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1.

The added impact of parenting education in early childhood education programs: A meta-analysis
Grindal, Todd, November, 2016
Children and Youth Services Review, 70, 238-249

Many early childhood education (ECE) programs seek to enhance parents' capacities to support their children's development. Using a meta-analytic database of 46 studies of ECE programs that served children age three to five-years-old, we examine the benefits to children's cognitive and pre-academic skills of adding parenting education to ECE programs for children and consider the differential impacts of: 1) parenting education programs of any type; 2) parenting education programs that provided parents with modeling of or opportunities to practice stimulating behaviors and 3) parenting education programs that were delivered through intensive home visiting. The results of the study call into question some general longstanding assertions regarding the benefits of including parenting education in early childhood programs. We find no differences in program impacts between ECE programs that did and did not provide some form of parenting education. We find some suggestive evidence that among ECE programs that provided parenting education, those that provided parents with opportunities to practice parenting skills were associated with greater short-term impacts on children's pre-academic skills. Among ECE programs that provided parenting education, those that did so through one or more home visits a month yielded effect sizes for cognitive outcomes that were significantly larger than programs that provided lower dosages of home visits. (author abstract)

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2.

Adequacy of parent-packed lunches and preschooler's consumption compared to dietary reference intake recommendations
Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose, 2017
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, (), 1-8

Background: U.S. preschool children consume inadequate amounts of key nutrients. Understanding the contents of lunches packed by parents and consumed by their children can help identify areas of opportunity for the development of healthy food preferences. Objective: To evaluate the nutrient adequacy of lunches packed by parents and consumed by children attending early care and education (ECE) centers. Methods: Baseline data from 607 parent-child dyads in the "Lunch Is in the Bag" cluster-randomized controlled trial in Central Texas were examined. Foods packed by parents and consumed by children in sack lunches were observed at 30 ECE centers on 2 nonconsecutive days. Mean levels of energy, macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals were estimated with covariate-adjusted multilevel regression models that accounted for center-level clustering and repeated within-child measures. Results: Energy (kilocalories) was 602.48 for packed lunches compared to 374.40 for consumed lunches. In packed lunches, percentage of energy as macronutrients for protein (14.8%), carbohydrate (55.9%), and total fat (31.2%) were within the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) for the children's ages. Sugar (28.9% of energy) was above the AMDR recommendation. Only a quarter of parents packed 33% or more of the child's dietary reference intake (DRI) for dietary fiber. Over half the parents packed 33% or more of the DRI for vitamin A and calcium, and less than one in 8 packed 33% of the DRI for potassium. Children consistently consumed between 60 and 80% of the nutrients that were packed. Conclusions: Preschool children rely on parents to present them with healthy food choices, but lunches packed by parents for their preschool children do not consistently provide adequate nutrients. These data and the relationships between the dietary quality of packed and consumed lunches can be useful information to guide nutrition behavior change through targeted interventions. (author abstract)

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3.

Age-related differences in the relation between the home numeracy environment and numeracy skills
Thompson, Rebecca J., 2017
Infant and Child Development, (), 1-13

The home numeracy environment (HNE) is often predictive of children's early mathematics skills, though the findings are mixed. Overall, research on kindergarten-aged children demonstrates a relation between the HNE and early numeracy skills, whereas findings for preschool-aged children are more equivocal. One potential reason for equivocality of these findings is that previous studies have not accounted for the way different practices may relate to children's mathematics skills at different ages. The purpose of the present study was to explore a potential reason for discrepancies in findings of the relation between the HNE and mathematics skills in preschool. Reports of HNE practices were collected from parents of 184 preschool children (71 three year olds and 113 four year olds) and children were assessed on their numeracy skills. Parents of 4-year-olds engaged in HNE activities more frequently than parents of 3-year-olds. Furthermore, more advanced HNE activities were correlated with numeracy performance of older children, but more basic HNE activities were not correlated with numeracy performance of either age group after accounting for parental education. These findings suggest that nuanced approaches in the way the HNE is measured at different ages may be needed in order to accurately assess relations between developmentally appropriate HNE activities and children's outcomes. Highlights - The relation between specific home numeracy environment practices and children's numeracy skills were compared across preschool aged children (3 and 4 years old). Complex home numeracy environment practices were related to numeracy skills of older children, but basic home numeracy environment practices were only related to numeracy skills with younger children until controlling for parental education. More targeted measurement of the home numeracy environment may be needed in order to fully assess its impact on the development of mathematics cognition. (author abstract)

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4.

The Arizona Kith and Kin Project evaluation brief #2: Latina family, friend, and neighbor (FFN) provider characteristics and features of child care they provide
Shivers, Eva Marie, May, 2016
Phoenix, AZ: Indigo Cultural Center, Institute for Child Development Research and Social Change.

The overall goal of the analysis described in this brief, Brief #2 in a series of four, was to explore and document the characteristics of an increasingly larger segment of child care providers in this country, Latina Family, Friend, and Neighbor providers, and to document and describe features of the child care they provide. This large sample was obtained by collecting data from providers involved in a 14-week training-support group intervention known as the Arizona Kith and Kin Project. (author abstract)

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5.

The Arizona Kith and Kin Project evaluation brief #2: Latina family, friend, and neighbor (FFN) provider characteristics and features of child care they provide [Executive summary]
Shivers, Eva Marie, May, 2016
Phoenix, AZ: Indigo Cultural Center, Institute for Child Development Research and Social Change.

The overall goal of the analysis described in this brief, Brief #2 in a series of four, was to explore and document the characteristics of an increasingly larger segment of child care providers in this country, Latina Family, Friend, and Neighbor providers, and to document and describe features of the child care they provide. This large sample was obtained by collecting data from providers involved in a 14-week training-support group intervention known as the Arizona Kith and Kin Project. (author abstract)

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6.

