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1.

Adaptation and Evaluation of a Parenting Intervention with Families of English Language Learners Attending Head Start
Mendez, Julia L., 2007
University of North Carolina at Greensboro

University of North Carolina- Greensboro is implementing a parenting intervention, The Companion Curriculum: Home-based Learning Activities for Parents and Children, that exposes English Language Learner (ELL) families to the educational, mental health, and family involvement components of Head Start contained within the National Performance Standards. Specifically, the curriculum is designed to offer parents hands-on experience with educational activities that take place within their children's Head Start classrooms, in order to promote increased parent-child interaction at home and parent involvement at school. The target population includes 40-50 Spanish-speaking or Turkish-Speaking ELL children per year. In Year 1, the intervention was adapted for use with specific ELL families, and in Years 2-3, the program is being evaluated using a randomized design to determine effects of the intervention on children, parents, and teachers. Results are expected to yield new data regarding effective strategies for promoting readiness for children.

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2.

Adequacy of parent-packed lunches and preschooler's consumption compared to dietary reference intake recommendations
Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; et al., 2017
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 36(3), 169-176

Background: U.S. preschool children consume inadequate amounts of key nutrients. Understanding the contents of lunches packed by parents and consumed by their children can help identify areas of opportunity for the development of healthy food preferences. Objective: To evaluate the nutrient adequacy of lunches packed by parents and consumed by children attending early care and education (ECE) centers. Methods: Baseline data from 607 parent-child dyads in the "Lunch Is in the Bag" cluster-randomized controlled trial in Central Texas were examined. Foods packed by parents and consumed by children in sack lunches were observed at 30 ECE centers on 2 nonconsecutive days. Mean levels of energy, macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals were estimated with covariate-adjusted multilevel regression models that accounted for center-level clustering and repeated within-child measures. Results: Energy (kilocalories) was 602.48 for packed lunches compared to 374.40 for consumed lunches. In packed lunches, percentage of energy as macronutrients for protein (14.8%), carbohydrate (55.9%), and total fat (31.2%) were within the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) for the children's ages. Sugar (28.9% of energy) was above the AMDR recommendation. Only a quarter of parents packed 33% or more of the child's dietary reference intake (DRI) for dietary fiber. Over half the parents packed 33% or more of the DRI for vitamin A and calcium, and less than one in 8 packed 33% of the DRI for potassium. Children consistently consumed between 60 and 80% of the nutrients that were packed. Conclusions: Preschool children rely on parents to present them with healthy food choices, but lunches packed by parents for their preschool children do not consistently provide adequate nutrients. These data and the relationships between the dietary quality of packed and consumed lunches can be useful information to guide nutrition behavior change through targeted interventions. (author abstract)

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3.

Age-related differences in the relation between the home numeracy environment and numeracy skills
Thompson, Rebecca J.; Napoli, Amy R.; Purpura, David J.; et al., September/October 2017
Infant and Child Development, 26(5), 1-13

The home numeracy environment (HNE) is often predictive of children's early mathematics skills, though the findings are mixed. Overall, research on kindergarten-aged children demonstrates a relation between the HNE and early numeracy skills, whereas findings for preschool-aged children are more equivocal. One potential reason for equivocality of these findings is that previous studies have not accounted for the way different practices may relate to children's mathematics skills at different ages. The purpose of the present study was to explore a potential reason for discrepancies in findings of the relation between the HNE and mathematics skills in preschool. Reports of HNE practices were collected from parents of 184 preschool children (71 three year olds and 113 four year olds) and children were assessed on their numeracy skills. Parents of 4-year-olds engaged in HNE activities more frequently than parents of 3-year-olds. Furthermore, more advanced HNE activities were correlated with numeracy performance of older children, but more basic HNE activities were not correlated with numeracy performance of either age group after accounting for parental education. These findings suggest that nuanced approaches in the way the HNE is measured at different ages may be needed in order to accurately assess relations between developmentally appropriate HNE activities and children's outcomes. Highlights - The relation between specific home numeracy environment practices and children's numeracy skills were compared across preschool aged children (3 and 4 years old). Complex home numeracy environment practices were related to numeracy skills of older children, but basic home numeracy environment practices were only related to numeracy skills with younger children until controlling for parental education. More targeted measurement of the home numeracy environment may be needed in order to fully assess its impact on the development of mathematics cognition. (author abstract)

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4.

Behavioral economics and developmental science: A new framework to support early childhood interventions
Gennetian, Lisa A.; Darling, Matthew; Aber, J. Lawrence; et al., 2016
Journal of Applied Research on Children, 7(2), 1-35

This manuscript broadly describes the potential application of behavioral insights--particularly behavioral economics--to early childhood interventions (broadly construed as parent-targeted initiatives designed to support and improve early childhood learning and development). We start by giving an overview of the current work being done in early childhood interventions. This is followed by an overview of behavioral economics and the ways in which it sheds light on early human development, especially in the context of poverty, and the intersection of underlying conceptual constructs between behavioral economics and developmental theory. We then describe the application of behavioral economic insights to programs more generally and provide a few examples with illustrative parent coaching, early childhood literacy, and home visiting program models. (author abstract)

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5.

Beyond barriers: The relationship between Head Start parents' social capital, their involvement, and children's academic school readiness
O'Carroll, Kelley, 2012
(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

Head Start programs have renewed their commitment to parent involvement (Improving Head Start for School Readiness, 2007) given an increased focus on kindergarten readiness in the United States (U.S. Goals 2000) and the association between parent involvement and children's outcomes in Head Start (Fantuzzo, McWayne, Perry & Childs, 2004). Research suggests limits to some parents' capacity to be involved (Lamb-Parker, Piotrkowski, Baker, Kessler-Sklar, Clark et al., 2001), however, particularly among Hispanic or Latino parents (Garcia & Levin, 2001). Elsewhere, research suggests that parents' social capital, or resources exchanged within social networks (Bourdieu, 1986), may promote parent involvement (Sheldon, 2002). The relationships among social capital, parent involvement, and academic readiness have not been examined in Head Start. This dissertation examines the possibility that parent social capital indirectly predicts children's academic readiness by way of parent involvement. In a sample of Puerto Rican Hispanic and non-Hispanic parents (N=126) and children (N=87), I examined the associations among (1) two indicators of parent social capital -- the strength of family networks and the strength of Head Start networks; (2) three types of involvement -- Home-Based Involvement, School-Based Involvement, and Home-School Conferencing; and (3) children's academic readiness. I used multivariate regression to examine the relationships among these constructs and to build and test a path model. Results show that the strength of family-based networks was associated with Home-Based Involvement, and the strength of Head Start networks was associated with Home-Based Involvement, School-Based Involvement, and Home-School Conferencing. Home-Based Involvement was moderately associated with academic readiness, and Home-School Conferencing was negatively associated with academic readiness. The association between Head Start network strength and Home-School Conferencing was stronger for non-Hispanic parents than for Puerto Rican Hispanics while the strength of the relationship between parent education and Home-Based Involvement was stronger for Puerto Rican Hispanic parents. Findings support prior research showing an association between the strength of parents' social networks and parent involvement. They also challenge the notion that social network size predicts involvement and that more involvement is associated with greater academic readiness. Compared with parent involvement, parent education and ethnicity emerged as stronger predictors of academic readiness. (author abstract)

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6.

