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1.

The added impact of parenting education in early childhood education programs: A meta-analysis
Grindal, Todd, November, 2016
Children and Youth Services Review, 70, 238-249

Many early childhood education (ECE) programs seek to enhance parents' capacities to support their children's development. Using a meta-analytic database of 46 studies of ECE programs that served children age three to five-years-old, we examine the benefits to children's cognitive and pre-academic skills of adding parenting education to ECE programs for children and consider the differential impacts of: 1) parenting education programs of any type; 2) parenting education programs that provided parents with modeling of or opportunities to practice stimulating behaviors and 3) parenting education programs that were delivered through intensive home visiting. The results of the study call into question some general longstanding assertions regarding the benefits of including parenting education in early childhood programs. We find no differences in program impacts between ECE programs that did and did not provide some form of parenting education. We find some suggestive evidence that among ECE programs that provided parenting education, those that provided parents with opportunities to practice parenting skills were associated with greater short-term impacts on children's pre-academic skills. Among ECE programs that provided parenting education, those that did so through one or more home visits a month yielded effect sizes for cognitive outcomes that were significantly larger than programs that provided lower dosages of home visits. (author abstract)

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2.

Adequacy of parent-packed lunches and preschooler's consumption compared to dietary reference intake recommendations
Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose, 2017
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 36(3), 169-176

Background: U.S. preschool children consume inadequate amounts of key nutrients. Understanding the contents of lunches packed by parents and consumed by their children can help identify areas of opportunity for the development of healthy food preferences. Objective: To evaluate the nutrient adequacy of lunches packed by parents and consumed by children attending early care and education (ECE) centers. Methods: Baseline data from 607 parent-child dyads in the "Lunch Is in the Bag" cluster-randomized controlled trial in Central Texas were examined. Foods packed by parents and consumed by children in sack lunches were observed at 30 ECE centers on 2 nonconsecutive days. Mean levels of energy, macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals were estimated with covariate-adjusted multilevel regression models that accounted for center-level clustering and repeated within-child measures. Results: Energy (kilocalories) was 602.48 for packed lunches compared to 374.40 for consumed lunches. In packed lunches, percentage of energy as macronutrients for protein (14.8%), carbohydrate (55.9%), and total fat (31.2%) were within the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) for the children's ages. Sugar (28.9% of energy) was above the AMDR recommendation. Only a quarter of parents packed 33% or more of the child's dietary reference intake (DRI) for dietary fiber. Over half the parents packed 33% or more of the DRI for vitamin A and calcium, and less than one in 8 packed 33% of the DRI for potassium. Children consistently consumed between 60 and 80% of the nutrients that were packed. Conclusions: Preschool children rely on parents to present them with healthy food choices, but lunches packed by parents for their preschool children do not consistently provide adequate nutrients. These data and the relationships between the dietary quality of packed and consumed lunches can be useful information to guide nutrition behavior change through targeted interventions. (author abstract)

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3.

Age-related differences in the relation between the home numeracy environment and numeracy skills
Thompson, Rebecca J., 2017
Infant and Child Development, , 1-13

The home numeracy environment (HNE) is often predictive of children's early mathematics skills, though the findings are mixed. Overall, research on kindergarten-aged children demonstrates a relation between the HNE and early numeracy skills, whereas findings for preschool-aged children are more equivocal. One potential reason for equivocality of these findings is that previous studies have not accounted for the way different practices may relate to children's mathematics skills at different ages. The purpose of the present study was to explore a potential reason for discrepancies in findings of the relation between the HNE and mathematics skills in preschool. Reports of HNE practices were collected from parents of 184 preschool children (71 three year olds and 113 four year olds) and children were assessed on their numeracy skills. Parents of 4-year-olds engaged in HNE activities more frequently than parents of 3-year-olds. Furthermore, more advanced HNE activities were correlated with numeracy performance of older children, but more basic HNE activities were not correlated with numeracy performance of either age group after accounting for parental education. These findings suggest that nuanced approaches in the way the HNE is measured at different ages may be needed in order to accurately assess relations between developmentally appropriate HNE activities and children's outcomes. Highlights - The relation between specific home numeracy environment practices and children's numeracy skills were compared across preschool aged children (3 and 4 years old). Complex home numeracy environment practices were related to numeracy skills of older children, but basic home numeracy environment practices were only related to numeracy skills with younger children until controlling for parental education. More targeted measurement of the home numeracy environment may be needed in order to fully assess its impact on the development of mathematics cognition. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

4.

The Arizona Kith and Kin Project evaluation brief #2: Latina family, friend, and neighbor (FFN) provider characteristics and features of child care they provide
Shivers, Eva Marie, May, 2016
Phoenix, AZ: Indigo Cultural Center, Institute for Child Development Research and Social Change.

The overall goal of the analysis described in this brief, Brief #2 in a series of four, was to explore and document the characteristics of an increasingly larger segment of child care providers in this country, Latina Family, Friend, and Neighbor providers, and to document and describe features of the child care they provide. This large sample was obtained by collecting data from providers involved in a 14-week training-support group intervention known as the Arizona Kith and Kin Project. (author abstract)

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5.

The Arizona Kith and Kin Project evaluation brief #2: Latina family, friend, and neighbor (FFN) provider characteristics and features of child care they provide [Executive summary]
Shivers, Eva Marie, May, 2016
Phoenix, AZ: Indigo Cultural Center, Institute for Child Development Research and Social Change.

The overall goal of the analysis described in this brief, Brief #2 in a series of four, was to explore and document the characteristics of an increasingly larger segment of child care providers in this country, Latina Family, Friend, and Neighbor providers, and to document and describe features of the child care they provide. This large sample was obtained by collecting data from providers involved in a 14-week training-support group intervention known as the Arizona Kith and Kin Project. (author abstract)

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6.