Behavioral economics and developmental science: A new framework to support early childhood interventions
Gennetian, Lisa A., 2016
Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 7(2), 1-35

This manuscript broadly describes the potential application of behavioral insights--particularly behavioral economics--to early childhood interventions (broadly construed as parent-targeted initiatives designed to support and improve early childhood learning and development). We start by giving an overview of the current work being done in early childhood interventions. This is followed by an overview of behavioral economics and the ways in which it sheds light on early human development, especially in the context of poverty, and the intersection of underlying conceptual constructs between behavioral economics and developmental theory. We then describe the application of behavioral economic insights to programs more generally and provide a few examples with illustrative parent coaching, early childhood literacy, and home visiting program models. (author abstract)

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7.

Beyond book reading: Narrative participation styles in family reminiscing predict children's print knowledge in low-income Chilean families
Leyva, Diana, Q4 2016
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 37(4), 175-185

Narratives in reminiscing contexts are an important tool in developing literacy abilities. We examined whether parents' narrative participation styles in reminiscing contexts were related to gains in children's vocabulary and print knowledge. Participants were 210 low-income Chilean parents and their pre-kindergarten children (M = 53 months). Parents and children were videotaped discussing a past positive and negative experience at the beginning of pre-kindergarten. Children's vocabulary and print knowledge were assessed at the beginning and end of pre-kindergarten. Parents' narrative styles in conversations about negative, but not positive, experiences had differential predictive power over children's print knowledge, but not vocabulary, longitudinally. Implications for policy makers, researchers and educators working with low-income Chilean families are discussed. (author abstract)

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8.

Beyond immigrant status: Book-sharing in low-income Mexican-American families
Salinas, Maria, March, 2017
Journal of Early Childhood Research, 15(1), 17-33

Data from a sample (n = 145) of low-income Mexican-American mothers and their toddlers (9-26 months) were used to explore the prevalence of high-frequency book-sharing ([greater than or equal to] 3 days/week) and its association with maternal immigrant status (Mexico-born vs US-born), as well as other demographic and psychosocial factors. Mexico-born mothers were more likely to report frequent book-sharing than were their US-born counterparts. This was contrary to expectations, and may be representative of the "immigrant paradox." Other variables associated with high-frequency book-sharing included not receiving welfare, low levels of parenting stress, and having 10 or more books in the home; these factors remained statistically significant in multivariate logistic regression models. The findings of this study have the potential to inform not only intervention efforts targeting emergent literacy in family contexts and children's school readiness in Latino families, but also practitioners and policy makers in the health and social services. Pediatricians and other health and social service practitioners are encouraged to be aware of the demographic and psychosocial factors that can affect mothers' pursuit of child-focused early literacy activities. (author abstract)

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9.

Bornlearning(R) Academy: A school-based program for strengthening families with children under age five
Gilbert, Jaesook, 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20(), 23-49

This chapter describes the Bornlearning(R) Academy (BLA), a school-based family engagement program predicated on the notion that families come to the table with knowledge and skills and can support children's learning by building on what they are already doing. It takes place in a school building within the families' school district, and it is a six-workshop series that utilizes materials available for free at bornlearning.org, a United Way Worldwide public engagement campaign. The goal of the BLA is to increase parents'/caregivers' understanding of their role in the education process of their children and to facilitate familiarization and establishment of positive experiences with the school personnel and the school district for the children and their families. Survey data demonstrated that parents/caregivers from a range of backgrounds enjoyed and learned from various BLA workshops. Gains on content questions indicated the BLA attendees learned, and responses indicated that attendees both intended to use what they learned at the workshops in their own interactions with their children and actually followed through on those intentions. (author abstract)

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10.

Child Care Development Block Grant Act of 2014: Highlighting the new opportunities for family engagement
McCready, Michelle, 30 July, 2015
Arlington, VA: Child Care Aware of America

This webinar explores family and community engagement opportunities under the Child Care & Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014. A representative from the National Black Child Development Institute discusses their Parent Empowerment Program, a curriculum that provides parents with support, knowledge, and skills in the areas of child development, parenting practices, and healthy relationship building. The Head Start/Early Head Start parent, family, and community engagement framework is examined. Barriers to effective family engagement are discussed, as well as strategies for program promotion. Additional resources/tools for parents and providers, including Vroom and the Talk, Read, Sing program, are exhibited.

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11.

Child Care Development Block Grant Act of 2014: Highlighting the new opportunities for family engagement [PowerPoint]
McCready, Michelle, 30 July, 2015
Arlington, VA: Child Care Aware of America

This PowerPoint presentation accompanies a webinar that explores family and community engagement opportunities under the reauthorized Child Care & Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014. A representative from the National Black Child Development Institute discusses their Parent Empowerment Program, a curriculum that provides parents with support, knowledge, and skills in the areas of child development, parenting practices, and healthy relationship building. The Head Start/Early Head Start parent, family, and community engagement framework is examined. Barriers to effective family engagement are discussed, as well as strategies for program promotion. Additional resources/tools for parents and providers, including Vroom and the Talk, Read, Sing program, are exhibited.

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12.

Collaboration opportunities through dialogue with diverse voices
White, Annie, 2016
NHSA Dialog, 19(3), 104-109

This research to practice paper summarizes a qualitative study on an EHS program that utilized a narrative observation process, referred to as Journey of Discoveries, to examine collaboration between parents and teachers. Journey of Discoveries creates a pathway of collaboration for EHS teachers and parents by capturing children's learning and development through the sharing of narrative observations. Journey of Discoveries was an effective collaboration approach resulting in: (a) connection, (b) partnership, (c) building of relationship, and (d) the value of teacher and parent shared understanding. (author abstract)

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13.