Beyond Barriers: The Relationship between Head Start Parents' Social Capital, Their Involvement, and Children's Preschool Competencies
O'Carroll, Kelley; Jones, Stephanie M., 2010
Harvard University

Grounded in Head Start's commitment to parent involvement, this proposed study will explore whether parents' social networks and resources indirectly affect children's preschool competencies through parent involvement in learning at home and in Head Start among Puerto Rican, non-Hispanic White, and Latino immigrant families. In order to maximize parent involvement, programs can address barriers to involvement that many parents, especially immigrant and ethnic minority parents, face, including schedule conflicts, childcare needs, and work obligations (Lamb-Parker et al., 2001). In addition, programs might also boost factors that positively influence parent involvement and influence children's preschool competencies. One such factor is social capital, or resources exchanged within social networks (Bourdieu, 1986). Race and ethnicity appear to influence the nature of social capital that parents deploy to support their children's education (Diamond, Wang, & Gomez, 2006; Louie, 2006). The relationships among social capital, parent involvement, and children's outcomes in ethnically diverse families have not been simultaneously examined in Head Start. The proposed study will extend prior research by examining social capital, parent involvement, and children's preschool competencies in Puerto Rican, non-Hispanic White, and Latino immigrant families in Head Start (n=250). Data will be gathered through interviews, parent questionnaires and child preschool competency assessments. Descriptive analyses will describe the characteristics of parents' social capital, and a path model will be tested that posits parent involvement as a mediator of the relationship between social capital and children's preschool competencies. Findings will inform Head Start strategies to build parent involvement and support children's school readiness in families of different ethnic backgrounds.

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7.

Beyond immigrant status: Book-sharing in low-income Mexican-American families
Salinas, Maria; Feldman, Heidi M.; Perez-Granados, Deanne R.; et al., March, 2017
Journal of Early Childhood Research, 15(1), 17-33

Data from a sample (n = 145) of low-income Mexican-American mothers and their toddlers (9-26 months) were used to explore the prevalence of high-frequency book-sharing ([greater than or equal to] 3 days/week) and its association with maternal immigrant status (Mexico-born vs US-born), as well as other demographic and psychosocial factors. Mexico-born mothers were more likely to report frequent book-sharing than were their US-born counterparts. This was contrary to expectations, and may be representative of the "immigrant paradox." Other variables associated with high-frequency book-sharing included not receiving welfare, low levels of parenting stress, and having 10 or more books in the home; these factors remained statistically significant in multivariate logistic regression models. The findings of this study have the potential to inform not only intervention efforts targeting emergent literacy in family contexts and children's school readiness in Latino families, but also practitioners and policy makers in the health and social services. Pediatricians and other health and social service practitioners are encouraged to be aware of the demographic and psychosocial factors that can affect mothers' pursuit of child-focused early literacy activities. (author abstract)

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8.

Bornlearning(R) Academy: A school-based program for strengthening families with children under age five
Gilbert, Jaesook; Kinne, Lenore J.; Harte, Helene Arbouet; et al., 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20, 23-49

This chapter describes the Bornlearning(R) Academy (BLA), a school-based family engagement program predicated on the notion that families come to the table with knowledge and skills and can support children's learning by building on what they are already doing. It takes place in a school building within the families' school district, and it is a six-workshop series that utilizes materials available for free at bornlearning.org, a United Way Worldwide public engagement campaign. The goal of the BLA is to increase parents'/caregivers' understanding of their role in the education process of their children and to facilitate familiarization and establishment of positive experiences with the school personnel and the school district for the children and their families. Survey data demonstrated that parents/caregivers from a range of backgrounds enjoyed and learned from various BLA workshops. Gains on content questions indicated the BLA attendees learned, and responses indicated that attendees both intended to use what they learned at the workshops in their own interactions with their children and actually followed through on those intentions. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

9.

Building Early Head Start Relationships: What Benefits Children and Parents?
Elicker, James, 2001
Purdue University

Researchers at Purdue University are investigating the effectiveness of Early Head Start services, focusing on interpersonal relationships that develop between staff and families within the program. Specifically this project will: (1) assess and describe the relationships that develop between Early Head Start staff, children, and parents; (2) examine staff-family relationships in several Early Head Start service delivery models (center-based, home-based, and community-based child care) and in relation to variations in staff characteristics and family characteristics; and (3) determine if higher quality staff-family relationships are associated with better outcomes for Early Head Start children and parents. The first year of the study will serve as a planning year for the subsequent years' evaluations. During this planning year, researchers will conduct in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 Early Head Start parents, who will be selected to represent diversity in ethnicity, income level, employment, and involvement in the partnering Head Start programs. Goals of this first year are to understand the qualities and influences of the relationships that develop between staff and program participants and to field test parent and child outcome measures. In the second and third project years, researchers will conduct a quantitative, short-term longitudinal study with a sample of at least 100 families from the participating Early Head Start programs. It is estimated that 60 families will be followed for two years while 40 families will be followed for one year. Data from this quantitative study will be used to test a mediational model of projected associations between program, staff, and family variables, staff-family relationship quality, and child and parent outcomes.

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10.

Caring Relationships with Families: Interpretations of Head Start Family Involvement in a Diverse Community
DeVries, Mary, 1998
University of Michigan

This ethnographic study explored the evolution of family involvement in Head Start, focusing on an ethnically diverse community. The two main purposes of the study were to identify those aspects of a Head Start program and its staff that are responsive and beneficial to multicultural families, and to determine the reciprocal response by these families to the Head Start program. Data was collected from multiple sources over a two-year period using two primary methods: participant observation and in-depth interviewing. The researcher participated in and observed a Head Start classroom and office activities two days a week. Full field notes were recorded and transcribed for analysis. In addition, the researcher conducted multiple in-depth interviews with families, teachers, and staff. The number and frequency of the interviews was adjusted depending on the emerging themes and patterns in the data. A computer software program was used to organize the data and to assist in textual and conceptual analysis.

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11.

