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2013 market rate study: Final report: SFY 2013
Rous, Beth, 2013
Lexington: University of Kentucky, Kentucky Partnership for Early Childhood Services.

This study examines child care market rates in Kentucky in 2013. All 2,782 licensed and certified child care facilities in the state were surveyed, with responses received from 1,647. Market rates are calculated for full- and part-time care, by provider type, and by child age, as well as by region. Rates range from to $20 per day for part-time family child care for a school-age child to $28 per day for full-time center-based care for an infant. Rates have increased across the state since 2005, from $3 to $11 per day depending on care type. Rural child care is less expensive than urban child care, though the difference in rates has closed over time. More than 85 percent of facilities accept child care subsidies. Forty-two percent of facilities participate in the state quality rating and improvement system (QRIS), with similar rates charged by QRIS participants and nonparticipants

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Access to early childhood education in Australia: Insights from a qualitative study
Hand, Kelly, 2014
(Research Report No. 28). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

This report documents the background, methodology and findings from the Access to Early Childhood Education (AECE): Qualitative Study, undertaken by the Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS) and commissioned by the then Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR; now the Department of Education) on behalf of the Early Childhood Data Subgroup (ECDSG). The AECE Qualitative Study was undertaken in order to develop a qualitative evidence base about how the concept of "access" to early childhood education (ECE) is defined and understood, and to explore the barriers and supports that exist in relation to access to ECE. A particular aim was to identify key factors that influence parents' decisions about the use of ECE programs for children in the year prior to commencing full-time school. The study sought to build on the findings of an earlier research project that used analyses of existing quantitative datasets and consultations with stakeholders to explore the meanings of "access" and how it could be best measured (see Baxter & Hand, 2013). The initial study found that while overall participation in ECE was generally high in Australia, there were particular groups that had lower rates of participation in ECE in the year prior to commencing full-time school. These groups included Indigenous children and children whose parents were not employed, or had lower levels of educational attainment. The initial research also found that access seemed to be affected by whether the delivery of ECE within a particular state or territory was through a primarily government or non-government model. The AECE Qualitative Study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence parents' decisions about ECE through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with 94 parents across a number of different states and territories. Specifically, the research was conducted with parents in Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania between July 2012 and April 2013. The research included both families of children who had and had not accessed ECE, which ensured a greater understanding of the issues around the selection of services, preferences for different models, and how potential barriers to accessing ECE may be overcome. One objective of the AECE Qualitative Study was to gauge the extent to which the availability of different models affects parents' perceptions and/or capacity to send their children to ECE. (author abstract)

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Access to early childhood education in Australia: Insights from a qualitative study [Executive summary]
Hand, Kelly, 2014
(Research Report No. 28). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

This report documents the background, methodology and findings from the Access to Early Childhood Education (AECE): Qualitative Study, undertaken by the Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS) and commissioned by the then Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR; now the Department of Education) on behalf of the Early Childhood Data Subgroup (ECDSG). The AECE Qualitative Study was undertaken in order to develop a qualitative evidence base about how the concept of "access" to early childhood education (ECE) is defined and understood, and to explore the barriers and supports that exist in relation to access to ECE. A particular aim was to identify key factors that influence parents' decisions about the use of ECE programs for children in the year prior to commencing full-time school. The study sought to build on the findings of an earlier research project that used analyses of existing quantitative datasets and consultations with stakeholders to explore the meanings of "access" and how it could be best measured (see Baxter & Hand, 2013). The initial study found that while overall participation in ECE was generally high in Australia, there were particular groups that had lower rates of participation in ECE in the year prior to commencing full-time school. These groups included Indigenous children and children whose parents were not employed, or had lower levels of educational attainment. The initial research also found that access seemed to be affected by whether the delivery of ECE within a particular state or territory was through a primarily government or non-government model. The AECE Qualitative Study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence parents' decisions about ECE through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with 94 parents across a number of different states and territories. Specifically, the research was conducted with parents in Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania between July 2012 and April 2013. The research included both families of children who had and had not accessed ECE, which ensured a greater understanding of the issues around the selection of services, preferences for different models, and how potential barriers to accessing ECE may be overcome. One objective of the AECE Qualitative Study was to gauge the extent to which the availability of different models affects parents' perceptions and/or capacity to send their children to ECE. (author abstract)

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Access to high quality early care and education: Readiness and opportunity gaps in America
Nores, Milagros, May, 2014
New Brunswick, NJ: Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes.