Creating new pathways for dialogue: Collaboration of diverse voices
White, Annie, 2016
NHSA Dialog, 19(3), 60-88

Early Head Start (EHS) is based on the assertion that all children have explicit needs and can benefit from a comprehensive developmental program. Children benefit when families and educators work together to support young children's development. Yet, research suggests that parents and educators often do not collaborate about children's education, which can have negative impact on school readiness. This project studied EHS programs that have utilized narrative observations, referred to as Journey of Discoveries, to examine collaboration between parents and teachers. The qualitative case study used interview transcripts from three EHS programs. Findings revealed four central themes: (a) connection, (b) partnership, (c) building of relationships, and (d) the value of teacher and parent shared understanding. Findings indicated that Journey of Discoveries creates a pathway of collaboration for EHS teachers and parents by capturing children's learning and development through the sharing of narrative observations. (author abstract)

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14.

The development and initial assessment of Reach Out and Read Plus Mathematics for use in primary care paediatrics
Jones, V. Faye, April, 2015
Early Child Development and Care, 185(5), 694-708

Objective: Children from low-income families are often not well-prepared for kindergarten entry, especially in mathematical skills. Caregivers may lack the knowledge and confidence to teach early mathematical skills. The purpose of this study was to develop a parent-child activities-based mathematics learning programme and test its acceptability and initial efficacy. Method: The evidence-based Reach Out and Read (ROR) programme was adapted to incorporate mathematics content. ROR plus Mathematics (ROR+M) was developed and introduced during well-child visits. Descriptive and repeated-measures analysis of variance analyses were used to evaluate pre- and three weekly post-intervention assessments. Results: Parents self-reported acceptability and initial efficacy of the ROR+M programme was demonstrated. No change was reported in non-mathematical reading behaviour. Discussion: ROR+M was developed and implemented in a primary care paediatric setting serving primarily low-income families. Acceptability and initial efficacy was demonstrated. Randomised clinical trials are needed before widespread implementation. (author abstract)

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15.

Dietary quality of preschoolers' sack lunches as measured by the Healthy Eating Index
Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose, November, 2015
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(11), 1779-1788

Background Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers' sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child's lunch. Design This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial. Participants A total of 607 parent-child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included. Main outcome measures Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children's consumption. Statistical analysis Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/[square meter]). Results Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%). Conclusions Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet. (author abstract)

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16.

A dyadic analysis of Head Start parents' depressive symptoms and parent involvement: Sense of mastery as a mediator
Meng, Christine, 2016
Early Child Development and Care, , 1-14

This study used the actor-partner interdependence mediation model to examine the association among parents' depressive symptoms, sense of mastery, and parent involvement. To address the research goal, this study conducted secondary analysis using the cross-sectional data collected from the 2000 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey. Both mothers and fathers with children enrolled in Head Start programmes completed the phone interviews and questionnaires. Results showed that sense of mastery significantly mediated the association between parents' depressive symptoms and Head Start involvement for both parents. Specifically, mothers' increased depressive symptoms were related to lower sense of mastery, which in turn was related to fathers' increased involvement at Head Start. Implications of this study and future research are discussed. (author abstract)

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17.

Early childhood administrators' attitudes and experiences in working with gay- and lesbian-parented families
Church, Julie, 2016
Early Child Development and Care, , 1-17

This study examined the attitudes, preparation, and comfort of early childhood administrators in working with gay and lesbian (GL) parented families and the use of GL inclusive practices within centers. Data were gathered from 203 participants in the state of North Carolina using an online survey. Overall, administrators held a positive attitude towards GLs. Specifically, administrators with higher levels of education held a more positive attitude towards lesbians than gay men. Attitudes also correlated highly with administrator's comfort in working with GL parented families and use of inclusive practices within their center; however, it did not correlate with preparation or training in the field. Participants who identified themselves as very religious had lower scores on all measures used within the study, compared to administrators who were somewhat religious or not religious. Finally, most of the inclusive strategies implemented within centers were perfunctory, which required minimal change and effort by administrators. (author abstract)

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18.

Early full-time day care, mother-child attachment, and quality of the home environment in Chile: Preliminary findings
Carcamo, Rodrigo A., May, 2016
Early Education and Development, 27(4), 457-477

Two longitudinal studies are reported examining the effects of full-time day care in Mapuche and non-Mapuche families in Chile. First, the Magellan-Leiden Childcare Study (MLCS) used a sample of 95 mothers with children younger than 1 year old (n = 36 in day care). Second, we partially cross-validated our results in a large and representative sample of 10,723 mothers and their children from the Chilean Encuesta Longitudinal de la Primera Infancia (Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey). In both studies, the quality of care for children provided at home was measured with the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. In the MLCS study, additional indicators of the mother-child relationship were measured. Day care was not negatively associated with the mother-child relationship and maternal sensitivity, compared to maternal care, or with the quality of the home environment. Positive changes in attachment security were found in Mapuche children who attended day care centers. Practice or Policy: We were able to confirm that type of care was not differentially associated with quality of the home environment. (author abstract)

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19.

