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2012 District of Columbia child care market rates and capacity utilization: A study of licensed family home and child care center providers in the District of Columbia: Final report
University of the District of Columbia. Center for Applied Research and Urban Policy, March, 2013
Washington, DC: District of Columbia, Office of the State Superintendent of Education.

A study of child care market rates in the District of Columbia in 2012 by provider type and child age, and also including information on provider characteristics, compensation, benefits, and out-of-school time services offered, based on a survey of 106 family child care providers and 237 child care centers

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2012 District of Columbia child care market rates and capacity utilization: A study of licensed family home and child care center providers in the District of Columbia: Final report [Executive summary]
University of the District of Columbia. Center for Applied Research and Urban Policy, March, 2013
Washington, DC: District of Columbia, Office of the State Superintendent of Education.

A summary of a study of child care market rates in the District of Columbia in 2012 by provider type and child age, and also including information on provider characteristics, compensation, benefits, and out-of-school time services offered, based on a survey of 106 family child care providers and 237 child care centers

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2013 Alaska child care market price survey report
Alaska. Child Care Program Office, 15 June, 2013
Anchorage: Alaska, Child Care Program Office.

A study of child care market rates and their geographic distribution across the state of Alaska in 2013 by provider type and child age, based on administrative data and a survey of 470 providers

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2013 Alaska child care market price survey report [Executive summary]
Alaska. Child Care Program Office, 15 June, 2013
Anchorage: Alaska, Child Care Program Office.

A summary of a study of child care market rates and their geographic distribution across the state of Alaska in 2013 by provider type and child age, based on administrative data and a survey of 470 providers

Executive Summary


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The 2013 Scottish childcare report
Family and Childcare Trust, May, 2013
London: Family and Childcare Trust.

A study of child care prices and supply in Scotland, based on a survey of local authorities

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The 2014 Scottish childcare report
Rutter, Jill,
London: Family and Childcare Trust.

A study of child care prices and supply in Scotland, based on a survey of local authorities

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2014 trends in child care
Maryland Child Care Resource Network, 2014
Baltimore: Maryland Family Network.

An overview of trends in child care demand, supply, and price in Maryland from 2009 through 2018

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The beneficiaries of childcare expansion
Ghysels, Joris, March, 2012
(CSB Working Paper No. 12/02). Antwerp, Belgium: Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck (Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy).

This paper investigates how expansion of the supply of childcare is likely to change the use of childcare services and especially the extent to which the social imbalance in its use is corrected. The empirical case at hand is Flanders, the largest region of Belgium, which has a comparatively speaking large offer of formal childcare slots, but continues to struggle with excess demand and uneven access. The latter is crucial for policy makers. Is rationing to be blamed for the underrepresentation of certain social groups in formal childcare or is an explanation to be found in other circumstances such as poor employment prospects or more traditional family values? In this paper we simulate a simple expansion of the number of formal childcare slots and investigate its consequences, in terms of how this expansion affects the use of both formal and informal childcare, keeping all other circumstances constant. We show that a large increase in use can be expected for those groups that are currently underrepresented in the formal childcare sector, even without a change in the mix of subsidised and non-subsidised service providers and without other contextual changes (e.g. maintaining the small monetary gain from paid employment for low-skilled mothers when making use of formal childcare at its current prices). Yet, we also show that while the social gap is narrowed, the childcare sector cannot be expected to close the gap entirely by itself. Furthermore our estimates suggest that the expansion of formal childcare is likely to result in part-time combinations of formal and informal care, rather than in complete crowding-out of informal care. (author abstract)

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Caring for the Dallas community's littlest learners: A case study of child care supply, affordability, and quality
Texans Care For Children,
Austin, TX: Texans Care for Children.