Behavioral economics and developmental science: A new framework to support early childhood interventions
Gennetian, Lisa A., 2016
Journal of Applied Research on Children, 7(2), 1-35

This manuscript broadly describes the potential application of behavioral insights--particularly behavioral economics--to early childhood interventions (broadly construed as parent-targeted initiatives designed to support and improve early childhood learning and development). We start by giving an overview of the current work being done in early childhood interventions. This is followed by an overview of behavioral economics and the ways in which it sheds light on early human development, especially in the context of poverty, and the intersection of underlying conceptual constructs between behavioral economics and developmental theory. We then describe the application of behavioral economic insights to programs more generally and provide a few examples with illustrative parent coaching, early childhood literacy, and home visiting program models. (author abstract)

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7.

Beyond book reading: Narrative participation styles in family reminiscing predict children's print knowledge in low-income Chilean families
Leyva, Diana, Q4 2016
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 37(4), 175-185

Narratives in reminiscing contexts are an important tool in developing literacy abilities. We examined whether parents' narrative participation styles in reminiscing contexts were related to gains in children's vocabulary and print knowledge. Participants were 210 low-income Chilean parents and their pre-kindergarten children (M = 53 months). Parents and children were videotaped discussing a past positive and negative experience at the beginning of pre-kindergarten. Children's vocabulary and print knowledge were assessed at the beginning and end of pre-kindergarten. Parents' narrative styles in conversations about negative, but not positive, experiences had differential predictive power over children's print knowledge, but not vocabulary, longitudinally. Implications for policy makers, researchers and educators working with low-income Chilean families are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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8.

Beyond immigrant status: Book-sharing in low-income Mexican-American families
Salinas, Maria, March, 2017
Journal of Early Childhood Research, 15(1), 17-33

Data from a sample (n = 145) of low-income Mexican-American mothers and their toddlers (9-26 months) were used to explore the prevalence of high-frequency book-sharing ([greater than or equal to] 3 days/week) and its association with maternal immigrant status (Mexico-born vs US-born), as well as other demographic and psychosocial factors. Mexico-born mothers were more likely to report frequent book-sharing than were their US-born counterparts. This was contrary to expectations, and may be representative of the "immigrant paradox." Other variables associated with high-frequency book-sharing included not receiving welfare, low levels of parenting stress, and having 10 or more books in the home; these factors remained statistically significant in multivariate logistic regression models. The findings of this study have the potential to inform not only intervention efforts targeting emergent literacy in family contexts and children's school readiness in Latino families, but also practitioners and policy makers in the health and social services. Pediatricians and other health and social service practitioners are encouraged to be aware of the demographic and psychosocial factors that can affect mothers' pursuit of child-focused early literacy activities. (author abstract)

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9.

Bornlearning(R) Academy: A school-based program for strengthening families with children under age five
Gilbert, Jaesook, 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20, 23-49

This chapter describes the Bornlearning(R) Academy (BLA), a school-based family engagement program predicated on the notion that families come to the table with knowledge and skills and can support children's learning by building on what they are already doing. It takes place in a school building within the families' school district, and it is a six-workshop series that utilizes materials available for free at bornlearning.org, a United Way Worldwide public engagement campaign. The goal of the BLA is to increase parents'/caregivers' understanding of their role in the education process of their children and to facilitate familiarization and establishment of positive experiences with the school personnel and the school district for the children and their families. Survey data demonstrated that parents/caregivers from a range of backgrounds enjoyed and learned from various BLA workshops. Gains on content questions indicated the BLA attendees learned, and responses indicated that attendees both intended to use what they learned at the workshops in their own interactions with their children and actually followed through on those intentions. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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10.

Collaboration opportunities through dialogue with diverse voices
White, Annie, 2016
NHSA Dialog, 19(3), 104-109

This research to practice paper summarizes a qualitative study on an EHS program that utilized a narrative observation process, referred to as Journey of Discoveries, to examine collaboration between parents and teachers. Journey of Discoveries creates a pathway of collaboration for EHS teachers and parents by capturing children's learning and development through the sharing of narrative observations. Journey of Discoveries was an effective collaboration approach resulting in: (a) connection, (b) partnership, (c) building of relationship, and (d) the value of teacher and parent shared understanding. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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11.

Creating new pathways for dialogue: Collaboration of diverse voices
White, Annie, 2016
NHSA Dialog, 19(3), 60-88

Early Head Start (EHS) is based on the assertion that all children have explicit needs and can benefit from a comprehensive developmental program. Children benefit when families and educators work together to support young children's development. Yet, research suggests that parents and educators often do not collaborate about children's education, which can have negative impact on school readiness. This project studied EHS programs that have utilized narrative observations, referred to as Journey of Discoveries, to examine collaboration between parents and teachers. The qualitative case study used interview transcripts from three EHS programs. Findings revealed four central themes: (a) connection, (b) partnership, (c) building of relationships, and (d) the value of teacher and parent shared understanding. Findings indicated that Journey of Discoveries creates a pathway of collaboration for EHS teachers and parents by capturing children's learning and development through the sharing of narrative observations. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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12.

Dietary quality of preschoolers' sack lunches as measured by the Healthy Eating Index
Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose, November, 2015
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(11), 1779-1788

Background Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers' sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child's lunch. Design This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial. Participants A total of 607 parent-child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included. Main outcome measures Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children's consumption. Statistical analysis Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/[square meter]). Results Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%). Conclusions Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet. (author abstract)

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13.

