set up in the first two phases of the national programme, which particularly focused on the 30% most disadvantaged areas in England. The evaluation as a whole studies the management, organisation and programmes offered in the centres; it includes a longitudinal study of families and children who used these children's centres, and a cost-benefit analysis of the programme. A key objective of the Sure Start Children's Centre programme was that centres should serve areas, families and children with high social needs. This report addresses three main questions: 1. How were the local areas, served or ?reached' by each centre, defined? 2. What were the principal characteristics of these areas and how were they changing over time? 3. How well were centres serving these areas in terms of take-up or ?reach' and levels of use? This study draws on three sets of data, which in combination address these three main questions: 1. A survey of local authorities that contained one or more of the 128 centres from the national sample (Stage 1) (see Appendix A for the sampling process). 2. An analysis of a wide range of relevant national neighbourhood data for each centre (Stage 2). 3. A follow-up survey of the local authorities that processed children's centre data centrally, to estimate take-up and usage (Stage 3). The aim was to provide new and up-to-date information on the areas served by the children's centres and how well these were covered. The data collected will also contribute to the impact evaluation by providing robust information on the local context for each centre in the study. (author abstract)

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Focussed policy assessment: Early Start programme
Ireland. Early Years Education Policy Unit, June, 2014
Dublin, Ireland: Ireland, Department of Education and Skills.

This is a focussed policy assessment of the Early Start pre-school programme. The Early Start Programme was established in 1994 in 40 primary schools in designated areas of urban disadvantage. The schools are located in Cork (6 schools), Dublin (26), Galway (1), Louth (2), Limerick (3), Waterford (1) and Wicklow (1). The programme is a one-year early intervention scheme to meet the needs of children of pre-school age who are at risk of not reaching their potential within the school system. The project involves an educational programme to enhance overall development, promote positive educational outcomes and offset the effects of social disadvantage. This policy assessment focusses on the efficiency and effectiveness of the Early Start programme. The analysis is structured around a set of key questions. The analysis of these questions in turn leads to a series of findings. These findings are then addressed through nine recommendations. The analysis in this assessment is informed by relevant research literature, policy documents, and by the results of a survey of school principals who have responsibility for Early Start units. The principals' survey was conducted in 2013 specifically for this policy review. 37 out of the total cohort of 40 principals responded to the survey. (author abstract)

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From preschool to prosperity: The economic payoff to early childhood education
Bartik, Timothy J., 2014
Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

The plan of the book: Chapter 2 summarizes the empirical evidence that has led most researchers to believe that early childhood programs can affect adult outcomes. Chapter 3 compares adult earnings benefits from early childhood education with costs. Chapter 4 analyzes common criticisms made of the empirical evidence for early childhood education. Chapter 5 discusses how the benefits and costs of early childhood programs vary with program features, such as classroom quality, program duration, and the income of the child's family. Chapter 6 explores social benefits of early childhood programs. Chapter 7 outlines a specific early childhood proposal. Chapter 8 puts early childhood education in the context of past efforts to reform American education. In sum, this book argues the following: Many early childhood education programs have rigorous evidence for high benefit-cost ratios. We know something about what types of programs have the biggest bang for the buck, and how to improve program quality over time. Benefits of early childhood education are broad enough that taxpayer support is justified. Benefits of early childhood education are local enough to justify support by state and local governments. Early childhood education can play a significant role in an overall economic strategy to enhance U.S. economic growth and broaden economic opportunities. (author abstract)

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Full-day kindergarten: A review of the evidence and benefit-cost analysis
Kay, Noa A., January, 2014
(Document No. 14-01-2202). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

The Washington State legislature directed the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) to develop "a repository of research and evaluations of the cost-benefits of various K-12 educational programs and services." In this report, we analyze a K?12 policy question: do the long-term benefits of full-day kindergarten (in comparison with half-day) outweigh the costs? We researched this question by reviewing all credible evaluation studies from the United States and elsewhere. We systematically analyzed the studies to estimate whether full-day kindergarten has a cause-and-effect relationship with student outcomes. We then calculated whether the long-term monetary benefits of full-day kindergarten exceed the operating and capital costs. In this report, we describe our research approach and highlight our findings on full-day kindergarten. An appendix provides technical details. (author abstract)

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Household Satellite Accounts, valuing informal childcare in the UK, 2010
Fender, Valerie, 15 February, 2013
Newport, United Kingdom: Great Britain, Office for National Statistics.

This article reports on the measurement and valuation of the output of the household production of childcare. This includes all care given by parents, family members, friends and focuses on the numbers of children looked after, rather than those giving the care. It is the first in a series of articles to update the full household satellite accounts (HHSA) for the UK. The methodology remains under development and any estimates reported here, or in forthcoming publications, should be considered experimental and interpreted with caution. (author abstract)

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Illinois families and the cost of child care: FY 2013 report
Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies, 2013
Bloomington, IL: Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies.