This brief is organized into four main sections. The first describes the "readiness gaps" at kindergarten entry as of 2010. The remaining sections examine the extent to which there are "opportunity gaps" in the early care and education services that may be associated with those readiness gaps. We begin with the care arrangements at age 2 and then examine early care and education arrangements for children aged 3 and 4. Finally, we turn to state pre-K policy and its impacts on enrollment, quality standards, and funding for children ages 3 and 4. The information presented is based on analyses of three main sources of data: the State of the Preschool series, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- Kindergarten Cohort 2010/11 (ECLS-K) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort 2001 (ECLS-B). (author abstract)

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Building strong foundations: Pre-k, strong communities and a strong economy
Idaho Kids Count (Program), March, 2014
Boise, ID: Idaho Kids Count.

Currently, Idaho does not invest in early education, except in the case of special needs children. This brief outlines how increased access to early education in Idaho would increase student achievement, strengthen communities, and save public dollars. (author abstract)

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Capacity building in high-need communities
Colvard, Jamie, June, 2014
Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

This fact sheet presents the strategies planned by the states of Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Vermont to build capacity chiefly in high-need rural communities with funding from Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge grants.

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Childcare availability, fertility and female labor force participation in Japan
Lee, Grace H. Y., June, 2014
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 32(), 71-85

This paper seeks to address the problems of childcare scarcity, declining fertility rates and work-family conflict faced by the growing female labor force in Japan. Japan's total fertility rate has been declining since the 1970s and it fell below the replacement level of 1.3 in 2003. Since the 1990s, the Japanese government has implemented pro-natal policies such as childcare market deregulation, childcare center expansion in the Angel Plan and New Angel Plan, and provision of childbirth grants. However, these policies have failed to encourage childbirth. With rising labor force participation among Japanese women, the insufficiency of existing childcare center capacity to accommodate children of working mothers has resulted in the problem of wait-listed children. In addition, the failure of childcare centers to mitigate the conflict between women's work and child raising duties has discouraged women from childbearing. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship and causality between childcare availability (CA), female labor force participation rate (LFPR) and fertility (TFR) in Japan for the period 1971-2009. A bounds test approach to cointegration establishes the existence of long-run equilibrium relations between CA, TFR and LFPR. Applying the Granger causality method, our results show the absence of Granger-causality running from childcare availability to fertility among females aged 30-39. In the long run, our results show that having more children at home does not discourage the female labor force participation. In addition, we find no evidence which suggests that working women tend to have fewer children. Overall, this study suggests the importance of the Japanese childcare system in supporting female employment. (author abstract)

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Child care in America: 2014 state fact sheets
Child Care Aware of America, March, 2014
Arlington, VA: Child Care Aware of America.

This state-by-state compilation of statistics presents state-level averages of the number of families, children under 6, working mothers, child care sites, demand for types of care, child care prices, subsidy use, and workforce data for each state. The section for each state provides a side-by-side comparison of the statewide and national averages. The data was compiled through a survey of state child care resource and referral networks and sources of secondary data

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Child care prices and affordability: A struggle for Colorado families & providers
Qualistar Colorado, June, 2014
Denver, CO: Qualistar Colorado.

In 2013 The Women's Foundation of Colorado produced a comprehensive research report entitled The Status of Women & Girls in Colorado. Throughout the research phase for that report, many questions and concerns about child care access and affordability were raised. In particular, single mothers were found to be struggling with the price of child care. As a direct result, The Women's Foundation of Colorado provided a grant to Qualistar Colorado to investigate and address the barriers to affordable child care. Qualistar Colorado has produced this brief with that generous funding. Additional effort on this project has been provided by the Colorado Children's Campaign. This brief is the first in a series to be produced in conjunction with this project. (author abstract)

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Does reform in Kazakhstan improve access to childcare?: Evidence from nationally-representative surveys
Habibov, Nazim, May, 2014
Children and Youth Services Review, 40(), 13-19

During Soviet era, Kazakhstan enjoyed universal free-of-charge access to childcare. After the commencement of economic and political transition, and the achievement of independence in 1991, attendance in childcare programs dropped significantly. This reduction in attendance was accompanied by a growing gap in access caused by wealth, language, mother's education, and regional disparities. Responding to the reduction in attendance as well as growing inequalities with respect to attendance, the government of Kazakhstan initiated a bold program of reforms aimed at improving access to childcare. This paper represents an initial assessment of the success of these reforms using a unique set of nationally-representative surveys. We found that, in general, the reform was successful in increasing childcare attendance. However, the results of the reform fell short of their target. However, the reform significantly reduced the role of household wealth as a barrier to attendance. Nevertheless, the wealth of a household remains an important determinant of attendance. Additionally, although the reform successfully mitigated gaps in attendance which were based on language spoken and education of mother, regional disparities remain significant. (author abstract)