Children's schooling and parents' behavior: Evidence from the Head Start Impact Study
Isen, Adam; Gelber, Alexander M., 2013
In Essays on labor and public economics (pp. 136-207). (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

There are few papers in the economics literature that examine the relationship between schooling and parent inputs. In a developing country context, Pop-Eleches and Urquiola (2012) and Das et al. (2011) find evidence consistent with substitutability between parent and schooling inputs. Our analysis builds on studies that have empirically examined aspects of HS and its impact on children. HHS (2010) investigates data from the HSIS, focusing primarily on the impact of HS on children's cognitive and non-cognitive test scores. As we describe later, HHS (2010) also investigates certain measures of parent involvement with their children but finds very limited evidence that parent involvement was impacted. The HSIS collected a rich set of data that are not analyzed in HHS (2010) but that we analyze in this study; these data show a strong impact of HS on a wide variety of parent involvement outcomes. Relative to HHS (2010), we investigate the impact of HS on an order of magnitude more parent outcomes; using data on more outcomes reveals that many outcomes HHS (2010) does not explore are significantly affected by HS enrollment. We explore the mechanisms through which the effect on parent involvement may operate, including by documenting the positive cross-program correlation between effects on cognitive scores and effects on parent involvement. Finally, we place our results in a possible theoretical context. (author abstract)

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12.

Collaboration opportunities through dialogue with diverse voices
White, Annie, 2016
NHSA Dialog, 19(3), 104-109

This research to practice paper summarizes a qualitative study on an EHS program that utilized a narrative observation process, referred to as Journey of Discoveries, to examine collaboration between parents and teachers. Journey of Discoveries creates a pathway of collaboration for EHS teachers and parents by capturing children's learning and development through the sharing of narrative observations. Journey of Discoveries was an effective collaboration approach resulting in: (a) connection, (b) partnership, (c) building of relationship, and (d) the value of teacher and parent shared understanding. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

13.

Collaboration with families and other partners: Essential features of high quality inclusion: Series on high quality inclusion: Webinar #3
Winton, Pamela J.; Beigel, Kiersten; Kavulic, Christy L.; et al., 2017
Chapel Hill, NC: FPG Child Development Institute

This webinar focuses on support as a feature of high-quality inclusion of children with disabilities in early childhood programs. Presenters discuss family-professional partnerships and related federal policies, including Head Start Performance Standards, along with recommended practices and resources that support family engagement and collaboration among colleagues.

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14.

Collaboration with families and other partners: Essential features of high quality inclusion: Series on high quality inclusion: Webinar #3 [PowerPoint]
Winton, Pamela J.; Beigel, Kiersten; Kavulic, Christy L.; et al., 2017
Chapel Hill, NC: FPG Child Development Institute

This PowerPoint presentation accompanies a webinar that focuses on support as a feature of high-quality inclusion of children with disabilities in early childhood programs. Presenters discuss family-professional partnerships and related federal policies, including Head Start Performance Standards, along with recommended practices and resources that support family engagement and collaboration among colleagues.

Other

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15.

The Companion Curriculum: Connecting Head Start Parents and Teachers to Promote Early Learning and Development
Mendez, Julia L.; Linney, Jean Ann, 2001
Temple University

Early childhood experts recognize that children's school readiness is nurtured and sustained within both the home and classroom environments. For children attending Head Start, parent involvement in their children's education enhances continuity across home and school contexts. To maximize children's readiness to learn, schools and families must engage in a process of mutual adjustment to synchronize their approaches to promoting development. This project seeks to strengthen home-school relationships to support children's development in three key areas: social competence, emergent literacy and emergent numeracy. The following goals are set forth in this initiative: (a) design and implement a home-based learning curriculum for parents and children, (b) refine our understanding of multiple dimensions of parent involvement, (c) analyze unique contributions of fathers and mothers to children's readiness, and (d) isolate mediators of parent involvement, including teacher attitudes, parent efficacy, and community cohesion variables. Through a monthly Parent Excellence series, an intervention called The Companion Curriculum (TCC) will be delivered to 150 parents per year. TCC involves teachers and small groups of 8-10 parents conducting educational activities together that are designed to enhance home-based learning for Head Start children. All parents will be eligible and encouraged to participate in the program, and all parents will receive the curriculum materials regardless of whether they attend the monthly meetings. Sustained efforts by the community research coordinators will maximize participation through removal of barriers, and accommodation will be granted for families with more difficult circumstances. We expect that families who participate and utilize TCC effectively (i.e. high attendance, reports of use, and communication with teachers) will show benefits in school readiness outcomes, parental involvement, and satisfaction. Another part of this curriculum involves establishing Family Corners in children's classrooms, where parents can informally engage their children in fun, stimulating activities. Establishment of Family Corners in Head Start classrooms is a mechanism for enhancing children's privacy and attachment to family and school personnel, while also promoting parent involvement at school. The Family Corner will consist of comfortable rugs and furniture that allow parents to sit together with their children to quietly play, read, or just talk. In addition, the materials used in the home-based curriculum will be available in the Family Corner for parents to use with their children. Lastly, pictures of children with their families will be displayed in the corner as an observable indicator of the importance of families and parent-child interaction. It is expected that Family Corners will serve to encourage parents to spend more private time with their children at Head Start, and teachers can model activities with parents if they choose. The goal of Family Corners is to provide a self-sufficient, attractive, and welcoming environment for parents to engage in readiness activities with their children at Head Start. Implementation and dissemination of TCC will be studied in multiple sites across the five-year longitudinal project. Expected benefits over time include enhanced readiness outcomes, home learning environments, school-family partnerships, and community social cohesion.

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16.

A contributing role of parental investments in early learning to Head Start impacts on children's language and literacy: Examining how mechanisms of program impact differ for Spanish-speaking dual language learners (DLL) and non-DLL
Oh, Soojin S., 2015
(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

The national Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) estimated the average impact of an offer of Head Start treatment ("Intent-to-Treat," or ITT). The HSIS was an experimental study of a nationally-representative sample of 4,440 preschoolers, across 378 centers, in 22 states, with participating children being randomized to an offer of one year's attendance in the Head-Start Program versus assignment to a control condition, under which no offer was made but families were free to continue with whatever child-care arrangements they favored personally. The impact study found that an offer of one year's attendance in the Head Start program had small impacts on children's language and literacy. Additionally, and most interestingly, the HSIS reported that an offer of program attendance produced larger impacts among Latino Dual Language Learners (DLL,) but the question remains why these particular children benefitted from the program more than did their English-speaking peers. However, the evaluation did not investigate whether changes in parenting practices mediated these program impacts on children's learning. In this thesis, I argue that a study of the key mechanisms through which the program impacted child outcomes remains central to understanding why Head Start improved children's language and literacy. Thus, in my thesis, I have unpacked the mechanisms that mediated these detected effects--through parental practices--using two complementary estimation strategies: [1] multilevel structural-equation modeling and [2] average causal mediation effect estimation, by reanalyzing the original study data. A central aim of my research was to contribute to the body of early childhood research and inform policy directions and program development by: (a) investigating whether ITT effects on early child language outcomes were mediated through parent-child language-and-literacy activities, and (b) conducting multi-group comparisons to test whether the impact of these mediational pathways differed by the child's DLL status. I found that, on average, assignment increased children's vocabulary and reading scores (effect sizes =+.13; e.s.=+.17), respectively. The randomized offer of Head Start also increased the frequency of parent-child language-and-literacy activities (e.s.= +.25). This impact was larger for Latino parents of Spanish-speaking DLL. Additionally, I found statistically significant indirect effects: 14% of the total impact on vocabulary scores and 18% of the total impact on reading scores were mediated through parent-child language-and-literacy activities. In addition, the causal mediation effects of program impact on vocabulary and reading differed by DLL status: 12% of the impact on vocabulary was mediated through parent-child language-and-literacy activities for DLL children, compared with 18% for non-DLL. And for reading, 37% of the impact was mediated through parent-child language-and-literacy activities for DLL children vs. 4% for non-DLL children. I conclude with important directions for how early childhood programs can improve parental investment in early learning for diverse groups of children, and explanations for why mediated effects differed by language status. (author abstract)

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17.