Do parents know "high quality" preschool when they see it?
Bassok, Daphna, January, 2017
(EdPolicyWorks Working Paper Series No. 54). Charlottesville: University of Virginia, EdPolicyWorks.

High quality early childhood education (ECE) programs can lead to substantial benefits for children, however many children are not attending programs of sufficient quality to yield meaningful developmental gains. To address this problem, states have increasingly turned to Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS), early childhood accountability systems that aim to improve ECE quality through incentives, supports, and information campaigns. Such informational interventions hinge on the assumption that parents are currently unable to assess ECE quality. This study examines the validity of this assumption, which is largely untested to date, using data from a sample of low-income families with four-year-olds attending publicly-funded ECE programs. We examine whether parents' evaluation of their child's program is explained by an extensive set of quality measures including: observational measures of the quality of classroom instruction; measures of children's learning gains; measures of structural quality; and measures of program convenience. We find that parents' evaluations of their program were not systematically related with any of the measures of quality, corroborating this key assumption of QRIS, and suggest that there may be a role for informational interventions in ECE markets. (author abstract)

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14.

Early childhood administrators' attitudes and experiences in working with gay- and lesbian-parented families
Church, Julie, 2016
Early Child Development and Care, , 1-17

This study examined the attitudes, preparation, and comfort of early childhood administrators in working with gay and lesbian (GL) parented families and the use of GL inclusive practices within centers. Data were gathered from 203 participants in the state of North Carolina using an online survey. Overall, administrators held a positive attitude towards GLs. Specifically, administrators with higher levels of education held a more positive attitude towards lesbians than gay men. Attitudes also correlated highly with administrator's comfort in working with GL parented families and use of inclusive practices within their center; however, it did not correlate with preparation or training in the field. Participants who identified themselves as very religious had lower scores on all measures used within the study, compared to administrators who were somewhat religious or not religious. Finally, most of the inclusive strategies implemented within centers were perfunctory, which required minimal change and effort by administrators. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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15.

The effects of Family-Based Literacy Preparation Program on children's literacy preparation skills
Ozen Altinkaynak, Senay, 2016
Egitim ve Bilim, 41(186), 185-204

In accordance with characteristics of pre-school children's development, families' interest, need, and expectations, and pre-school education and elementary programs, it was aimed to determine the effects of family-based literacy preparation program on children's literacy preparation skills. In the current study, an experimental design with pre/post tests and a control group was used in order to reveal the effectiveness of the Family-Based Literacy Preparation Program. The independent variable in the current study conducted in a 3x3 (three groups: experiment, placebo, and control groups, with 3 measurements: pretest, posttest, and follow-up test) experimental research design was the Family-Based Literacy Preparation Program. The dependent variable in the current study was children's literacy preparation skills. Families in the experiment group received a 23-session treatment. Seminars for a period of 20 weeks were organized for the placebo group and the control group did not receive any treatment. The study group in the current research was selected from among the children attending kindergarten within a public elementary school in Etimesgut, Ankara, Turkey, during 2012-2013 academic years, and their families. In order to obtain data on the effects of applied Family-Based Literacy Preparation Program on children's literacy preparation skills, Phonological Awareness Scale, Vocabulary and Writing Awareness Scale, Turkish Expressive and Recipient Language Skills Test (TIFALDI), and Frostig Visual Perception Test were used. In the current research, covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was conducted in order to define the effects of Family-Based Literacy Preparation Program on children's early literacy skills. Results of the follow-up test were analyzed through t-test. When the permanence of program effect on children's literacy preparation skills was examined, it was observed that Family Based Literacy Preparation Program was effective on the development of children's sound awareness, visual perception, vocabulary, expressive and recipient language skills and this was a long-term effect. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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16.

Engaging fathers in effective parenting for preschool children using shared book reading: A randomized controlled trial
Chacko, Anil, 2017
Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, , 1-14

Engaging fathers and improving their parenting and, in turn, outcomes for their children in preventive/promotion-focused parenting interventions has been a notable, but understudied, challenge in the field. This study evaluated the effects of a novel intervention, Fathers Supporting Success in Preschoolers: A Community Parent Education Program, which focuses on integrating behavioral parent training with shared book reading (i.e., Dialogic Reading) using key conceptual models (i.e., common elements, deployment model, task shifting) to engage and improve father (i.e., male guardians) and child outcomes. One hundred twenty-six low-income, Spanish-speaking fathers and their children were recruited across three Head Start centers in urban communities and were randomized to the intervention or to a waitlist control condition. Outcomes were obtained before and immediately postintervention and included observed and father-reported parenting and child behaviors, standardized assessments of language, and father self-reported parental stress and depressive symptoms. Attendance data were also collected as a proxy measure of engagement to the intervention. Parenting behaviors (observed and father-reported), child behaviors (father-reported), and language development of the children in the intervention group improved significantly relative to those in the waitlist control condition. Effect sizes (ESs) were in the small to large range across outcomes. Fathers can be engaged in parenting interventions, resulting in improved parent and child outcomes. Greater attention must be given to methods for maximizing parenting within a family and toward developing effective, engaging, and sustainable intervention models for fathers. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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17.

Engaging first generation immigrant parents of young children with exceptionalities
Ward, Hsuying C., 2014
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 18, 27-44

This chapter discusses issues and strategies on engaging first generation immigrant parents of young children with exceptionalities. It describes challenges and obstacles faced by immigrant families and the professionals who serve them with a focus on Latino and Chinese immigrant families, given that Latino and Chinese are two largest immigrant groups to the United States. Available literature in early childhood education and nursing suggests that communication, financial stress, and cultural values are critical issues faced by immigrant families of young children with exceptionalities, regardless their immigrant status. Effective engagement with these families can only be achieved through positive attitudes, care, empathy, and sincere communication. Building the cultural competence, collaboration skills, and repertoire of early childhood professionals on assisting these parents access school and community resources will make the work of engaging these parents more fruitful. (author abstract)

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18.