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Early and school-age care in Santa Monica: Current system, policy options, and recommendations
Pierson, Ashley, April, 2014
(RR-289-CSM). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

The landscape of early learning and out-of-school-time programs in the City of Santa Monica is complex, with numerous providers and funding streams. This complexity reflects its evolution in response to changes in federal, state, and local priorities and initiatives. Future shifts in funding levels, program auspices, and other features are likely. In July 2012, the City of Santa Monica Human Services Division and the Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District contracted with the RAND Corporation to conduct an assessment of child care programs in Santa Monica. The study was motivated in part by the perception of some stakeholders that the system of care had become fragmented and complex. Additional motivations were the uncertainty of resource streams stemming from recent and anticipated state and federal budget cuts and a desire to ensure youth well-being in the community. The project sought to assess how well Santa Monica's child care programs meet the needs of families, including child care and early education programs serving children from birth to kindergarten entry, as well as care for school-aged children (focusing on kindergarten through eighth grade) in the hours before and after school and in the summer. Overall, recommendations for improvement focused on advancing access, quality, service delivery, and financial sustainability. (author abstract)

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Early childhood education for low-income students: A review of the evidence and benefit-cost analysis
Kay, Noa A., January, 2014
(Document No. 14-01-2201). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

The 2013 Washington State Legislature directed the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) to review "the research evidence on components of successful early education program strategies" for low-income children. In this report, we present findings from our analysis of early childhood education (ECE) research. We conducted this analysis by reviewing all credible evaluation studies from the United States and elsewhere. We systematically analyzed the studies to estimate whether various approaches to ECE have a cause-and-effect relationship with outcomes for low-income students. We then calculated whether the long-term monetary benefits of ECE investments outweigh the costs. Research on ECE programs serving low-income children can provide insight on the effectiveness of Washington's own program, the Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP). The 2013 Legislature also directed WSIPP to "conduct a comprehensive retrospective outcome evaluation and return on investment analysis" of ECEAP. That evaluation will be completed by December 2014. The full legislative direction to WSIPP is in Exhibit 1 (next page). In this report, we first describe WSIPP's approach to systematic research reviews and benefit-cost analysis. We then highlight our findings on the average effectiveness of ECE for low-income children. (author abstract)

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Economic impacts of the child care industry
Center for Strategic Economic Research, 20 June, 2013
Auburn, CA: First 5 Placer.

In order to develop a greater understanding of the child care industry's economic effects throughout the statewide and local economies, a group of child care coordinating entities in Central and Northern California engaged the Center for Strategic Economic Research (CSER) to conduct a high-level gross economic impact analysis. CSER developed a conservative estimate of the direct contributions of the child care industry based on analysis of data covering full-time, part-time, and temporary jobs along with the related economic value of the services provided. In order to quantify the full range of economic impacts associated with the industry's activities, CSER utilized the IMPLAN input-output model (see the Technical Notes section at the end of this report for a discussion of the economic impact methodology, including the effects and variables measured). CSER analyzed the economic impacts specifically within each of the ten counties represented by the group of child care coordinating entities, displayed in the map to the right (Colusa, El Dorado, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Sutter, Yolo, and Yuba Counties), as well as the combined 10-County Service area and the state of California. This brief report provides an overview of the statewide and Service Area impacts and includes information on the impacts within each of the 10 counties. (author abstract)

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Evaluation of Children's Centres in England (ECCE): The extent to which centres 'reach' eligible families, their neighbourhood characteristics and levels of use: Research brief
Smith, George, June, 2014
(DFE-RB358). Manchester, United Kingdom: Great Britain, Department for Education.