Creating new pathways for dialogue: Collaboration of diverse voices
White, Annie, 2016
NHSA Dialog, 19(3), 60-88

Early Head Start (EHS) is based on the assertion that all children have explicit needs and can benefit from a comprehensive developmental program. Children benefit when families and educators work together to support young children's development. Yet, research suggests that parents and educators often do not collaborate about children's education, which can have negative impact on school readiness. This project studied EHS programs that have utilized narrative observations, referred to as Journey of Discoveries, to examine collaboration between parents and teachers. The qualitative case study used interview transcripts from three EHS programs. Findings revealed four central themes: (a) connection, (b) partnership, (c) building of relationships, and (d) the value of teacher and parent shared understanding. Findings indicated that Journey of Discoveries creates a pathway of collaboration for EHS teachers and parents by capturing children's learning and development through the sharing of narrative observations. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

18.

Dads' Parenting Interactions with Children Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO-D): Developing a Measure for Head Start Practitioners to Use with Fathers
Anderson, Sheila; Roggman, Lori A., 2009
Utah State University

To promote father contributions to child development outcomes, Head Start/Early Head Start programs need a valid and reliable measure of positive father-child interaction linked to child outcomes. The purpose of this project is to develop a valid, reliable measure of father-child interaction that predicts child outcomes, identifies fathers' strengths, and meets the needs of Davis/Morgan/Summit Head Start/Early Head Start Fatherhood program. The new PICCOLO-D Checklist of father interactive behaviors will complement the PICCOLO Checklist developed for mothers (Roggman et al., 2009). The Checklist will be developed based on the literature on father-child interactions and validated using archived video clips of father-child interaction observations. After the measure is developed, it will be pilot field-tested and its usefulness for Head Start practitioners and programs evaluated.

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19.

Dads' Parent Interactions with Children-Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO-D): Developing an observational measure of father-child interaction
Anderson, Sheila, 2012
(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Utah State University, Logan, UT

Intervention programs providing support for father parenting skills need a practical but psychometrically strong observational measure of fathers' early positive parenting interactions with children. The primary purpose of this project was to develop a valid, reliable observational measure of father-child interaction, based on research and theory, that predicts child outcomes, identifies fathers' strengths, and will be useful for home visiting practitioners. This study sought to fulfill this need by developing a new measure called Dads' Parenting Interactions with Children--Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO-D) for home visitors to use to identify fathering strengths. Developed with extant video observations of over 400 ethnically diverse, low-income fathers, 73 positive observable behavioral items of early positive father-child interaction were tested for variability, reliability, and validity. The final measure of 21 items representing four domains of positive parenting, affection, responsiveness, encouragement, and teaching, demonstrated good reliability and validity, including associations with children's language, cognitive, and social emotional outcomes into prekindergarten. Contextual influences were examined within father ethnicity and child gender groups and in a second observational setting. European and Latino American fathers had higher scores than African American fathers. Fathers had higher scores with daughters than sons. Fathers had higher scores in a semistructured play setting than in a father-choice setting. The new measure is intended for use as part of an individualized strengths-based approach for home visiting practitioners. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

20.

Describing and Defining Dads: A Father's Role in Promoting Head Start Children's School Readiness
Downer, Jason T., 2001
University of South Carolina

Researchers plan to use a multi-dimensional, ecological approach to study father involvement within a low-income, minority population to answer several questions about influences that deter or contribute to fathers' involvement in children's learning and development. Specifically, the impact of father-child relationships on children's school readiness will be investigated. The researchers hypothesize that consistent, positive fathering has a positive impact on children's development and outcomes in the form of school readiness. Child cognitive, social, and emotional competency domains will be examined. Participants in Year 1 of the study will include 50 families (including father, mother and child). For these 50 families, father-child play interactions will be videotaped and coded, and a comprehensive father involvement interview will be completed. Additionally, a battery of instruments will be used with both parents to assess individual and family characteristics, the fathers' sense of their own ability to influence their children's educational outcome, and the quality of the parenting alliance. Researchers will also assess children's language development, peer play interactions, and ability to self-regulate in the school setting, mainly by teacher reports. Across both Year 1 and 2, an effort will be made to recruit a total of 100 Head Start fathers in order to provide a more representative sample. These fathers will complete interviews and questionnaires similar to above, but with less detail and without simultaneously collecting child data. By holding focus groups with Head Start parents and teachers in Year 2, the researchers also hope to obtain a better understanding of Head Start parents' perceptions of the paternal role in children's development, which will ultimately inform the synthesis of support services and interventions to promote and facilitate positive father-child relationships and father involvement. These semi-structured focus groups will cover discussion of Year 1 findings, perspectives on fatherhood and feelings about potential interventions to promote positive father-child relationships.

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21.

Developing math skills in early childhood
Harris, Barbara; Petersen, Dana, August, 2017
Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.

This brief discusses early math and its importance, development, and relationship to early literacy; the role of parents, the home environment, and health care providers in supporting children's early math development; and the integration of early math into Washington State's Reach Out and Read program as a promising way to develop children's early math skills.

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22.

Development of a Measure of Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality (FPTRQ)
Kim, Kwang; Forry, Nicole D.; Guzman, Lina; et al., 2010
Westat

The Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality (FPTRQ) project has developed new measures to assess the quality of family provider/teacher relationships in early care and education programs. The measures examine this relationship from both the parent and the provider/teacher perspectives, and capture important elements of family provider/teacher relationships, such as attitudes of respect, commitment, and openness to adapting practices. The project developed measures that are appropriate for use across different types of early care and education settings, including Head Start and Early Head Start programs, center based child care, pre-K classrooms, and home-based child care. In addition, a high priority of the project is to make the new measures culturally appropriate for diverse populations, including lower income and higher income families, ethnically/racially diverse providers and families, and non-English speaking families and providers.

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23.