E-book and printed book reading in different contexts as emergent literacy facilitator
Korat, Ofra, May, 2016
Early Education and Development, 27(4), 532-550

We present 3 studies that focused on preschoolers' electronic book (e-book) reading in different contexts aimed at supporting children's early literacy. In Study 1 we researched the impact of children's age and number of independent readings on phonological awareness and word reading. We found that all age groups benefited from e-book reading, and 5 readings benefited most skills better than 3. In Study 2 we investigated (a) parents' behavior during joint e-book reading with their children compared to joint printed book reading and (b) parental mediation in joint reading of a considerate e-book compared to joint reading of an inconsiderate e-book. The joint printed book reading yielded more expanding talk than the joint e-book reading, and reading the considerate e-book yielded higher expanding talk than reading the inconsiderate e-book. In Study 3 we compared adult support in joint e-book reading to joint printed book reading and compared both readings to children's independent e-book reading. Reading the e-book with adult support assisted children in progressing in phonological awareness and word reading compared to other group reading. Practice or Policy: Well-designed e-books may serve as good tools to support children's early literacy, and when parents or educators read them with children, children's progress is enhanced. We recommend that these findings be taken into account by e-book designers, policymakers, teachers, and parents. (author abstract)

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20.

The effects of Family-Based Literacy Preparation Program on children's literacy preparation skills
Ozen Altinkaynak, Senay, 2016
Egitim ve Bilim, 41(186), 185-204

In accordance with characteristics of pre-school children's development, families' interest, need, and expectations, and pre-school education and elementary programs, it was aimed to determine the effects of family-based literacy preparation program on children's literacy preparation skills. In the current study, an experimental design with pre/post tests and a control group was used in order to reveal the effectiveness of the Family-Based Literacy Preparation Program. The independent variable in the current study conducted in a 3x3 (three groups: experiment, placebo, and control groups, with 3 measurements: pretest, posttest, and follow-up test) experimental research design was the Family-Based Literacy Preparation Program. The dependent variable in the current study was children's literacy preparation skills. Families in the experiment group received a 23-session treatment. Seminars for a period of 20 weeks were organized for the placebo group and the control group did not receive any treatment. The study group in the current research was selected from among the children attending kindergarten within a public elementary school in Etimesgut, Ankara, Turkey, during 2012-2013 academic years, and their families. In order to obtain data on the effects of applied Family-Based Literacy Preparation Program on children's literacy preparation skills, Phonological Awareness Scale, Vocabulary and Writing Awareness Scale, Turkish Expressive and Recipient Language Skills Test (TIFALDI), and Frostig Visual Perception Test were used. In the current research, covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was conducted in order to define the effects of Family-Based Literacy Preparation Program on children's early literacy skills. Results of the follow-up test were analyzed through t-test. When the permanence of program effect on children's literacy preparation skills was examined, it was observed that Family Based Literacy Preparation Program was effective on the development of children's sound awareness, visual perception, vocabulary, expressive and recipient language skills and this was a long-term effect. (author abstract)

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21.

Empowering young children in poverty by improving their home literacy environments
Evans, Walter, April-June 2016
Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 30(2), 211-225

An innovative DVD of classic nursery rhymes and stories empowered at-risk kindergarten children to control in the home when and how much they listen, promoting better listening, reading, and overall literacy comprehension skills. Coupled with modest teacher training, and limited use in the classroom, the DVD generated dramatic vocabulary growth in nine months and remarkably higher reading scores three years later. Funded by a Georgia Improving Teacher Quality grant, the study was conducted in 33 kindergarten classrooms in 31 Title I schools, each of which normally produced significantly below average test scores in reading. The study documents 459 kindergarten students' mean improvement from the 27th to the 47th percentile on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III). The 303 students who remained in the system as 3rd graders and took Georgia's statewide Criterion Referenced Competency Test in reading failed to meet standards less than half as often (7.6% vs. 16.13%) as their system peers, and scored in the highest range 35% more often (39.6% vs. 27.02%). Forty thousand DVDs have since been distributed and the DVD's ten hours of audio, text, and pictures are now freely available online at hearatale.org. (author abstract)

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22.

Engaging Early Head Start parents in a collaborative inquiry: The co-construction of Little Talks
Manz, Patricia Holliday, 2016
Early Child Development and Care, , 1-24

The purpose of this study was to develop a book sharing intervention to support the language development of infants and toddlers from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. Low-income parents were engaged in a collaborative inquiry to develop 'Little Talks'. Parents were assigned to three small groups that independently participated in intervention iterations. Iterations were sequenced so that qualitative data collected during the preceding iteration were analysed to inform modifications to refine the subsequent intervention. Book sharing interventions were administered through eight home visits by members of the research team. Starting with Dialogic Reading, qualitative data highlighted needs to produce an intervention that met a range of parental preferences and that was flexible in meeting parents' readiness to acquire new strategies. Little Talks emerged as an intervention that fostered multiple approaches to book sharing by forming and delivering book sharing strategies according to parents' preferences and needs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

23.

Engaging families in the assessment process and use of data: An early childhood example
Keizer, Janice, 12 August, 2014
Washington, DC: Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands

This webinar provides an overview of the Research Program Partnership at the University of Kansas and its work at Educare of Kansas City. Presenters share strategies for using child data as a tool to inform daily practice, to promote family engagement, and to plan within programs and agencies.

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24.

Engaging families in the assessment process and use of data: An early childhood example [PowerPoint]
Keizer, Janice, 12 August, 2014
Washington, DC: Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands

This PowerPoint presentation accompanies a webinar that provides an overview of the Research Program Partnership at the University of Kansas and its work at Educare of Kansas City. Presenters share strategies for using child data as a tool to inform daily practice, to promote family engagement, and to plan within programs and agencies.

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25.