This report forms part of the national Evaluation of Children's Centres in England (ECCE) research study. The overall research focuses on national samples of children's centres set up in the first two phases of the national programme, which particularly focused on the 30% most disadvantaged areas in England. The evaluation as a whole studies the management, organisation and programmes offered in the centres; it includes a longitudinal study of families and children who used these children's centres, and a cost-benefit analysis of the programme. A key objective of the Sure Start Children's Centre programme was that centres should serve areas, families and children with high social needs. This report addresses three main questions: 1. How were the local areas, served or ?reached' by each centre, defined? 2. What were the principal characteristics of these areas and how were they changing over time? 3. How well were centres serving these areas in terms of take-up or ?reach' and levels of use? This study draws on three sets of data, which in combination address these three main questions: 1. A survey of local authorities that contained one or more of the 128 centres from the national sample (Stage 1) (see Appendix A for the sampling process). 2. An analysis of a wide range of relevant national neighbourhood data for each centre (Stage 2). 3. A follow-up survey of the local authorities that processed children's centre data centrally, to estimate take-up and usage (Stage 3). The aim was to provide new and up-to-date information on the areas served by the children's centres and how well these were covered. The data collected will also contribute to the impact evaluation by providing robust information on the local context for each centre in the study. (author abstract)

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Evaluation of Children's Centres in England (ECCE): The extent to which centres 'reach' eligible families, their neighbourhood characteristics and levels of use: Research report
Smith, George, June, 2014
(DFE-RR358). Manchester, United Kingdom: Great Britain, Department for Education.

This report forms part of the national Evaluation of Children's Centres in England (ECCE) research study. The overall research focuses on national samples of children's centres set up in the first two phases of the national programme, which particularly focused on the 30% most disadvantaged areas in England. The evaluation as a whole studies the management, organisation and programmes offered in the centres; it includes a longitudinal study of families and children who used these children's centres, and a cost-benefit analysis of the programme. A key objective of the Sure Start Children's Centre programme was that centres should serve areas, families and children with high social needs. This report addresses three main questions: 1. How were the local areas, served or ?reached' by each centre, defined? 2. What were the principal characteristics of these areas and how were they changing over time? 3. How well were centres serving these areas in terms of take-up or ?reach' and levels of use? This study draws on three sets of data, which in combination address these three main questions: 1. A survey of local authorities that contained one or more of the 128 centres from the national sample (Stage 1) (see Appendix A for the sampling process). 2. An analysis of a wide range of relevant national neighbourhood data for each centre (Stage 2). 3. A follow-up survey of the local authorities that processed children's centre data centrally, to estimate take-up and usage (Stage 3). The aim was to provide new and up-to-date information on the areas served by the children's centres and how well these were covered. The data collected will also contribute to the impact evaluation by providing robust information on the local context for each centre in the study. (author abstract)

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Executive summary: Early and school-age care in Santa Monica: Current system, policy options, and recommendations
Pierson, Ashley, 2014
(RR-289/1-CSM). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

In July 2012, the City of Santa Monica Human Services Division and the Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District contracted with the RAND Corporation to conduct an assessment of child care programs in Santa Monica, California. The study was motivated in part by the perception of some stakeholders that the system of care in Santa Monica had become fragmented and complex. Additional motivations were the uncertainty of resource streams stemming from recent and anticipated state and federal budget cuts and a desire to ensure youth well-being in the community. The project sought to assess how well Santa Monica's child care programs meet the needs of families, including child care and early education programs serving children from birth to kindergarten entry, as well as care for school-aged children (focusing on kindergarten through eighth grade) in the hours before and after school and in the summer. This information would be used to make recommendations for ways to better meet family needs and sustain programs going forward. (author abstract)

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Final report: 2013 Idaho child care market rate analysis
Ohio State University. Statistical Consulting Service, 06 June, 2013
Boise: Idaho, Department of Health and Welfare.

The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare (DHW) contracted with The Ohio State University Statistical Consulting Service (SCS) to perform the 2013 Idaho Child Care Market Rate Analysis. The DHW and SCS worked jointly to make decisions regarding the data and methods employed in the analysis and to review and approve the results presented in this report. The goal of the analysis is to characterize the unsubsidized (i.e., private pay) market rates for child care throughout the state of Idaho. The market rate data were obtained from IdahoAEYC, the agency responsible for the state's IdahoSTARS project, which includes the state's Child Care Resource and Referral Services. Provider data are maintained by IdahoAEYC using NACCRRAware, database software that generates child care referrals and reports and manages provider, client, and community data. Provider data were downloaded via text files and uploaded into Excel spreadsheets. The providers included in the analysis were required to be active and located in the state of Idaho, and the type of care provided was limited to child care centers, group care, and family care. In addition to basic information about the provider, the downloaded data included capacity and both full-time and part-time rates for five age groups: 0 - 12 months, 12 - 30 months, 30 - 60 months, 5 - 6 years, and 6 - 12 years. Providers were able to supply their rates in one or more of four modes: monthly, weekly, daily, and hourly rates. In order to perform the market rate analysis on consistent rate data, all rates (full- and part-time) were converted to monthly rate equivalents using standard conversion factors. To evaluate the market structure, three geographic levels were examined -- zip code, county, and region -- as the basic unit for the analysis, and county was selected as the unit that best allowed differentiation between units without a large number of units with missing information. Following methodology used by several other states in their market rate analyses, principal components analysis and cluster analysis were performed to divide counties into groups so that the counties within a group had similar rate structures while counties in different groups had differing rate structures. These analyses resulted in identifying three groups of counties. Multivariate analyses of variance were also performed to compare rates between licensed and exempt family care facilities and between provider types; these analyses showed no significant differences in rates between licensed and exempt family care facilities and no significant differences in rates between family and group care facilities. As a result, the provider types were divided into two groups for the market rate analysis: child care centers, and all group and family care facilities. (author abstract)