Development of professional teacher competences for cooperation with parents
Viskovic, Ivana; Visnjic Jevtic, Adrijana, October, 2017
Early Child Development and Care, 187(10), 1569-1582

Based on the belief that professional competences can partially be developed through professional training a cycle of ten educational workshops was designed. Combining theoretical knowledge, quality practice examples and discussions, the workshops strived to improve professional teacher competences. The assumed outcome was determined by difference between initial and summative participants' self-evaluation results. Reliability of the "Teacher self-evaluation questionnaire" was determined through application of Cronbach's Alpha coefficient and is high regarding all scales (0.919 [is less than or equal to] [lambda] [is less than or equal to] 0.950). The sample is adequate and includes participants from both workshops cycles - global, held in United Kingdom and local, held in Croatia. The results of the empirical non-experimental research indicate that upon completion, in the second subsample, in which the workshops lasted for ten weeks, there was a statistically significant (p0.01) difference regarding teachers' self-evaluation of knowledge (t=-3.566) and skills (t=-3.316) for cooperation with parents compared to initial results. Neither sample exhibits a statistically significant difference regarding self-evaluation of attitudes. Teachers estimate that they have developed knowledge and skills necessary for cooperation with parents by the systematic training in a specific period of time which allows for verification and practice of learned skills. (author abstract)

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24.

Do parents know "high quality" preschool when they see it?
Bassok, Daphna; Markowitz, Anna J.; Player, Daniel; et al., January, 2017
(EdPolicyWorks Working Paper Series No. 54). Charlottesville: University of Virginia, EdPolicyWorks.

High quality early childhood education (ECE) programs can lead to substantial benefits for children, however many children are not attending programs of sufficient quality to yield meaningful developmental gains. To address this problem, states have increasingly turned to Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS), early childhood accountability systems that aim to improve ECE quality through incentives, supports, and information campaigns. Such informational interventions hinge on the assumption that parents are currently unable to assess ECE quality. This study examines the validity of this assumption, which is largely untested to date, using data from a sample of low-income families with four-year-olds attending publicly-funded ECE programs. We examine whether parents' evaluation of their child's program is explained by an extensive set of quality measures including: observational measures of the quality of classroom instruction; measures of children's learning gains; measures of structural quality; and measures of program convenience. We find that parents' evaluations of their program were not systematically related with any of the measures of quality, corroborating this key assumption of QRIS, and suggest that there may be a role for informational interventions in ECE markets. (author abstract)

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25.

Early childhood program participation, results from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016: First look
Corcoran, Lisa; Steinley, Katrina, September, 2017
(NCES 2017-101). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

This report presents data on the early care and education arrangements and selected family activities of children in the United States from birth through the age of 5 who were not yet enrolled in kindergarten by 2016. The report also presents data on parents' ratings of factors that affected their choice of child care arrangements and on their participation in various learning activities with their children. For each category of information included in the report, the results are reported by child, parent, and family characteristics. The data for this report come from the Early Childhood Program Participation (ECPP) Survey, administered as part of the 2016 National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES:2016). The ECPP survey collects data about children from birth through age 6 who are not yet enrolled in kindergarten. The ECPP asks detailed questions about children's participation in relative care, nonrelative care, and center-based care arrangements. It also asks about the main reason for choosing care; what factors were important to parents when choosing a care arrangement; the primary barriers to finding satisfactory care; what activities the family does with the child, such as reading, singing, and arts and crafts; and what the child is learning, such as counting, recognizing the letters of the alphabet, and reading. Parents are the respondents. (author abstract)

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26.

Educational Involvement Among Latino Head Start Families
Caspe, Margaret; Melzi, Gigliana, 2005
New York University, Department of Applied Psychology

New York University will investigate how educational involvement among Head Start Latino families contributes to young children's subsequent language and literacy development. The specific goals of the project are to: (a) uncover the family literacy patterns of Head Start Latino households in New York City; (b) understand how family literacy contributes to Latino children's emergent literacy over time; and (c) work in partnership with Head Start teachers and parents to create a strengths-based family literacy project and to determine the influence the project will have on parental satisfaction with and participation in a family literacy program and teachers' perceptions of parents' educational involvement. The project will collect family literacy data on 90 Latino families to assess family literacy patterns and children's literacy skills. The first wave of the project will involve culturally appropriate observations and surveys conducted through home visits to investigate family literacy patterns. In the second wave, the project will assess children's literacy skills as a function of family literacy practices. The third and final wave of the study will incorporate previous findings to develop a family literacy program for Latino children. Results of the project are expected to advance knowledge about Latino children's literacy development and provide information about how Head Start programs could improve services for Latino Families.

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27.

The Effect of Home Literacy Factors on English and Spanish Linguistic Proficiency and Pre-Literacy Skills of Spanish-Speaking Children
Quiroz, Blanca, 2002
Harvard University

Harvard University will describe the home language- and literacy-related experiences of Head Start children growing up in bilingual (English/Spanish) or Spanish-dominant families and the effects of these experiences on children's literacy-related skills. The primary research questions will be (a) How is language used during mother-child activities in bilingual or Spanish-dominant families? (b) Do bilingual families also use some of the language techniques previously found in English-speaking homes that influence literacy and language development in English? and (c) When controlling for family demographics and school factors, what is the effect of mothers' language use and behaviors on children's literacy-related skills? Participants will be 51 families in which Spanish is spoken at home (n=12 bilingual, n=39 Spanish-dominant) with a 4-year-old Head Start child. The data will consist of a home interview, an audio recording of three mother-child activities, and maternal vocabulary tests. Mothers will be observed reading to their children, completing a "homework" type activity, and interacting with their children during mealtime. A vocabulary test will also be administered to the mothers in both Spanish and English. The data will then be transcribed and coded using the Child Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES). The researchers expect to further Head Start's mission of serving underprivileged children by discovering the specific needs of Latino bilingual children. A further result will be the development of the Home-Language Status Scale, which will provide a measure of language status that can be used by other Head Start researchers.

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28.

Engaging fathers in effective parenting for preschool children using shared book reading: A randomized controlled trial
Chacko, Anil; Doctoroff, Greta L.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; et al., 2017
Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, , 1-14

Engaging fathers and improving their parenting and, in turn, outcomes for their children in preventive/promotion-focused parenting interventions has been a notable, but understudied, challenge in the field. This study evaluated the effects of a novel intervention, Fathers Supporting Success in Preschoolers: A Community Parent Education Program, which focuses on integrating behavioral parent training with shared book reading (i.e., Dialogic Reading) using key conceptual models (i.e., common elements, deployment model, task shifting) to engage and improve father (i.e., male guardians) and child outcomes. One hundred twenty-six low-income, Spanish-speaking fathers and their children were recruited across three Head Start centers in urban communities and were randomized to the intervention or to a waitlist control condition. Outcomes were obtained before and immediately postintervention and included observed and father-reported parenting and child behaviors, standardized assessments of language, and father self-reported parental stress and depressive symptoms. Attendance data were also collected as a proxy measure of engagement to the intervention. Parenting behaviors (observed and father-reported), child behaviors (father-reported), and language development of the children in the intervention group improved significantly relative to those in the waitlist control condition. Effect sizes (ESs) were in the small to large range across outcomes. Fathers can be engaged in parenting interventions, resulting in improved parent and child outcomes. Greater attention must be given to methods for maximizing parenting within a family and toward developing effective, engaging, and sustainable intervention models for fathers. (author abstract)

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29.