Engaging fathers in effective parenting for preschool children using shared book reading: A randomized controlled trial
Chacko, Anil, 2017
Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, (), 1-14

Engaging fathers and improving their parenting and, in turn, outcomes for their children in preventive/promotion-focused parenting interventions has been a notable, but understudied, challenge in the field. This study evaluated the effects of a novel intervention, Fathers Supporting Success in Preschoolers: A Community Parent Education Program, which focuses on integrating behavioral parent training with shared book reading (i.e., Dialogic Reading) using key conceptual models (i.e., common elements, deployment model, task shifting) to engage and improve father (i.e., male guardians) and child outcomes. One hundred twenty-six low-income, Spanish-speaking fathers and their children were recruited across three Head Start centers in urban communities and were randomized to the intervention or to a waitlist control condition. Outcomes were obtained before and immediately postintervention and included observed and father-reported parenting and child behaviors, standardized assessments of language, and father self-reported parental stress and depressive symptoms. Attendance data were also collected as a proxy measure of engagement to the intervention. Parenting behaviors (observed and father-reported), child behaviors (father-reported), and language development of the children in the intervention group improved significantly relative to those in the waitlist control condition. Effect sizes (ESs) were in the small to large range across outcomes. Fathers can be engaged in parenting interventions, resulting in improved parent and child outcomes. Greater attention must be given to methods for maximizing parenting within a family and toward developing effective, engaging, and sustainable intervention models for fathers. (author abstract)

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26.

Engaging first generation immigrant parents of young children with exceptionalities
Ward, Hsuying C., 2014
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 18(), 27-44

This chapter discusses issues and strategies on engaging first generation immigrant parents of young children with exceptionalities. It describes challenges and obstacles faced by immigrant families and the professionals who serve them with a focus on Latino and Chinese immigrant families, given that Latino and Chinese are two largest immigrant groups to the United States. Available literature in early childhood education and nursing suggests that communication, financial stress, and cultural values are critical issues faced by immigrant families of young children with exceptionalities, regardless their immigrant status. Effective engagement with these families can only be achieved through positive attitudes, care, empathy, and sincere communication. Building the cultural competence, collaboration skills, and repertoire of early childhood professionals on assisting these parents access school and community resources will make the work of engaging these parents more fruitful. (author abstract)

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27.

Engaging parents in early childhood education: Perspectives of childcare providers
Barnes, Jenna K., June, 2016
Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 44(4), 360-374

Successful engagement of parents in early childhood education has significant implications for a growing child's well-being and success. This qualitative study analyzes the perspectives of 14 North Carolina childcare providers on how providers communicate with parents, how communication is received by parents, and barriers to successful parent engagement. Results indicated that childcare providers used diverse, parent-centered, and technology-based communication strategies to connect with families. While successful communication was common, so were barriers to reaching many families. These barriers suggest the need for programs, training, and resources to help both parents and providers connect. (author abstract)

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28.

Evaluation of the New York City Pre-K for All initiative, 2014-15: Implementation study report: Family engagement and communication
Westat, Inc.,
New York, NY: Center for Economic Opportunity.

This report presents implementation findings on the topic of family engagement and communication from the perspective of Pre-K for All site administrators and instructional staff. Sources of data include surveys of site administrators and instructional staff from a sample of 201 sites, and in-depth interviews with administrators and staff at 40 of these sites, as well as from a review of available documentation. The sites included in the study were sampled to be representative of all Pre-K for All sites and recruited to participate in the evaluation. Findings are based on self-reported data; family engagement and communication practices were not directly observed. Survey response rates were 91 percent for site administrators and 69 percent for instructional staff. (author abstract)

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29.

Evaluation of the New York City Pre-K for All initiative, 2014-15: Implementation study report: Family engagement and communication [Executive summary]
Westat, Inc.,
New York, NY: Center for Economic Opportunity.

This report presents implementation findings on the topic of family engagement and communication from the perspective of Pre-K for All site administrators and instructional staff. Sources of data include surveys of site administrators and instructional staff from a sample of 201 sites, and in-depth interviews with administrators and staff at 40 of these sites, as well as from a review of available documentation. The sites included in the study were sampled to be representative of all Pre-K for All sites and recruited to participate in the evaluation. Findings are based on self-reported data; family engagement and communication practices were not directly observed. Survey response rates were 91 percent for site administrators and 69 percent for instructional staff. (author abstract)

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30.

Evaluation of the New York City Pre-K for All initiative, 2014-15: Implementation study report: Family perceptions
Westat, Inc., 19 February, 2016
New York, NY: Center for Economic Opportunity.

This report describes families' engagement in the first year of the Pre-K for All program, and the effect this program had on participating families and children. Findings described in this report are from two data sources: a family survey and focus groups with parents/guardians. The survey was conducted by telephone with 1,090 parents or guardians from March to May 2015 to learn about families' experiences with the pre-K program their children attend. Focus groups were held at six pre-K centers in April and May 2015. A total of 67 relatives (mostly parents, with a few grandparents) attended these groups. (author abstract)

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31.

Evaluation of the New York City Pre-K for All initiative, 2014-15: Implementation study report: Family perceptions [Executive summary]
Westat, Inc., 19 February, 2016
New York, NY: Center for Economic Opportunity.

This report describes families' engagement in the first year of the Pre-K for All program, and the effect this program had on participating families and children. Findings described in this report are from two data sources: a family survey and focus groups with parents/guardians. The survey was conducted by telephone with 1,090 parents or guardians from March to May 2015 to learn about families' experiences with the pre-K program their children attend. Focus groups were held at six pre-K centers in April and May 2015. A total of 67 relatives (mostly parents, with a few grandparents) attended these groups. (author abstract)

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32.