This portfolio provides a snapshot of child care in the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex community. It includes information on the 12 counties in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA): Collin, Dallas, Delta, Denton, Ellis, Hunt, Johnson, Kaufman, Parker, Rockwall, Tarrant, and Wise. Until 2008, the Texas Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (TACCRRA) produced county-level data on child care and demographics for every county in Texas. This year Texans Care for Children collaborated with the TACCRRA network, and particularly ChildCareGroup of Dallas, to update and expand upon child care data in the DFW area. This report also includes detailed county-by-county data on child population, demographics, and issues of early care and education in the Appendix. Throughout the portfolio are spotlights on Dallas County that provide a more in-depth examination of child care needs. Much of this data was obtained through a survey Texans Care for Children issued to child care providers in Dallas County. Due to the small sample size and voluntary nature of the survey, the data collected is not necessarily representative of all child care providers in Dallas. However, the information gathered does provide insight into some of the most pressing challenges and opportunities facing children, families, and child care providers in the broader Dallas community. As reflected in the report, many working families in the community rely on child care providers outside the home, but the availability of quality, affordable care that meets individual family needs is limited. (author abstract)

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Childcare costs survey 2010
Daycare Trust (Organization), February, 2010
London: Daycare Trust.

A study of child care prices and availability in England, Scotland, and Wales

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Childcare Costs Survey 2011
Daycare Trust (Organization), February, 2011
London: Daycare Trust.

Each year, Daycare Trust conducts a survey of local authority Family Information Services (FIS) to find out the average cost of different forms of childcare across Britain, and the availability of childcare for different groups of parents. The aim of the research is to provide information for parents, childcare providers, researchers and government, and to help inform policy development. The survey enables us to analyse the differences in costs between regions, and how costs are changing over time. This is the tenth annual childcare costs survey conducted by Daycare Trust. (author abstract)

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Childcare costs survey 2012
Daycare Trust (Organization), 2012
London: Daycare Trust.

Each year Daycare Trust conducts a survey of local authority Family Information Services (FIS) to find out about childcare costs in Britain. The information collected from these surveys allows us to monitor changes in childcare costs across different years. It also allows us to identify differences in childcare costs between regions and countries in Britain. This year's survey, the eleventh in the series, found significant increases in childcare costs at a time when parents are facing cuts to the financial support they receive from central government, as well as rising prices across other goods and services. (author abstract)

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Childcare Costs Survey 2014
Rutter, Jill,
London: Family and Childcare Trust.

Every year the Family and Childcare Trust collects information about childcare costs and availability in Britain. The data makes it possible to monitor changes in childcare costs and availability from year to year and identify differences in childcare provision across the regions and nations of Britain. This year's survey, the 13th in the series, has found that costs for childcare have continued to increase, putting extra pressure on families' budgets. The survey also highlights serious and ongoing gaps in provision across the country for working parents, school-aged children, disabled children, those living in rural areas and two-year-olds who qualify for free early education. (author abstract)

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Child care demographics 2014
Maryland Child Care Resource Network, 2014
Baltimore: Maryland Family Network.

An overview of the supply of and demand for child care and early education programs in Maryland

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Child care market rate survey 2012
Maricopa County (Ariz.). Office of Research and Reporting,
Phoenix: Arizona, Department of Economic Security, Child Care Administration.

A study of child care market rates and their geographic distribution across the state of Arizona in 2012 by provider type and child age, based on a survey of 3,930 child care providers

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Child care needs in northeastern Minnesota
Huynh, Denis Hanh, December, 2013
St. Paul, MN: Wilder Research Center.

On behalf of the United Way of Northeastern Minnesota, Wilder Research conducted a child care needs assessment for the service territories of Upper Saint Louis County and parts of Itasca County, excluding the cities of Duluth and Grand Rapids. The purpose of the study was to determine the needs and issues regarding child care in the region from parent, provider and employer perspectives. This information will be used by the United Way of Northeastern Minnesota and its partners, and hopefully the broader community, to address emerging issues and needs with child care in northeast Minnesota. This report focuses on the following questions: How do families find and use child care? What are child care challenges and needs? What does early childhood education look like in Northeast Minnesota? What should the United Way of Northeastern Minnesota do to address emerging issues and needs with child care? Recommendations are provided to United Way of Northeastern Minnesota at the end of the report. (author abstract)

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The cost of quality early learning in Rhode Island: Interim report
Mitchell, Anne W., December, 2013
Providence, RI: Rhode Island Early Learning Council.