Engaging parents to promote children's nutrition and health: Providers' barriers and strategies in Head Start and child care centers
Dev, Dipti A., March, 2017
American Journal of Health Promotion, 31(2), 153-162

Purpose: Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Design: Qualitative. Setting: State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Participants: Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. Methods: In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Results: Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included--(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included--(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Conclusion: Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health. (author abstract)

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19.

Evaluation of LAUP's new family engagement model: A Strengthening Families framework FY 2015-16
Banuelos, Noelle, July, 2016
Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Universal Preschool.

In 2015-2016, LAUP implemented its first year of the Family Engagement Model grounded in the Strengthening Families and Protective Factors (SFPF) Framework. This model was implemented through a series of coordinated program activities and the intentional support of Family Engagement Specialists (FESs), who support parents, families, and children by promoting family engagement and optimal child development. The evaluation utilized a mixed-methods approach to study both the process and outcomes of the program. This evaluation approach yielded findings on program effectiveness and implementation, facilitating purposeful decisions toward program improvement. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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20.

Evaluation of LAUP's new family engagement model: A Strengthening Families framework FY 2015-16
Banuelos, Noelle, July, 2016
Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Universal Preschool.

In 2015-2016, LAUP implemented its first year of the Family Engagement Model grounded in the Strengthening Families and Protective Factors (SFPF) Framework. This model was implemented through a series of coordinated program activities and the intentional support of Family Engagement Specialists (FESs), who support parents, families, and children by promoting family engagement and optimal child development. A mixed-methods evaluation approach studied both processes and outcomes in order to yield findings on implementation and effectiveness that would facilitate purposeful decisions toward program improvement. The following are key findings from the evaluation: FESs experienced successes of implementation when relationships were built, communication was coordinated, and expectations were clear. Working with school districts posed additional challenges including access, contact, and inconsistent communication. Limited buy-in and communication continued to be the two most prevalent challenges to implementation and achievement of outcomes. Parents showed positive and significant changes over time on their perspectives and experiences related to the Protective Factors. One or more strategies promoting the Protective Factors were carried out successfully by most sites, regardless of the variation in overall SFPF integration. Ownership and empowerment were the top two indicators of growth and change in SFPF, and of engagement among parents and providers. (author abstract)

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21.

Evaluation of LAUP's new family engagement model: A Strengthening Families framework FY 2015-16 [Executive summary]
Banuelos, Noelle, July, 2016
Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Universal Preschool.

In 2015-2016, LAUP implemented its first year of the Family Engagement Model grounded in the Strengthening Families and Protective Factors (SFPF) Framework. This model was implemented through a series of coordinated program activities and the intentional support of Family Engagement Specialists (FESs), who support parents, families, and children by promoting family engagement and optimal child development. The evaluation utilized a mixed-methods approach to study both the process and outcomes of the program. This evaluation approach yielded findings on program effectiveness and implementation, facilitating purposeful decisions toward program improvement. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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22.

Evaluation of the New York City Pre-K for All initiative, 2014-15: Implementation study report: Family engagement and communication
Westat, Inc.,
New York, NY: Center for Economic Opportunity.

This report presents implementation findings on the topic of family engagement and communication from the perspective of Pre-K for All site administrators and instructional staff. Sources of data include surveys of site administrators and instructional staff from a sample of 201 sites, and in-depth interviews with administrators and staff at 40 of these sites, as well as from a review of available documentation. The sites included in the study were sampled to be representative of all Pre-K for All sites and recruited to participate in the evaluation. Findings are based on self-reported data; family engagement and communication practices were not directly observed. Survey response rates were 91 percent for site administrators and 69 percent for instructional staff. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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23.

Evaluation of the New York City Pre-K for All initiative, 2014-15: Implementation study report: Family engagement and communication [Executive summary]
Westat, Inc.,
New York, NY: Center for Economic Opportunity.

This report presents implementation findings on the topic of family engagement and communication from the perspective of Pre-K for All site administrators and instructional staff. Sources of data include surveys of site administrators and instructional staff from a sample of 201 sites, and in-depth interviews with administrators and staff at 40 of these sites, as well as from a review of available documentation. The sites included in the study were sampled to be representative of all Pre-K for All sites and recruited to participate in the evaluation. Findings are based on self-reported data; family engagement and communication practices were not directly observed. Survey response rates were 91 percent for site administrators and 69 percent for instructional staff. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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24.

Evaluation of the New York City Pre-K for All initiative, 2014-15: Implementation study report: Family perceptions
Westat, Inc., 19 February, 2016
New York, NY: Center for Economic Opportunity.

This report describes families' engagement in the first year of the Pre-K for All program, and the effect this program had on participating families and children. Findings described in this report are from two data sources: a family survey and focus groups with parents/guardians. The survey was conducted by telephone with 1,090 parents or guardians from March to May 2015 to learn about families' experiences with the pre-K program their children attend. Focus groups were held at six pre-K centers in April and May 2015. A total of 67 relatives (mostly parents, with a few grandparents) attended these groups. (author abstract)

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25.

Evaluation of the New York City Pre-K for All initiative, 2014-15: Implementation study report: Family perceptions [Executive summary]
Westat, Inc., 19 February, 2016
New York, NY: Center for Economic Opportunity.