Examining a self-report measure of parent-teacher cocaring relationships and associations with parental involvement
Lang, Sarah N., January, 2017
Early Education and Development, 28(1), 96-114

By adapting a self-administered assessment of coparenting, we sought to provide a new tool, the Cocaring Relationship Questionnaire, to measure parent-teacher, or cocaring relationships, and provide additional construct validity for the multidimensional concept of cocaring. Next, recognizing the importance of parental involvement for young children's development, we examined the associations between dimensions of cocaring and aspects of parental involvement. We investigated the parent-teacher relationships of 90 families utilizing full-time, center-based childcare for their 12-36 month old children. Parents and teachers completed a set of questionnaires. Research findings: exploratory factor analysis revealed a four factor structure for the cocaring relationship: Support, Undermining, Endorsement, and Agreement. After controlling for a number of child- and parent-level covariates, parents' perceptions of different dimensions within the cocaring relationship were associated with different aspects of their self-reported and teacher-reported involvement. Most notably, parents' perception of cocaring support was positively associated with three different forms of parental involvement. Practice or Policy: the Cocaring Relationship Questionnaire offers researchers and practitioners a means to assess multiple dimensions within parent-teacher relationships. Understanding that parent-teacher relationships are multifaceted can help practitioners consider their interactions with families in new ways, which may influence, or be influenced by, parental involvement. (author abstract)

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33.

Extending an effective classroom-based math board game intervention to preschoolers' homes
Sonnenschein, Susan, 2016
Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 7(2), 1-29

This paper presents two studies of the effects of a home-based math intervention with Head Start families. We focus on the home because young children are exposed at home to opportunities to acquire math skills even before formal schooling. We focus on low-income families because, as noted above, these children often begin school with more limited math skills than their higher-income peers. An effective home math intervention could have important implications for closing group-based gaps in young children's current and future math skills. In what follows, we briefly review children's early math skills. We then discuss children's math home learning environments and attempts to improve their early math skills. (author abstract)

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34.

Family involvement in the assessment and instruction of dual language learners
Czik, Amanda, 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20(), 143-158

This chapter explores the unique issues related to assessing and instructing linguistically diverse children from birth to five years old in early education settings. This chapter provides a literature review of how family involvement aids in accurate assessment of DLLs language development. First, the chapter provides a summary of the importance of assessing DLLs and the related gaps in the literature. Next, there is a discussion of family involvement in the assessment process, specifically the importance of parent involvement, potential barriers, and the educational placement of DLLs. Then a section about bilingual language acquisition is presented to explain how DLLs acquire English. Drawing on the above literature, the authors advocate for a multifaceted approach in which assessments are conducted in multiple contexts and data are gathered from multiple sources, particularly from parents who are extremely knowledgeable of their children's abilities and language experiences. Finally, the chapter concludes with a review of current best practices to involve DLL families in assessment and directions for further research. (author abstract)

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35.

Family involvement in early education and child care [Special issue]
Sutterby, John A., 2016
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20(),

A special issue of the journal Advances in Early Education and Day Care, focusing on methods of engaging families in early childhood education

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36.

Family literacy programmes and young children's language and literacy development: Paying attention to families' home language
Anderson, Jim, March/April 2017
Early Child Development and Care, 187(3-4), 644-654

In this article, we review the literature on the impact of family literacy programmes on young children's language and literacy learning. After defining family literacy, we present a brief historical overview of family literacy programmes, including persistent questions regarding their effectiveness with respect to young children's language and literacy learning and their propensity to promote the dominant language (e.g. English) while ignoring the benefits of bilingualism and of families' home language maintenance. Meta-analyses reveal that family literacy programmes have a positive effect on young children's language and learning development and studies of bilingual family literacy programmes indicate that they are effective in significantly increasing children's early literacy knowledge in the dominant or mainstream language and in promoting home language maintenance. This finding lends empirical support for bilingual family literacy programmes and the concept of additive bilingualism. We conclude by suggesting implications for practice and for future research. (author abstract)

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37.

Fathers' and mothers' home learning environments and children's early academic outcomes
Foster, Tricia D., November, 2016
Reading and Writing, 29(9), 1845-1863

The home learning environment (HLE) that children experience early on is highly predictive of their later academic competencies; however, the bulk of this work is operationalized from mothers' perspectives. This study investigates the HLE provided by both mothers and fathers to their preschoolers (n = 767), with consideration for how parents' practices relate to one another as well as how these practices predict children's early academic outcomes. Using an SEM framework, results indicate that while, overall, mothers provide HLE activities more frequently than fathers do, both mothers ([beta] = .18, p<.05) and fathers ([beta] = .22, p<.05) make unique contributions to their preschooler's early academic skills, but only for families where mother has less than a bachelor's degree. For families where mother has a bachelor's degree or higher, the effect of father's HLE practices is not a significant predictor of children's academics when considering mother's HLE. For all families, fathers are providing a variety of HLE activities to their young children; and, although these may occur less frequently than mothers' practices, they are particularly important for the academic development of children whose mothers have less than a bachelor's degree. Practical implications are discussed. (author abstract)

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38.

Fostering the foundations of self-determination in early childhood: A process for enhancing child outcomes across home and school
Erwin, Elizabeth J., July, 2016
Early Childhood Education Journal, 44(4), 325-333

Early childhood practitioners can play a vital role in the development of early self-determination in partnership with families. Self-determination has been generally considered to be about personal agency or control that can also relate to the quality of one's life. Young children with disabilities start to develop a range of critical skills such as engagement and self-regulation that will be needed throughout their lives. These are the early foundational skills that lead to later self-determination. This paper describes a simple four-step process and key features of foundations of self-determination in early childhood, a collaborative process focusing on home-school partnerships. The unique alliance between each dyad (i.e., family member and early childhood practitioner) support child outcomes across naturally occurring routines at home and school. Each family and practitioner dyad uses attainable short-term goals embedded in home and school routines, intentional adult cues, and environmental modifications to promote foundational skills of self-determination in young children with disabilities. (author abstract)

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39.

Gearing Up for Kindergarten: Project overview & year-end report for 2014-2015
Brotherson, Sean E.,
Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University, Extension Service.