A model of the costs of operating early learning programs within different tiers of BrightStars, the Rhode Island child care quality rating and improvement system

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Does state preschool crowd-out private provision?: The impact of universal preschool on the childcare sector in Oklahoma and Georgia
Bassok, Daphna, November, 2012
(CEPWC Working Paper Series No. 6). Charlottesville: University of Virginia, Center on Education Policy and Workforce Competitiveness.

The success of any governmental subsidy depends on whether it increases or crowds out existing consumption. Yet to date there has been little empirical evidence, particularly in the education sector, on whether government intervention crowds out private provision. Universal preschool policies introduced in Georgia and Oklahoma offer an opportunity to investigate the impact of government provision and government funding on provision of childcare. Using synthetic control group difference-in-difference and interrupted time series estimation frameworks, we examine the effects of universal preschool on childcare providers. In both states there is an increase in the amount of formal childcare. In Georgia, both the private and public sectors grow, while in Oklahoma, the increase occurs in the public sector only. The differences likely stem from the states' choices of provision versus funding. We find the largest positive effects on provision in the most rural areas, a finding that may help direct policymaking efforts aimed at expanding childcare. (author abstract)

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Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health
Campbell, Frances A., 28 March, 2014
Science, 343(6178), 1478-1485

High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report on the long-term health effects of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), whereas it is only 126 mm Hg among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, whereas none in the treatment group are affected. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. (author abstract)

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ECE Participation Programme evaluation: Delivery of ECE participation initiatives: Baseline report
Mitchell, Linda, 2013
Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand, Ministry of Education.

This report is of the first stage of an evaluation of the Ministry of Education's (MOE's) Participation Programme. This programme comprises of a package of six initiatives to increase participation in ECE in target communities where the greatest number of children without prior ECE participation live. The aim of the programme is to increase the number of children participating in quality ECE by 3,500 by the year 2014, and to prioritise communities with the greatest number of children who do not have prior ECE participation. Funding of $91.760 million was allocated for participation initiatives in Budget 2010. (author abstract)

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ECE Participation Programme evaluation: Delivery of ECE participation initiatives: Baseline report [Executive summary]
Mitchell, Linda, 2013
Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand, Ministry of Education.

This report is of the first stage of an evaluation of the Ministry of Education's (MOE's) Participation Programme. This programme comprises of a package of six initiatives to increase participation in ECE in target communities where the greatest number of children without prior ECE participation live. The aim of the programme is to increase the number of children participating in quality ECE by 3,500 by the year 2014, and to prioritise communities with the greatest number of children who do not have prior ECE participation. Funding of $91.760 million was allocated for participation initiatives in Budget 2010. (author abstract)

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Enticing even higher female labour supply: The impact of cheaper day care
Hardoy, Ines,
Oslo, Norway: Institutt for samfunnsforskning (Oslo, Norway) (Institute for Social Research (Oslo, Norway)).

We ask whether cheaper child care can spur labour supply of mothers in an economy with high female labour supply. We exploit exogenous variation in child care prices induced by a public reform. A triple difference approach is put forward. The results show that reduced child care prices led to a rise in labor supply of mothers by approximately 5 percent. A "back-of-the-envelope" calculation estimates an elasticity of approximately -0.25, which is at the lower end compared to other studies, suggesting that labour supply is less elastic when female employment is high. Since a capacity-increase was introduced at the same time, the positive labour supply effect may be a result of both reduced prices and increased capacity. (author abstract)

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Holiday childcare costs survey 2010
Daycare Trust (Organization), July, 2010
London: Daycare Trust.

A study of child care prices and availability in England, Scotland, and Wales during periods when school is not in session, based on a survey of resource and referral agencies

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Holiday childcare costs survey 2011
Daycare Trust (Organization), 2011
London: Daycare Trust.

A study of child care prices and availability in England, Scotland, and Wales during periods when school is not in session, based on a survey of resource and referral agencies and local authorities

Reports & Papers


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Holiday childcare costs survey 2013
Rutter, Jill,
London: Family and Childcare Trust.

A study of child care prices and availability in England, Scotland, and Wales during periods when school is not in session, based on a survey of resource and referral agencies and local authorities

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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