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Final report: 2013 Idaho child care market rate analysis [Executive summary]
Ohio State University. Statistical Consulting Service, 06 June, 2013
Boise: Idaho, Department of Health and Welfare.

The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare (DHW) contracted with The Ohio State University Statistical Consulting Service (SCS) to perform the 2013 Idaho Child Care Market Rate Analysis. The DHW and SCS worked jointly to make decisions regarding the data and methods employed in the analysis and to review and approve the results presented in this report. The goal of the analysis is to characterize the unsubsidized (i.e., private pay) market rates for child care throughout the state of Idaho. The market rate data were obtained from IdahoAEYC, the agency responsible for the state's IdahoSTARS project, which includes the state's Child Care Resource and Referral Services. Provider data are maintained by IdahoAEYC using NACCRRAware, database software that generates child care referrals and reports and manages provider, client, and community data. Provider data were downloaded via text files and uploaded into Excel spreadsheets. The providers included in the analysis were required to be active and located in the state of Idaho, and the type of care provided was limited to child care centers, group care, and family care. In addition to basic information about the provider, the downloaded data included capacity and both full-time and part-time rates for five age groups: 0 - 12 months, 12 - 30 months, 30 - 60 months, 5 - 6 years, and 6 - 12 years. Providers were able to supply their rates in one or more of four modes: monthly, weekly, daily, and hourly rates. In order to perform the market rate analysis on consistent rate data, all rates (full- and part-time) were converted to monthly rate equivalents using standard conversion factors. To evaluate the market structure, three geographic levels were examined -- zip code, county, and region -- as the basic unit for the analysis, and county was selected as the unit that best allowed differentiation between units without a large number of units with missing information. Following methodology used by several other states in their market rate analyses, principal components analysis and cluster analysis were performed to divide counties into groups so that the counties within a group had similar rate structures while counties in different groups had differing rate structures. These analyses resulted in identifying three groups of counties. Multivariate analyses of variance were also performed to compare rates between licensed and exempt family care facilities and between provider types; these analyses showed no significant differences in rates between licensed and exempt family care facilities and no significant differences in rates between family and group care facilities. As a result, the provider types were divided into two groups for the market rate analysis: child care centers, and all group and family care facilities. (author abstract)

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Full-day kindergarten: A review of the evidence and benefit-cost analysis
Kay, Noa A., January, 2014
(Document No. 14-01-2202). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

The Washington State legislature directed the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) to develop "a repository of research and evaluations of the cost-benefits of various K-12 educational programs and services." In this report, we analyze a K?12 policy question: do the long-term benefits of full-day kindergarten (in comparison with half-day) outweigh the costs? We researched this question by reviewing all credible evaluation studies from the United States and elsewhere. We systematically analyzed the studies to estimate whether full-day kindergarten has a cause-and-effect relationship with student outcomes. We then calculated whether the long-term monetary benefits of full-day kindergarten exceed the operating and capital costs. In this report, we describe our research approach and highlight our findings on full-day kindergarten. An appendix provides technical details. (author abstract)

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Household Satellite Accounts, valuing informal childcare in the UK, 2010
Fender, Valerie, 15 February, 2013
Newport, United Kingdom: Great Britain, Office for National Statistics.

This article reports on the measurement and valuation of the output of the household production of childcare. This includes all care given by parents, family members, friends and focuses on the numbers of children looked after, rather than those giving the care. It is the first in a series of articles to update the full household satellite accounts (HHSA) for the UK. The methodology remains under development and any estimates reported here, or in forthcoming publications, should be considered experimental and interpreted with caution. (author abstract)

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Illinois families and the cost of child care: FY 2013 report
Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies, 2013
Bloomington, IL: Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies.