In 2014-2015 the program operated at 57 sites across North Dakota with 973 families enrolled. Fifty-seven school districts participated and held a total of 71 course sessions. Response rate to the evaluation was 74.3%. This executive summary provides highlights of findings gathered through evaluation of the Gearing Up for Kindergarten program in the program year 2014-15. (author abstract)

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40.

Gearing Up for Kindergarten: Project overview & year-end report for 2014-2015
Brotherson, Sean E., August, 2015
Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University, Extension Service.

This project report for 2014-2015 (9th year of the program) provides results gathered from the entire year of the program's operation in fall 2014 and spring 2015. These results were compiled using feedback gathered from program participants through several different evaluation tools. These tools are briefly summarized below. The project report is divided into sections presenting results derived from each aspect of the evaluation process. It should be noted that this report summarizes key aspects of the data available for analysis, while further ongoing studies and analysis continue to be conducted. (author abstract)

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41.

Gearing Up for Kindergarten: Project overview & year-end report for 2015-2016
Brotherson, Sean E., June, 2016
Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University, Extension Service.

This project report for 2015-2016 (10th year of the program) provides results gathered from the entire year of the program's operation in fall 2015 and spring 2016. These results were compiled using feedback gathered from program participants through several different evaluation tools. These tools are briefly summarized below. The project report is divided into sections presenting results derived from each aspect of the evaluation process. It should be noted that this report summarizes key aspects of the data available for analysis, while further ongoing studies and analysis continue to be conducted. (author abstract)

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42.

Gearing Up for Kindergarten: Project overview & year-end report for 2015-2016 [Executive summary]
Brotherson, Sean E., June, 2016
Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University, Extension Service.

In 2015-2016 the program operated at 64 sites across North Dakota with 1,169 families enrolled. Fifty school districts participated and held a total of 90 course sessions. Response rate to the evaluation was 72.7% (850 total respondents). This executive summary provides highlights of findings gathered through evaluation of the Gearing Up for Kindergarten program's sessions in the program year 2015-16. (author abstract)

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43.

The home literacy environment and the English narrative development of Spanish-English bilingual children
Bitetti, Dana, October, 2016
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 59(5), 1159-1171

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the home literacy environment (HLE) on the English narrative development of Spanish-English bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. Method: Longitudinal data were collected on 81 bilingual children from preschool through 1st grade. English narrative skills were assessed in the fall and spring of each year. Microstructure measures included mean length of utterance in morphemes and number of different words. The Narrative Scoring Scheme (Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts, & Dunaway, 2010) measured macrostructure. Each fall, the children's mothers reported the frequency of literacy activities and number of children's books in the home. Growth curve modeling was used to describe the children's narrative development and the impact of the HLE over time. Results: Significant growth occurred for all narrative measures. The HLE did not affect microstructure growth. The frequency with which mothers read to their children had a positive impact on the growth of the children's total Narrative Scoring Scheme scores. Other aspects of the HLE, such as the frequency with which the mothers told stories, did not affect macrostructure development. Conclusions: These results provide information about the development of English narrative abilities and demonstrate the importance of frequent book reading for the overall narrative quality of children from Spanish-speaking homes who are learning English. (author abstract)

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44.

The home-literacy environment of young children with disabilities
Justice, Laura M., Q4 2016
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 37(4), 131-139

Some studies have reported that young children with disabilities have qualitatively distinct home-literacy environments and interests than young children without disabilities. Such differences may contribute to differences in the early-literacy skills of children with and without disabilities. This study was designed to measure three distinct features of the home-literacy environment for children with and without disabilities (frequency of storybook reading, literacy teaching during book reading, children's print interest; hereafter frequency, teaching, and interest) and determine the extent to which these may vary for the two groups of children. Parents of 692 preschool-aged children (57% with disabilities), all enrolled in inclusive early children special education classrooms, completed a comprehensive assessment of the home-literacy environment in fall of the academic year. Children's teachers completed an assessment for each child on their early-literacy skills. The home-literacy environments of children with and without disabilities was distinguishable only for children's interest; frequency and teaching were comparable. Importantly, children's interest was positively associated, concurrently, with early-literacy skills. This study helps to pinpoint which aspect of the home-literacy environment distinguishes between children with and without disabilities. Findings also suggest the potential importance of identifying avenues to improve the print interest of young children with disabilities. (author abstract)

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45.

Home visit quality variations in two Early Head Start programs in relation to parenting and child vocabulary outcomes
Roggman, Lori A., May/June 2016
Infant Mental Health Journal, 37(3), 193-207

Home-visiting programs aiming to improve early child development have demonstrated positive outcomes, but processes within home visits to individual families are rarely documented. We examined family-level variations in the home-visiting process (N = 71) from extant video recordings of home visits in two Early Head Start programs, using an observational measure of research-based quality indicators of home-visiting practices and family engagement, the Home Visit Rating Scales (HOVRS). HOVRS scores, showing good interrater agreement and internal consistency, were significantly associated with parent- and staff-reported positive characteristics of home visiting as well as with parenting and child language outcomes tested at program exit. When home-visiting processes were higher quality during the program, home visit content was more focused on child development, families were more involved in the overall program, and most important, scores on measures of the parenting environment and children's vocabulary were higher at the end of the program. Results showed that home visit quality was indirectly associated with child language outcomes through parenting outcomes. Observation ratings of home visit quality could be useful for guiding program improvement, supporting professional development, and increasing our understanding of the links between home-visiting processes and outcomes. (author abstract)

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46.