This report describes families' engagement in the first year of the Pre-K for All program, and the effect this program had on participating families and children. Findings described in this report are from two data sources: a family survey and focus groups with parents/guardians. The survey was conducted by telephone with 1,090 parents or guardians from March to May 2015 to learn about families' experiences with the pre-K program their children attend. Focus groups were held at six pre-K centers in April and May 2015. A total of 67 relatives (mostly parents, with a few grandparents) attended these groups. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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26.

Examining a self-report measure of parent-teacher cocaring relationships and associations with parental involvement
Lang, Sarah N., January, 2017
Early Education and Development, 28(1), 96-114

By adapting a self-administered assessment of coparenting, we sought to provide a new tool, the Cocaring Relationship Questionnaire, to measure parent-teacher, or cocaring relationships, and provide additional construct validity for the multidimensional concept of cocaring. Next, recognizing the importance of parental involvement for young children's development, we examined the associations between dimensions of cocaring and aspects of parental involvement. We investigated the parent-teacher relationships of 90 families utilizing full-time, center-based childcare for their 12-36 month old children. Parents and teachers completed a set of questionnaires. Research findings: exploratory factor analysis revealed a four factor structure for the cocaring relationship: Support, Undermining, Endorsement, and Agreement. After controlling for a number of child- and parent-level covariates, parents' perceptions of different dimensions within the cocaring relationship were associated with different aspects of their self-reported and teacher-reported involvement. Most notably, parents' perception of cocaring support was positively associated with three different forms of parental involvement. Practice or Policy: the Cocaring Relationship Questionnaire offers researchers and practitioners a means to assess multiple dimensions within parent-teacher relationships. Understanding that parent-teacher relationships are multifaceted can help practitioners consider their interactions with families in new ways, which may influence, or be influenced by, parental involvement. (author abstract)

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27.

Extending an effective classroom-based math board game intervention to preschoolers' homes
Sonnenschein, Susan, 2016
Journal of Applied Research on Children, 7(2), 1-29

This paper presents two studies of the effects of a home-based math intervention with Head Start families. We focus on the home because young children are exposed at home to opportunities to acquire math skills even before formal schooling. We focus on low-income families because, as noted above, these children often begin school with more limited math skills than their higher-income peers. An effective home math intervention could have important implications for closing group-based gaps in young children's current and future math skills. In what follows, we briefly review children's early math skills. We then discuss children's math home learning environments and attempts to improve their early math skills. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

28.

Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality measures: Updated user's manual
Kim, Kwang, April, 2015
(OPRE Report 2014-65). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

The Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality (FPTRQ) project, sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families' Office of Head Start (OHS) and Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE), was a four-year effort to develop measures of the quality of family and provider/teacher relationships in early care and education (ECE) settings for children from birth through age five. The measures were developed by Westat and Child Trends with additional support from a group of experts who provided guidance and advice. The FPTRQ project created five measures of parent and provider/teacher relationships, including: 1) the director measure; 2) the provider/teacher measure; 3) the parent measure; 4) the family services staff measure; and 5) the family services staff parent measure. The FPTRQ measures integrate features from three perspectives of family-provider/teacher relationships in ECE: family support/ family-centered care; parent involvement/family involvement/family engagement, and family-sensitive caregiving (see Table 1-1). The measures incorporate the features that are consistent across these three perspectives as well as those that are unique to each of these perspectives. The Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality Measures: Updated User's Manual1 introduces these measures, describes how they were developed, and provides in-depth information on how to use them. (author abstract)

Other

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29.

Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality measures: Updated user's manual [Executive summary]
Kim, Kwang, April, 2015
(OPRE Report 2014-65). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

The Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality (FPTRQ) project, sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families' Office of Head Start (OHS) and Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE), was a four-year effort to develop measures of the quality of family and provider/teacher relationships in early care and education (ECE) settings for children from birth through age five. The measures were developed by Westat and Child Trends with additional support from a group of experts who provided guidance and advice. The FPTRQ project created five measures of parent and provider/teacher relationships, including: 1) the director measure; 2) the provider/teacher measure; 3) the parent measure; 4) the family services staff measure; and 5) the family services staff parent measure. The FPTRQ measures integrate features from three perspectives of family-provider/teacher relationships in ECE: family support/ family-centered care; parent involvement/family involvement/family engagement, and family-sensitive caregiving (see Table 1-1). The measures incorporate the features that are consistent across these three perspectives as well as those that are unique to each of these perspectives. The Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality Measures: Updated User's Manual1 introduces these measures, describes how they were developed, and provides in-depth information on how to use them. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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30.

Family involvement in the assessment and instruction of dual language learners
Czik, Amanda, 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20, 143-158

This chapter explores the unique issues related to assessing and instructing linguistically diverse children from birth to five years old in early education settings. This chapter provides a literature review of how family involvement aids in accurate assessment of DLLs language development. First, the chapter provides a summary of the importance of assessing DLLs and the related gaps in the literature. Next, there is a discussion of family involvement in the assessment process, specifically the importance of parent involvement, potential barriers, and the educational placement of DLLs. Then a section about bilingual language acquisition is presented to explain how DLLs acquire English. Drawing on the above literature, the authors advocate for a multifaceted approach in which assessments are conducted in multiple contexts and data are gathered from multiple sources, particularly from parents who are extremely knowledgeable of their children's abilities and language experiences. Finally, the chapter concludes with a review of current best practices to involve DLL families in assessment and directions for further research. (author abstract)

Other

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31.

Family involvement in early education and child care [Special issue]
Sutterby, John A., 2016
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20

A special issue of the journal Advances in Early Education and Day Care, focusing on methods of engaging families in early childhood education

Other

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32.