A national report on Parents and the High Cost of Care: 2013 Report, recently released by Child Care Aware of America, outlines the reality that child care is a major expense in family budgets in all states. The report states that in 2012, the cost of child care increased up to eight times the rate of increases in family income. It also found that in 31 states and the District of Columbia, the average annual cost of center-based care for an infant was higher than that annual tuition and fees at a four-year public college. Moreover, across the 50 states, the annual average cost of center-based infant care averaged over 40 percent of the state median income for a single mother. Designed to complement the national report, Illinois Families and the Cost of Child Care FY 2013 Report is a publication by the Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (INCCRRA) intended to put valuable data into the hands of parents, early care and education programs, and policy makers to inform them in making the best decisions for children and families in Illinois. While there are no easy answers, solid data are needed to support development of policies that strengthen programs designed to improve quality and access, especially for our most vulnerable populations. The Illinois Child Care Resource and Referral (CCR&R) System has been collecting data on the rates early care and education programs charge for over twenty years. These aggregate data are presented in this report by county and compared to various factors that impact our view of the affordability of care, from household income to housing and other household costs. The data are also analyzed from a variety of perspectives including dual- and single-parent households, rural vs. urban settings, and income thresholds that define poverty. (author abstract)

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Investments and opportunities in summer learning: A community assessment of Baltimore, Maryland
National Summer Learning Association,
Baltimore: National Summer Learning Association.

With support from the Morton K. and Jane Blaustein Foundation and the T. Rowe Price Foundation, the National Summer Learning Association (NSLA) and the Family League of Baltimore City (Family League) have collaborated to begin system-building efforts in the city. Family League serves as an architect of change in Baltimore by promoting data-driven, collaborative initiatives, and aligning resources to create lasting outcomes for children, families, and communities. To launch system-building efforts, NSLA and Family League assessed Baltimore's summer learning landscape and convened other community stakeholders to develop strategies for increasing access to and the quality of summer programming across the city. The community assessment defined summer learning opportunities as organized academic and/or enrichment activities for pre-K through 12th grade students. To support ongoing strategic planning around summer, NSLA and Family League convened two groups, a Summer Steering Committee and a Summer Provider Group. The Summer Steering Committee has met every two months and includes representatives from the Mayor's Office, Baltimore City Public Schools, the Department of Recreation and Parks, the Enoch Pratt Free Library, other city agencies, local foundations, and a representative of summer learning program providers. The steering committee used NSLA's Community Indicators of Effective Summer Learning Systems framework to guide the development of policy recommendations. The Summer Provider Group met every two months, offering participating providers a chance to review the data analyses, raise questions about needs and assets, and review the Summer Steering Committee's proposed strategies for the future. In response to the Provider Group's recommendations, Family League began to coordinate summer trainings and provide more centralized communication on upcoming summer opportunities for summer 2014, with the intention to offer additional training opportunities for summer programs in future years. Overall, the assessment and planning process positions Baltimore well for progress towards coordinated action around summer learning loss. This report highlights the findings of the community assessment, and documents the strategies that emerged from the deliberations of the Steering Committee and Provider Group on how to enhance and institutionalize summer learning in Baltimore. (author abstract)

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Is universal child care leveling the playing field?
Havnes, Tarjei, March, 2014
(Discussion Papers No. 774). Oslo, Norway: Norway, Statistisk sentralbyra (Norway, Statistics Norway).

We assess the case for universal child care programs in the context of a Norwegian reform which led to a large-scale expansion of subsidized child care. We use non-linear difference-in-differences methods to estimate the quantile treatment effects of the reform. We find that the effects of the child care expansion were positive in the lower and middle part of the earnings distribution of exposed children as adults, and negative in the uppermost part. We complement this analysis with local linear regressions of the child care effects by family income. We find that most of the gains in earnings associated with the universal child care program relate to children of low income parents, whereas upper-class children actually experience a loss in earnings. In line with the differential effects by family income, we estimate that the universal child care program substantially increased intergenerational income mobility. To interpret the estimated heterogeneity in child care effects, we examine the mediating role of educational attainment and cognitive test scores, and show that our estimates are consistent with a simple model where parents make a tradeoff between current family consumption and investment in children. Taken together, our findings could have important implications for the policy debate over universal child care programs, suggesting that the benefits of providing subsidized child care to middle and upper-class children are unlikely to exceed the costs. Our study also points to the importance of universal child care programs in explaining differences in earnings inequality and income mobility across countries and over time. (author abstract)

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Kansas child care market rate study
Mercer Government Human Services Consulting, 01 May, 2013
Topeka: Kansas, Department for Children and Families.

The State of Kansas (State), Department for Children and Families (DCF) engaged Mercer Government Human Services Consulting (Mercer) to conduct a study of market rates for child care services in the State. This study is a federally mandated bi-annual analysis of market rates, designed to assist DCF in determining whether current DCF child care subsidy rates are at a level such that families receiving these subsidies have similar purchasing power to private pay families. This study is based on an analysis of data maintained and supplied by Child Care Aware of Kansas (CCAKS) database. The database contains information on all regulated child care facilities in Kansas, including child care rates and hours of operation by provider type and age of child. The database also contains information on provider accreditation and professional development requirements, which were used as part of this analysis. These data represent rate information collected for the period of January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Mercer has used and relied upon the data from the CCAKS database. In addition, Mercer received actual child care benefit data covering the time period of June 2012 through August 2012 from DCF to complete the 'Family Share Comparison' presented below. While Mercer reviewed these data and information for reasonableness, we did not audit them and are not responsible for incomplete or inaccurate data provided by the State. If data supplied in the CCAKS database or provided by DCF are inaccurate or incomplete, the values shown in this report may need to be revised accordingly. (author abstract)

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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