Immigrant families and early childhood programs: Addressing the new challenges of the 21st century
Moinolmolki, Neda, 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20, 117-142

Nowadays children from immigrant families are the fastest growing group of youth in the United States. Despite the fact that emerging research has highlighted the significance of strong partnerships between families and high-quality early childcare/education programs, many immigrant families face numerous barriers in accessing high-quality childcare/early education as well as establishing strong partnerships with centers. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the emerging challenges that immigrant families face in navigating the U.S. early childhood education system. This chapter first briefly reviews the literature on the role of family involvement in early childhood education within the general U.S. population. This is followed by a review of the unique funds of knowledge that immigrant parents engage in while interacting with their children at home. Then this chapter explores the barriers of immigrant families in developing strong partnerships with early childcare/education programs such as, communication, limited parental English proficiency, lack of public funding, acculturation, education, and cultural perceptions of involvement. Furthermore, this is followed by a focus on two distinct rising immigrant populations within the United States, Hispanic (specifically non-refugee) and refugee populations, and their unique sets of obstacles. Lastly, recommendations are provided for future practitioners and policymakers to support the establishment of stronger immigrant family and professional partnerships within early education and childcare settings. (author abstract)

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47.

Improving prekindergarten attendance: School-level strategies for messaging, engaging parents, and responding to absences in four DC public schools
Katz, Michael, June, 2016
Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Over the past decade, there has been an increased focus on attendance and reducing absenteeism in schools. Driven in part by continued research on the negative impact of absenteeism on school performance, future attendance, truancy, and dropout rates, local, state, and federal education agencies have begun to take action. While much of this work has targeted the elementary years, researchers and districts alike have started to focus on curbing absenteeism before the start of kindergarten. Data suggest that early grade levels see some of the worst absenteeism rates, and early attendance issues are associated with future absenteeism and negative academic outcomes (Balfanz and Byrnes 2013; Connolly and Olson 2012; Ehrlich et al. 2014). Early grade levels can also set a family's expectations for attendance and the family-school relationship, and intervening early can help establish better attendance patterns that persist throughout children's academic careers. Though many school districts begin their efforts in kindergarten, some forward-thinking districts, like District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS), have begun to track and address chronic absenteeism in prekindergarten. This report is part of a multiphase project of the Urban Institute, working with the Early Childhood Education Division (ECED) of DCPS, examining absenteeism in their prekindergarten program and strategies to address it (Katz, Adams, and Johnson 2015; Dubay and Holla 2015). This collaboration with ECED includes the input and support of the family services team, who provide wraparound services for families with children in the universal prekindergarten program. (author abstract)

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48.

Improving prekindergarten attendance: School-level strategies for messaging, engaging parents, and responding to absences in four DC public schools [Executive summary]
Katz, Michael, June, 2016
Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Over the past decade, there has been an increased focus on attendance and reducing absenteeism in schools. Driven in part by continued research on the negative impact of absenteeism on school performance, future attendance, truancy, and dropout rates, local, state, and federal education agencies have begun to take action. While much of this work has targeted the elementary years, researchers and districts alike have started to focus on curbing absenteeism before the start of kindergarten. Data suggest that early grade levels see some of the worst absenteeism rates, and early attendance issues are associated with future absenteeism and negative academic outcomes (Balfanz and Byrnes 2013; Connolly and Olson 2012; Ehrlich et al. 2014). Early grade levels can also set a family's expectations for attendance and the family-school relationship, and intervening early can help establish better attendance patterns that persist throughout children's academic careers. Though many school districts begin their efforts in kindergarten, some forward-thinking districts, like District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS), have begun to track and address chronic absenteeism in prekindergarten. This report is part of a multiphase project of the Urban Institute, working with the Early Childhood Education Division (ECED) of DCPS, examining absenteeism in their prekindergarten program and strategies to address it (Katz, Adams, and Johnson 2015; Dubay and Holla 2015). This collaboration with ECED includes the input and support of the family services team, who provide wraparound services for families with children in the universal prekindergarten program. (author abstract)

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49.

Independent contributions of mothers' and fathers' language and literacy practices: Associations with children's kindergarten skills across linguistically diverse households
Sims, Jacqueline, May, 2016
Early Education and Development, 27(4), 495-512

Home language and literacy inputs have been consistently linked with enhanced language and literacy skills among children. Most studies have focused on maternal inputs among monolingual populations. Though the proportion of American children growing up in primarily non-English-speaking homes is growing and the role of fathers in early development is increasingly emphasized, less is known about these associations in primarily non-English-speaking households or how mothers and fathers independently contribute to children's skills. Using a subsample of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N = 5,450), this study assessed the frequency of maternal and paternal inputs during early childhood and their prospective connections with children's English language and literacy skills at age 5 across White, Mexican, and Chinese children from linguistically diverse households. Analyses revealed significant differences in inputs by ethnic/language group membership and significant associations between both maternal and paternal inputs and children's skills. These associations did not differ across ethnic/language group membership. Practice or Policy: These results point to the importance of promoting rich home language and literacy environments across diverse households regardless of the language in which they take place or the parent from which they derive. (author abstact)

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50.

The influence of simulations on family engagement -- prospective early childhood educators' perceptions
Prieto, Jesus Paz-Albo, 2016
Early Child Development and Care, , 1-7

Nurturing experiences in preparation for prospective early childhood educators' work with families during their training are critical for establishing empowering relationships. This article details a qualitative case study of 77 prospective early childhood educators engaged with the Parent, Family and Community Engagement Simulation. An electronic questionnaire exploring their beliefs regarding the use of the simulation was conducted at the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain). The results demonstrate the simulation can be a very effective classroom technique to provide students with the necessary competencies to engage with families effectively and promote school readiness. These results also suggest that the simulation provided important insights into how successful partnership occurs and how to strengthen relationships, helping students to reflect on the importance of family involvement. (author abstract)

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