Engaging first generation immigrant parents of young children with exceptionalities
Ward, Hsuying C., 2014
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 18, 27-44

This chapter discusses issues and strategies on engaging first generation immigrant parents of young children with exceptionalities. It describes challenges and obstacles faced by immigrant families and the professionals who serve them with a focus on Latino and Chinese immigrant families, given that Latino and Chinese are two largest immigrant groups to the United States. Available literature in early childhood education and nursing suggests that communication, financial stress, and cultural values are critical issues faced by immigrant families of young children with exceptionalities, regardless their immigrant status. Effective engagement with these families can only be achieved through positive attitudes, care, empathy, and sincere communication. Building the cultural competence, collaboration skills, and repertoire of early childhood professionals on assisting these parents access school and community resources will make the work of engaging these parents more fruitful. (author abstract)

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30.

Engaging parents to promote children's nutrition and health: Providers' barriers and strategies in Head Start and child care centers
Dev, Dipti A.; Ramsay, Samantha A.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; et al., March, 2017
American Journal of Health Promotion, 31(2), 153-162

Purpose: Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Design: Qualitative. Setting: State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Participants: Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. Methods: In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Results: Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included--(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included--(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Conclusion: Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health. (author abstract)

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31.

Evaluation of LAUP's new family engagement model: A Strengthening Families framework FY 2015-16
Banuelos, Noelle, July, 2016
Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Universal Preschool.

In 2015-2016, LAUP implemented its first year of the Family Engagement Model grounded in the Strengthening Families and Protective Factors (SFPF) Framework. This model was implemented through a series of coordinated program activities and the intentional support of Family Engagement Specialists (FESs), who support parents, families, and children by promoting family engagement and optimal child development. The evaluation utilized a mixed-methods approach to study both the process and outcomes of the program. This evaluation approach yielded findings on program effectiveness and implementation, facilitating purposeful decisions toward program improvement. (author abstract)

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32.

Evaluation of LAUP's new family engagement model: A Strengthening Families framework FY 2015-16
Banuelos, Noelle, July, 2016
Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Universal Preschool.

In 2015-2016, LAUP implemented its first year of the Family Engagement Model grounded in the Strengthening Families and Protective Factors (SFPF) Framework. This model was implemented through a series of coordinated program activities and the intentional support of Family Engagement Specialists (FESs), who support parents, families, and children by promoting family engagement and optimal child development. A mixed-methods evaluation approach studied both processes and outcomes in order to yield findings on implementation and effectiveness that would facilitate purposeful decisions toward program improvement. The following are key findings from the evaluation: FESs experienced successes of implementation when relationships were built, communication was coordinated, and expectations were clear. Working with school districts posed additional challenges including access, contact, and inconsistent communication. Limited buy-in and communication continued to be the two most prevalent challenges to implementation and achievement of outcomes. Parents showed positive and significant changes over time on their perspectives and experiences related to the Protective Factors. One or more strategies promoting the Protective Factors were carried out successfully by most sites, regardless of the variation in overall SFPF integration. Ownership and empowerment were the top two indicators of growth and change in SFPF, and of engagement among parents and providers. (author abstract)

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33.

Evaluation of LAUP's new family engagement model: A Strengthening Families framework FY 2015-16 [Executive summary]
Banuelos, Noelle, July, 2016
Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Universal Preschool.

In 2015-2016, LAUP implemented its first year of the Family Engagement Model grounded in the Strengthening Families and Protective Factors (SFPF) Framework. This model was implemented through a series of coordinated program activities and the intentional support of Family Engagement Specialists (FESs), who support parents, families, and children by promoting family engagement and optimal child development. The evaluation utilized a mixed-methods approach to study both the process and outcomes of the program. This evaluation approach yielded findings on program effectiveness and implementation, facilitating purposeful decisions toward program improvement. (author abstract)

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34.

Examining a self-report measure of parent-teacher cocaring relationships and associations with parental involvement
Lang, Sarah N.; Jeon, Lieny; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; et al., January, 2017
Early Education and Development, 28(1), 96-114

By adapting a self-administered assessment of coparenting, we sought to provide a new tool, the Cocaring Relationship Questionnaire, to measure parent-teacher, or cocaring relationships, and provide additional construct validity for the multidimensional concept of cocaring. Next, recognizing the importance of parental involvement for young children's development, we examined the associations between dimensions of cocaring and aspects of parental involvement. We investigated the parent-teacher relationships of 90 families utilizing full-time, center-based childcare for their 12-36 month old children. Parents and teachers completed a set of questionnaires. Research findings: exploratory factor analysis revealed a four factor structure for the cocaring relationship: Support, Undermining, Endorsement, and Agreement. After controlling for a number of child- and parent-level covariates, parents' perceptions of different dimensions within the cocaring relationship were associated with different aspects of their self-reported and teacher-reported involvement. Most notably, parents' perception of cocaring support was positively associated with three different forms of parental involvement. Practice or Policy: the Cocaring Relationship Questionnaire offers researchers and practitioners a means to assess multiple dimensions within parent-teacher relationships. Understanding that parent-teacher relationships are multifaceted can help practitioners consider their interactions with families in new ways, which may influence, or be influenced by, parental involvement. (author abstract)

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35.

Extending an effective classroom-based math board game intervention to preschoolers' homes
Sonnenschein, Susan; Dowling, Rebecca; Gay, Brittany; et al., 2016
Journal of Applied Research on Children, 7(2), 1-29

This paper presents two studies of the effects of a home-based math intervention with Head Start families. We focus on the home because young children are exposed at home to opportunities to acquire math skills even before formal schooling. We focus on low-income families because, as noted above, these children often begin school with more limited math skills than their higher-income peers. An effective home math intervention could have important implications for closing group-based gaps in young children's current and future math skills. In what follows, we briefly review children's early math skills. We then discuss children's math home learning environments and attempts to improve their early math skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

36.

Families Read! Exploring Literacy Practices in Head Start Families
Daniels, Janese K., 2002
University of Maryland at College Park

The University of Maryland will explore nontraditional literacy practices in families and their relation to emerging literacy in preschool children from low-income backgrounds. Four sets of factors will be examined, including child characteristics, parental characteristics, parent-child interactions, and environmental factors. One hundred and ten African American children attending a Head Start program in Washington, DC will be assessed to determine their level of literacy, language functioning abilities, and level of participation in traditional and nontraditional literacy-related behaviors. In addition, the children's primary caregivers will participate in a home interview addressing their literacy level, nontraditional and traditional literacy related behaviors, and parenting factors. Home and environmental characteristics related to literacy will also be observed. Finally, caregivers and children will participate in an interactional activity, which will be coded for its display of literacy behaviors. Potential benefits of this project include documentation of traditional and nontraditional factors in African American Head Start families that support literacy development and use of the data to develop family literacy programs for this population.