A national report on Parents and the High Cost of Care: 2013 Report, recently released by Child Care Aware of America, outlines the reality that child care is a major expense in family budgets in all states. The report states that in 2012, the cost of child care increased up to eight times the rate of increases in family income. It also found that in 31 states and the District of Columbia, the average annual cost of center-based care for an infant was higher than that annual tuition and fees at a four-year public college. Moreover, across the 50 states, the annual average cost of center-based infant care averaged over 40 percent of the state median income for a single mother. Designed to complement the national report, Illinois Families and the Cost of Child Care FY 2013 Report is a publication by the Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (INCCRRA) intended to put valuable data into the hands of parents, early care and education programs, and policy makers to inform them in making the best decisions for children and families in Illinois. While there are no easy answers, solid data are needed to support development of policies that strengthen programs designed to improve quality and access, especially for our most vulnerable populations. The Illinois Child Care Resource and Referral (CCR&R) System has been collecting data on the rates early care and education programs charge for over twenty years. These aggregate data are presented in this report by county and compared to various factors that impact our view of the affordability of care, from household income to housing and other household costs. The data are also analyzed from a variety of perspectives including dual- and single-parent households, rural vs. urban settings, and income thresholds that define poverty. (author abstract)

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Investments and opportunities in summer learning: A community assessment of Newark, New Jersey
National Summer Learning Association,
Baltimore: National Summer Learning Association.

In 2010, the Victoria Foundation and The Prudential Foundation retained the National Summer Learning Association to conduct a scan of afterschool and summer learning opportunities for school-age children in Newark. NSLA's resource scan format is designed to capture a snapshot of the summer investments and opportunities made available by private funders, government, community-based organizations, and national service providers. For this scan, NSLA gathered and analyzed data about both public and private investments in summer programs to provide a better understanding of the magnitude and nature of investments. This report examines the methodology of the investments and opportunities scan, reports on the data analysis and findings, and summarizes the summer learning action plan key strategies developed by the Summer Learning Work Group. (author abstract)

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Kansas child care market rate study
Mercer Government Human Services Consulting, 01 May, 2013
Topeka: Kansas, Department for Children and Families.

The State of Kansas (State), Department for Children and Families (DCF) engaged Mercer Government Human Services Consulting (Mercer) to conduct a study of market rates for child care services in the State. This study is a federally mandated bi-annual analysis of market rates, designed to assist DCF in determining whether current DCF child care subsidy rates are at a level such that families receiving these subsidies have similar purchasing power to private pay families. This study is based on an analysis of data maintained and supplied by Child Care Aware of Kansas (CCAKS) database. The database contains information on all regulated child care facilities in Kansas, including child care rates and hours of operation by provider type and age of child. The database also contains information on provider accreditation and professional development requirements, which were used as part of this analysis. These data represent rate information collected for the period of January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Mercer has used and relied upon the data from the CCAKS database. In addition, Mercer received actual child care benefit data covering the time period of June 2012 through August 2012 from DCF to complete the 'Family Share Comparison' presented below. While Mercer reviewed these data and information for reasonableness, we did not audit them and are not responsible for incomplete or inaccurate data provided by the State. If data supplied in the CCAKS database or provided by DCF are inaccurate or incomplete, the values shown in this report may need to be revised accordingly. (author abstract)

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Listening to workers: Child care challenges in low-wage jobs
National Women's Law Center, June, 2014
Brooklyn, NY: Ms. Foundation for Women.

The Ms. Foundation for Women, a national foundation that builds women?s collective power though grantmaking, capacity building and advocacy support, the National Women?s Law Center, an advocacy organization dedicated to the advancement of women and their families, and six worker justice organizations came together to pursue a groundbreaking research project that examines the nexus between difficult working conditions in low-wage jobs and the challenges of obtaining high-quality, affordable, stable child care. (author abstract)

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Long-term effects of Head Start on low-income children
Ludwig, Jens, June, 2008
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136(), 257-268

A growing body of research suggests that the first few years of life are a particularly promising time to intervene in the lives of low-income children, although the long-term effects on children of the U.S. government's primary early childhood program - Head Start - remains the topic of debate. In this article we review what is known about Head Start and argue that the program is likely to generate benefits to participants and society as a whole that are large enough to justify the program's costs. Although in principle there could be more beneficial ways of deploying Head Start resources, the benefits of such changes remain uncertain and there is some downside risk. (author abstract)

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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