Family literacy programmes and young children's language and literacy development: Paying attention to families' home language
Anderson, Jim, March/April 2017
Early Child Development and Care, 187(3-4), 644-654

In this article, we review the literature on the impact of family literacy programmes on young children's language and literacy learning. After defining family literacy, we present a brief historical overview of family literacy programmes, including persistent questions regarding their effectiveness with respect to young children's language and literacy learning and their propensity to promote the dominant language (e.g. English) while ignoring the benefits of bilingualism and of families' home language maintenance. Meta-analyses reveal that family literacy programmes have a positive effect on young children's language and learning development and studies of bilingual family literacy programmes indicate that they are effective in significantly increasing children's early literacy knowledge in the dominant or mainstream language and in promoting home language maintenance. This finding lends empirical support for bilingual family literacy programmes and the concept of additive bilingualism. We conclude by suggesting implications for practice and for future research. (author abstract)

Literature Review

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33.

Fathers' and mothers' home learning environments and children's early academic outcomes
Foster, Tricia D., November, 2016
Reading and Writing, 29(9), 1845-1863

The home learning environment (HLE) that children experience early on is highly predictive of their later academic competencies; however, the bulk of this work is operationalized from mothers' perspectives. This study investigates the HLE provided by both mothers and fathers to their preschoolers (n = 767), with consideration for how parents' practices relate to one another as well as how these practices predict children's early academic outcomes. Using an SEM framework, results indicate that while, overall, mothers provide HLE activities more frequently than fathers do, both mothers ([beta] = .18, p<.05) and fathers ([beta] = .22, p<.05) make unique contributions to their preschooler's early academic skills, but only for families where mother has less than a bachelor's degree. For families where mother has a bachelor's degree or higher, the effect of father's HLE practices is not a significant predictor of children's academics when considering mother's HLE. For all families, fathers are providing a variety of HLE activities to their young children; and, although these may occur less frequently than mothers' practices, they are particularly important for the academic development of children whose mothers have less than a bachelor's degree. Practical implications are discussed. (author abstract)

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34.

Fostering the foundations of self-determination in early childhood: A process for enhancing child outcomes across home and school
Erwin, Elizabeth J., July, 2016
Early Childhood Education Journal, 44(4), 325-333

Early childhood practitioners can play a vital role in the development of early self-determination in partnership with families. Self-determination has been generally considered to be about personal agency or control that can also relate to the quality of one's life. Young children with disabilities start to develop a range of critical skills such as engagement and self-regulation that will be needed throughout their lives. These are the early foundational skills that lead to later self-determination. This paper describes a simple four-step process and key features of foundations of self-determination in early childhood, a collaborative process focusing on home-school partnerships. The unique alliance between each dyad (i.e., family member and early childhood practitioner) support child outcomes across naturally occurring routines at home and school. Each family and practitioner dyad uses attainable short-term goals embedded in home and school routines, intentional adult cues, and environmental modifications to promote foundational skills of self-determination in young children with disabilities. (author abstract)

Other

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35.

Gearing Up for Kindergarten: Project overview & year-end report for 2014-2015
Brotherson, Sean E., August, 2015
Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University, Extension Service.

This project report for 2014-2015 (9th year of the program) provides results gathered from the entire year of the program's operation in fall 2014 and spring 2015. These results were compiled using feedback gathered from program participants through several different evaluation tools. These tools are briefly summarized below. The project report is divided into sections presenting results derived from each aspect of the evaluation process. It should be noted that this report summarizes key aspects of the data available for analysis, while further ongoing studies and analysis continue to be conducted. (author abstract)

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36.

Gearing Up for Kindergarten: Project overview & year-end report for 2014-2015
Brotherson, Sean E.,
Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University, Extension Service.

In 2014-2015 the program operated at 57 sites across North Dakota with 973 families enrolled. Fifty-seven school districts participated and held a total of 71 course sessions. Response rate to the evaluation was 74.3%. This executive summary provides highlights of findings gathered through evaluation of the Gearing Up for Kindergarten program in the program year 2014-15. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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37.

Gearing Up for Kindergarten: Project overview & year-end report for 2015-2016
Brotherson, Sean E., June, 2016
Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University, Extension Service.

This project report for 2015-2016 (10th year of the program) provides results gathered from the entire year of the program's operation in fall 2015 and spring 2016. These results were compiled using feedback gathered from program participants through several different evaluation tools. These tools are briefly summarized below. The project report is divided into sections presenting results derived from each aspect of the evaluation process. It should be noted that this report summarizes key aspects of the data available for analysis, while further ongoing studies and analysis continue to be conducted. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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38.

Gearing Up for Kindergarten: Project overview & year-end report for 2015-2016 [Executive summary]
Brotherson, Sean E., June, 2016
Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University, Extension Service.

In 2015-2016 the program operated at 64 sites across North Dakota with 1,169 families enrolled. Fifty school districts participated and held a total of 90 course sessions. Response rate to the evaluation was 72.7% (850 total respondents). This executive summary provides highlights of findings gathered through evaluation of the Gearing Up for Kindergarten program's sessions in the program year 2015-16. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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39.

Head Start administrator and teacher perceptions of parental influence on preschool children's nutrition education
Stage, Virginia C., 2017
Journal of Early Childhood Research, (), 1-16

Parents play a significant role in molding their children's nutrition knowledge and behavior. The purpose of the present study was to explore parental influence on preschooler's nutrition education from the perspectives of North Carolina-based Head Start coordinators and teachers. Investigators conducted 63 in-depth, structured interviews with Head Start Health/Nutrition Coordinators (n = 31) and teachers (n = 32). Interviews were recorded in digital audio format and transcribed verbatim. Following a grounded theory approach, researchers identified primary, emergent themes related to parental influence and a substantive-level model was developed. Head Start staff described parental background (i.e. nutrition knowledge, culture), socioeconomic status, food preferences and parental engagement/support of teacher provided nutrition education as the primary factors that affect preschooler's nutrition education. The proposed theoretical model provides an initial understanding of the influence Head Start parents may have on their children's nutrition education. The findings suggest more training and education opportunities for parents and teachers may be needed. Despite barriers, teachers and local community partners should continue to support parents in their efforts to reinforce positive nutrition messages among preschool children. (author abstract)

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40.