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37.

Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality measures: Updated user's manual
Kim, Kwang; Atkinson, Valerie; Ramos, Manica F.; et al., April, 2015
(OPRE Report 2014-65). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

The Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality (FPTRQ) project, sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families' Office of Head Start (OHS) and Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE), was a four-year effort to develop measures of the quality of family and provider/teacher relationships in early care and education (ECE) settings for children from birth through age five. The measures were developed by Westat and Child Trends with additional support from a group of experts who provided guidance and advice. The FPTRQ project created five measures of parent and provider/teacher relationships, including: 1) the director measure; 2) the provider/teacher measure; 3) the parent measure; 4) the family services staff measure; and 5) the family services staff parent measure. The FPTRQ measures integrate features from three perspectives of family-provider/teacher relationships in ECE: family support/ family-centered care; parent involvement/family involvement/family engagement, and family-sensitive caregiving (see Table 1-1). The measures incorporate the features that are consistent across these three perspectives as well as those that are unique to each of these perspectives. The Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality Measures: Updated User's Manual1 introduces these measures, describes how they were developed, and provides in-depth information on how to use them. (author abstract)

Other

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38.

Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality measures: Updated user's manual [Executive summary]
Kim, Kwang; Atkinson, Valerie; Ramos, Manica F.; et al., April, 2015
(OPRE Report 2014-65). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

The Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality (FPTRQ) project, sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families' Office of Head Start (OHS) and Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE), was a four-year effort to develop measures of the quality of family and provider/teacher relationships in early care and education (ECE) settings for children from birth through age five. The measures were developed by Westat and Child Trends with additional support from a group of experts who provided guidance and advice. The FPTRQ project created five measures of parent and provider/teacher relationships, including: 1) the director measure; 2) the provider/teacher measure; 3) the parent measure; 4) the family services staff measure; and 5) the family services staff parent measure. The FPTRQ measures integrate features from three perspectives of family-provider/teacher relationships in ECE: family support/ family-centered care; parent involvement/family involvement/family engagement, and family-sensitive caregiving (see Table 1-1). The measures incorporate the features that are consistent across these three perspectives as well as those that are unique to each of these perspectives. The Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality Measures: Updated User's Manual1 introduces these measures, describes how they were developed, and provides in-depth information on how to use them. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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39.

Family involvement in the assessment and instruction of dual language learners
Czik, Amanda; Lewis, Kandia, 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20, 143-158

This chapter explores the unique issues related to assessing and instructing linguistically diverse children from birth to five years old in early education settings. This chapter provides a literature review of how family involvement aids in accurate assessment of DLLs language development. First, the chapter provides a summary of the importance of assessing DLLs and the related gaps in the literature. Next, there is a discussion of family involvement in the assessment process, specifically the importance of parent involvement, potential barriers, and the educational placement of DLLs. Then a section about bilingual language acquisition is presented to explain how DLLs acquire English. Drawing on the above literature, the authors advocate for a multifaceted approach in which assessments are conducted in multiple contexts and data are gathered from multiple sources, particularly from parents who are extremely knowledgeable of their children's abilities and language experiences. Finally, the chapter concludes with a review of current best practices to involve DLL families in assessment and directions for further research. (author abstract)

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40.

Family involvement in early education and child care [Special issue]
Sutterby, John A., 2016
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20

A special issue of the journal Advances in Early Education and Day Care, focusing on methods of engaging families in early childhood education

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41.

Go-to-Work, Go-to-School: The Impact of Recent Social Policy Mandates on Parent Involvement and School Readiness Outcomes for Urban Head Start Children
Perry, Marlo A., 2000
University of Pennsylvania

This study examines the impact of parents' social support strategies on their children's school readiness. The study involves three main research objectives: (1) to determine if Head Start children from single-female headed households demonstrate different levels of school readiness as a function of mothers' level of compliance with state welfare-to-work mandates, (2) to investigate the relative impact of maternal involvement in early childhood education and of maternal family and social networks on children's school readiness, and (3) to determine if such maternal protective factors differentially impact children's school readiness as a function of mothers' level of compliance with welfare-to-work standards. Partnerships will be formed with Head Start parents and teachers in order to identify areas of strength and school readiness in children, as well as to identify effective parent involvement and social networking strategies associated with children's development of these capacities. Participants will be 300 children and their mothers drawn from at least 12 Head Start classrooms including 150 children whose mothers work full-time in compliance with welfare-to-work mandates, and 150 children whose mothers do not working outside the home. Children will be divided into two groups depending on mothers' compliance with welfare-to-work mandates. Teachers will be asked to complete the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention (ASPI), Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), and the Child Observation Record (COR). Parents will complete the Family Involvement Questionnaire (FIQ), Family Support Scale (FSS), and a demographic questionnaire. Statistical analyses will be used to determine differences in school readiness as a function of maternal employment status, the status of each explanatory variable as a protective factor, and the importance of maternal employment status in explaining variance in children's school readiness. Finally, focus groups will be conducted with Head Start parents and staff to assess the relevancy of findings for the Head Start program.

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42.

Head Start administrator and teacher perceptions of parental influence on preschool children's nutrition education
Stage, Virginia C.; Goodell, L. Suzanne; Hegde, Archana V.; et al., 2017
Journal of Early Childhood Research, , 1-16

Parents play a significant role in molding their children's nutrition knowledge and behavior. The purpose of the present study was to explore parental influence on preschooler's nutrition education from the perspectives of North Carolina-based Head Start coordinators and teachers. Investigators conducted 63 in-depth, structured interviews with Head Start Health/Nutrition Coordinators (n = 31) and teachers (n = 32). Interviews were recorded in digital audio format and transcribed verbatim. Following a grounded theory approach, researchers identified primary, emergent themes related to parental influence and a substantive-level model was developed. Head Start staff described parental background (i.e. nutrition knowledge, culture), socioeconomic status, food preferences and parental engagement/support of teacher provided nutrition education as the primary factors that affect preschooler's nutrition education. The proposed theoretical model provides an initial understanding of the influence Head Start parents may have on their children's nutrition education. The findings suggest more training and education opportunities for parents and teachers may be needed. Despite barriers, teachers and local community partners should continue to support parents in their efforts to reinforce positive nutrition messages among preschool children. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

43.

Head Start Family Voices Pilot Study
Aikens, Nikki, 2012
Mathematica Policy Research

The purpose of this study is to help the Administration for Children and Families better understand the experiences and perspectives of families and staff participating in Head Start and Early Head Start, particularly around the topic of family engagement. This study is meant to develop and pilot test qualitative questionnaires on a sample of Head Start and Early Head Start families and staff that can be included in future large scale studies.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

44.