The home literacy environment and the English narrative development of Spanish-English bilingual children
Bitetti, Dana, October, 2016
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 59(5), 1159-1171

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the home literacy environment (HLE) on the English narrative development of Spanish-English bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. Method: Longitudinal data were collected on 81 bilingual children from preschool through 1st grade. English narrative skills were assessed in the fall and spring of each year. Microstructure measures included mean length of utterance in morphemes and number of different words. The Narrative Scoring Scheme (Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts, & Dunaway, 2010) measured macrostructure. Each fall, the children's mothers reported the frequency of literacy activities and number of children's books in the home. Growth curve modeling was used to describe the children's narrative development and the impact of the HLE over time. Results: Significant growth occurred for all narrative measures. The HLE did not affect microstructure growth. The frequency with which mothers read to their children had a positive impact on the growth of the children's total Narrative Scoring Scheme scores. Other aspects of the HLE, such as the frequency with which the mothers told stories, did not affect macrostructure development. Conclusions: These results provide information about the development of English narrative abilities and demonstrate the importance of frequent book reading for the overall narrative quality of children from Spanish-speaking homes who are learning English. (author abstract)

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41.

The home-literacy environment of young children with disabilities
Justice, Laura M., Q4 2016
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 37(4), 131-139

Some studies have reported that young children with disabilities have qualitatively distinct home-literacy environments and interests than young children without disabilities. Such differences may contribute to differences in the early-literacy skills of children with and without disabilities. This study was designed to measure three distinct features of the home-literacy environment for children with and without disabilities (frequency of storybook reading, literacy teaching during book reading, children's print interest; hereafter frequency, teaching, and interest) and determine the extent to which these may vary for the two groups of children. Parents of 692 preschool-aged children (57% with disabilities), all enrolled in inclusive early children special education classrooms, completed a comprehensive assessment of the home-literacy environment in fall of the academic year. Children's teachers completed an assessment for each child on their early-literacy skills. The home-literacy environments of children with and without disabilities was distinguishable only for children's interest; frequency and teaching were comparable. Importantly, children's interest was positively associated, concurrently, with early-literacy skills. This study helps to pinpoint which aspect of the home-literacy environment distinguishes between children with and without disabilities. Findings also suggest the potential importance of identifying avenues to improve the print interest of young children with disabilities. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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42.

Immigrant families and early childhood programs: Addressing the new challenges of the 21st century
Moinolmolki, Neda, 2017
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20, 117-142

Nowadays children from immigrant families are the fastest growing group of youth in the United States. Despite the fact that emerging research has highlighted the significance of strong partnerships between families and high-quality early childcare/education programs, many immigrant families face numerous barriers in accessing high-quality childcare/early education as well as establishing strong partnerships with centers. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the emerging challenges that immigrant families face in navigating the U.S. early childhood education system. This chapter first briefly reviews the literature on the role of family involvement in early childhood education within the general U.S. population. This is followed by a review of the unique funds of knowledge that immigrant parents engage in while interacting with their children at home. Then this chapter explores the barriers of immigrant families in developing strong partnerships with early childcare/education programs such as, communication, limited parental English proficiency, lack of public funding, acculturation, education, and cultural perceptions of involvement. Furthermore, this is followed by a focus on two distinct rising immigrant populations within the United States, Hispanic (specifically non-refugee) and refugee populations, and their unique sets of obstacles. Lastly, recommendations are provided for future practitioners and policymakers to support the establishment of stronger immigrant family and professional partnerships within early education and childcare settings. (author abstract)

Other

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43.

Improving prekindergarten attendance: School-level strategies for messaging, engaging parents, and responding to absences in four DC public schools
Katz, Michael, June, 2016
Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Over the past decade, there has been an increased focus on attendance and reducing absenteeism in schools. Driven in part by continued research on the negative impact of absenteeism on school performance, future attendance, truancy, and dropout rates, local, state, and federal education agencies have begun to take action. While much of this work has targeted the elementary years, researchers and districts alike have started to focus on curbing absenteeism before the start of kindergarten. Data suggest that early grade levels see some of the worst absenteeism rates, and early attendance issues are associated with future absenteeism and negative academic outcomes (Balfanz and Byrnes 2013; Connolly and Olson 2012; Ehrlich et al. 2014). Early grade levels can also set a family's expectations for attendance and the family-school relationship, and intervening early can help establish better attendance patterns that persist throughout children's academic careers. Though many school districts begin their efforts in kindergarten, some forward-thinking districts, like District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS), have begun to track and address chronic absenteeism in prekindergarten. This report is part of a multiphase project of the Urban Institute, working with the Early Childhood Education Division (ECED) of DCPS, examining absenteeism in their prekindergarten program and strategies to address it (Katz, Adams, and Johnson 2015; Dubay and Holla 2015). This collaboration with ECED includes the input and support of the family services team, who provide wraparound services for families with children in the universal prekindergarten program. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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44.

Improving prekindergarten attendance: School-level strategies for messaging, engaging parents, and responding to absences in four DC public schools [Executive summary]
Katz, Michael, June, 2016
Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Over the past decade, there has been an increased focus on attendance and reducing absenteeism in schools. Driven in part by continued research on the negative impact of absenteeism on school performance, future attendance, truancy, and dropout rates, local, state, and federal education agencies have begun to take action. While much of this work has targeted the elementary years, researchers and districts alike have started to focus on curbing absenteeism before the start of kindergarten. Data suggest that early grade levels see some of the worst absenteeism rates, and early attendance issues are associated with future absenteeism and negative academic outcomes (Balfanz and Byrnes 2013; Connolly and Olson 2012; Ehrlich et al. 2014). Early grade levels can also set a family's expectations for attendance and the family-school relationship, and intervening early can help establish better attendance patterns that persist throughout children's academic careers. Though many school districts begin their efforts in kindergarten, some forward-thinking districts, like District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS), have begun to track and address chronic absenteeism in prekindergarten. This report is part of a multiphase project of the Urban Institute, working with the Early Childhood Education Division (ECED) of DCPS, examining absenteeism in their prekindergarten program and strategies to address it (Katz, Adams, and Johnson 2015; Dubay and Holla 2015). This collaboration with ECED includes the input and support of the family services team, who provide wraparound services for families with children in the universal prekindergarten program. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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45.

Influences of family involvement in kindergarten transition activities on children's early school adjustment
Kang, Jean, 2016
Early Childhood Education Journal,

Transition to kindergarten can be a pivotal experience for children because of its potential long-term impact on school performance. As the importance of relationships among contextual factors surrounding a child has been recognized, many schools have made efforts to establish strong ties with families in order to make kindergarten transition experiences as seamless as possible. Our current understanding of the role of family involvement in kindergarten transitions and the specific outcomes, however, is still somewhat limited. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, this study investigated the impact of family involvement in kindergarten transition activities on children's transition to kindergarten and their early school adjustment. Although quantitative results revealed that family involvement is not a significant predictor of children's early school adjustment, qualitative evidence suggests that families believe their involvement in kindergarten transition has a positive influence. In addition, qualitative results provide information concerning barriers, which interfered with family involvement in the transition process. Based on these findings suggestions for schools and families of young children are provided. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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46.

In it for the long haul: Parent-teacher partnerships for addressing preschool children's challenging behaviors
Kuhn, Miriam, August, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(2), 81-93

The Getting Ready intervention aims to strengthen parent-teacher partnerships to promote positive child outcomes. This study focused on the team process and social validity of the intervention when young children displayed challenging behaviors. Qualitative analysis yielded seven themes that provided a rich description of the preschool experiences of four children, their parents, and the preschool teachers and Early Intervention (EI) coaches serving them. Parent-professional partnerships, positive parent-child interactions, and team members' engagement in collaborative problem solving and planning were reported. The social validity of the Getting Ready intervention was confirmed by participants valuing the academic and behavioral goals established for children, the parents' partnerships with teachers to address chronic behavioral challenges, and reports of the durability of intervention impacts as three children completed kindergarten. (author abstract)

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47.

Introduction [Introduction to a special issue: Family involvement in early education and child care]
Sutterby, John A., 2016
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 20, xi-xii

An introduction to a special issue of the journal Advances in Early Education and Day Care, focusing on methods of engaging families in early childhood education

Other

48.

LAUP Parent Engagement programs 2014
Bolton, Alicia, September, 2014
Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Universal Preschool.

LAUP's Parent Engagement programs deliver high-quality support to parents and families, with the goal of empowering parents to increase involvement with their children's education. This evaluation examined the outcomes of the multiple Parent Engagement programs at LAUP. Analyses discovered that a number of benefits resulted from parents' school-based engagement and volunteering. These benefits included the following: Parents felt informed of their rights and empowered by the Parent Ambassador Program. Parents reported a solid home-school connection and greater at-home learning for children. Parents felt encouraged by their LAUP provider to participate in activities, become part of the learning process, and take an active role in their child's education. The impact of the Parent Engagement programs was widespread and positive. This brief presents findings of the program evaluation, as well as several recommendations for future practice. (author abstract)

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49.

LAUP parent experiences
Bolton, Alicia, September, 2014
Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Universal Preschool.

This evaluation set out to examine and describe the effects of LAUP preschool programs on children and their families during preschool and beyond. The following brief summarizes findings and recommendations based on analyses of parent focus groups and interview data, and highlights key elements of child and family outcomes that resulted from attending LAUP preschool programs. Through in-depth interviews and focus groups with parents, conducted in 2013 and 2014, we learned that parents consider their children's growth and learning to be among the biggest advantages conferred by attendance at an LAUP preschool. Through an analysis of the benefits consistently attributed by parents to LAUP preschools, four main themes emerged: Enhanced school readiness: easier transition to kindergarten Social-emotional development: increased social skills, emotional regulation, and well-being Home-school connection: facilitation of at-home learning Parent engagement: on-site activities at preschool, and participation in children's education These four themes are analyzed in detail, and their relevance to the LAUP model is discussed. (author abstract)

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50.

Learning with immigrant children, families and communities: The imperative of early childhood teacher education
Iddings, Ana Christina da Silva, March, 2017
Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 37(1), 34-46

This article reports on a longitudinal study spanning over 5 years, involving the design and implementation of an early childhood teacher education program model that engages a critical-ecological theoretical approach, a funds of knowledge perspective, and design-based methodology. This project aimed to promote equitable education for all children, and especially for young immigrant children encountering situations of oppression within the national and local educational contexts in Arizona. In this teacher education program, families, community members, researchers, pre-service teachers and teachers worked together to develop new modes of curricular activity, new spaces, new relationships, and new forms of movement among participants, as well as new circulations of literacy artefacts. (author abstract)

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