Head Start Services, Parents' Social Capital, and Parent Involvement in Head Start Programs
Li, Spencer D., 2007
Westat

Westat will study the relationship between Head Start services and parent involvement. Specifically, the study will test how Head Start services and parents' social capital affect parent involvement in Head Start program activities and will examine the relationship between Head Start services and parents' social capital. Data collected from the 2000 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) will be utilized. The study will test three hypotheses: (a) parents are more likely to be involved in Head Start programs when they receive Head Start services that meet their specific needs; (b) parents are more likely to be involved in Head Start activities when they have higher social capital in the forms of family, friends, and community support; and (c) services to parents and families provided by current Head Start practices will have minimal effects on parents' social capital. Study results are intended to be generalizable to Head Start programs and families across the Nation.

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45.

The home literacy environment and the English narrative development of Spanish-English bilingual children
Bitetti, Dana; Hammer, Carol Scheffner, October, 2016
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 59(5), 1159-1171

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the home literacy environment (HLE) on the English narrative development of Spanish-English bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. Method: Longitudinal data were collected on 81 bilingual children from preschool through 1st grade. English narrative skills were assessed in the fall and spring of each year. Microstructure measures included mean length of utterance in morphemes and number of different words. The Narrative Scoring Scheme (Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts, & Dunaway, 2010) measured macrostructure. Each fall, the children's mothers reported the frequency of literacy activities and number of children's books in the home. Growth curve modeling was used to describe the children's narrative development and the impact of the HLE over time. Results: Significant growth occurred for all narrative measures. The HLE did not affect microstructure growth. The frequency with which mothers read to their children had a positive impact on the growth of the children's total Narrative Scoring Scheme scores. Other aspects of the HLE, such as the frequency with which the mothers told stories, did not affect macrostructure development. Conclusions: These results provide information about the development of English narrative abilities and demonstrate the importance of frequent book reading for the overall narrative quality of children from Spanish-speaking homes who are learning English. (author abstract)

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46.

Home literacy experiences and their relationship to bilingual preschoolers' developing English literacy abilities: An initial investigation
Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miccio, Adele; Wagstaff, David; et al., January, 2003
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34(1), 20-30

Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between home literacy experiences and bilingual preschoolers' early literacy outcomes. Method: Forty-three Puerto Rican mother-child dyads recruited from Head Start programs in central Pennsylvania participated in this study of home literacy experiences and emerging English literacy abilities. The dyads were grouped according to whether the children had learned Spanish and English from birth (simultaneously; n = 28) or Spanish from birth and English in Head Start (sequentially; n = 15). Mothers of simultaneous and sequential learners were compared on the value they placed on literacy, press for achievement, the number of reading materials that were available in the home, and how often they read to their child. The children were compared on their scores on the Test of Early Reading Ability-2 (Reid, Hresko, & Hammill, 1991), which was given during the first and second years of their Head Start program. Results: Mothers of simultaneous and sequential learners differed with regard to mothers' press for achievement. No differences were found between the two groups with respect to the other measures. When the early literacy abilities of the two groups of children were assessed, all learners had comparable mean emergent reading scores. The mean literacy scores of the entire group of children were significantly lower at Year 2 as compared to Year 1. Clinical Implications: Although the children experienced literacy activities at home and in Head Start, it appears that children's literacy development would benefit from increased exposure to literacy materials and literacy events during the preschool years. (author abstract)

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47.

How do Head Start staff characteristics relate to parent involvement and satisfaction?
Barnes, Helen V.; Levin, Marjorie; Garcia, Gabriella; et al., April, 1999
Presentation at Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting. Albuquerque, NM.

This poster reports descriptive information collected for the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) conducted for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families. It includes: -Head Start staff experience, education, and training; -Staff-reported information about how parent volunteers are utilized and the types and frequency of contacts between Head Start staff and parents; -Teacher-reported information about the types and frequencies of activities for children in Head Start classrooms. In addition, the poster includes descriptions of the relationships of staff-reported information and three aspects of parent-reported information. These are: (1) parent satisfaction; (2) parent participation in the Head Start program; and, (3) changes in parent-child activities at home over the program year. (author abstract)

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48.

Immigrant families and early childhood programs: Addressing the new challenges of the 21st century
Moinolmolki, Neda; Han, Myae; Gaviria-Loaiza, Juana; et al., 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20, 117-142

Nowadays children from immigrant families are the fastest growing group of youth in the United States. Despite the fact that emerging research has highlighted the significance of strong partnerships between families and high-quality early childcare/education programs, many immigrant families face numerous barriers in accessing high-quality childcare/early education as well as establishing strong partnerships with centers. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the emerging challenges that immigrant families face in navigating the U.S. early childhood education system. This chapter first briefly reviews the literature on the role of family involvement in early childhood education within the general U.S. population. This is followed by a review of the unique funds of knowledge that immigrant parents engage in while interacting with their children at home. Then this chapter explores the barriers of immigrant families in developing strong partnerships with early childcare/education programs such as, communication, limited parental English proficiency, lack of public funding, acculturation, education, and cultural perceptions of involvement. Furthermore, this is followed by a focus on two distinct rising immigrant populations within the United States, Hispanic (specifically non-refugee) and refugee populations, and their unique sets of obstacles. Lastly, recommendations are provided for future practitioners and policymakers to support the establishment of stronger immigrant family and professional partnerships within early education and childcare settings. (author abstract)

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49.

The Impact of Family Involvement on Head Start Children's School Readiness
Iruka, Iheoma U., 2003
University of Miami

The purpose of this project is to better understand the effects of parental involvement and parental self-efficacy on Head Start children's approaches to learning and school readiness. The first goal is to develop a specific questionnaire that measures parents' involvement and their self-efficacy in enhancing their children's approaches to learning and other school readiness domains. This measure of parent's self-efficacy will capture global competencies, in addition to specific competencies relating to approaches to learning and children's school readiness. The second goal is to determine the impact of parental self-efficacy on parents' involvement. The third goal is to test a path model which will focus on parental involvement and self-efficacy and how each component relates to children's outcomes of school readiness, and specifically approaches to learning and broad school readiness areas. This project will use the partnership model, which gives a "voice" to participating Head Start centers and parents and enables them to be active leaders as opposed to passive participant in the project. In addition to data gathered from parents, we will also collect data on children through a multi-method and multi-informant approach, including direct assessments of children and teacher reports of children's behaviors.

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50.

Incorporating an Attachment Q-Set into Parent-Child Relationship Assessment and Support in Early Head Start
Spieker, Susan, 2004
University of Washington

The University of Washington-Puget Sound Educational Service District Early Head Start (EHS) Program Partnership assessed the reliability, validity, and utility of the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS45) for measuring parent-child attachment relationships for low-income children. Project staff trained staff and supervisors at the EHS program to use and incorporate the TAS45 into periodic assessments of child development and parent-child interactions. Further, the project planned to develop a dissemination package promoting the use of the TAS45 to assess and support parent-child attachment relationships. Participants included children in home-based and center-based EHS programs. Project results contribute to the body of knowledge about the adaptation of research-based tools into best practices of an EHS program.

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