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1.

Adaptive interventions and SMART designs: Application to child behavior research in a community setting
Kidwell, Kelly M., September, 2016
American Journal of Evaluation, 37(3), 344-363

Heterogeneity between and within people necessitates the need for sequential personalized interventions to optimize individual outcomes. Personalized or adaptive interventions (AIs) are relevant for diseases and maladaptive behavioral trajectories when one intervention is not curative and success of a subsequent intervention may depend on individual characteristics or response. AIs may be applied to medical settings and to investigate best prevention, education, and community-based practices. AIs can begin with low-cost or low-burden interventions and followed with intensified or alternative interventions for those who need it most. AIs that guide practice over the course of a disease, program, or school year can be investigated through sequential multiple assignment randomized trials (SMARTs). To promote the use of SMARTs, we provide a hypothetical SMART in a Head Start program to address child behavior problems. We describe the advantages and limitations of SMARTs, particularly as they may be applied to the field of evaluation. (author abstract)

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2.

The Administration for Children & Families common framework for research and evaluation
United States. Administration for Children and Families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, March, 2016
(OPRE Report #2016-14). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

This document outlines the roles of various types of research and evaluation in generating information and answering empirical questions related to the human services provided by the Administration for Children & Families (ACF). More specifically, this document describes the purpose of each type of research, the empirical and theoretical justifications for different types of studies, types of study outcomes, and quality of evidence. (author abstract)

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3.

Analyzing early child development, influential conditions, and future impacts: Prospects of a German newborn cohort study
Weinert, Sabine, 07 October, 2016
International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 10(), 1-20

The paper provides an overview of a German cohort study of newborns which includes a representative sample of about 3500 infants and their mothers. The aims, challenges, and solutions concerning the large-scale assessment of early child capacities and skills as well as the measurements of learning environments that impact early developmental progress are presented and discussed. First, a brief overview of the German regulations related to early child education and care (ECEC) and parental leave as well as the study design are outlined. Then, the assessments of domain-specific and domain-general cognitive and socio-emotional indicators of early child functioning and development are described and the assessments of structural, orientational, and process quality of the children's learning environment at home and in child care are presented. Special attention is given to direct assessments and their reliability and validity; in addition, some selected results on social disparities are reported and the prospects of data analyses are discussed. (author abstract)

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4.

Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Chinese preschools based on psychometric evidence
Hu, Bi Ying, July, 2016
Early Education and Development, 27(5), 714-734

This study examined the applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Pre-K (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) and its underpinning framework of teaching through interactions in typical Chinese kindergarten classrooms. A sample of 180 kindergarten classrooms in China was selected, and the CLASS was used to rate the classroom teaching interactions. Multiple analytical approaches were applied to examine how the CLASS functioned in the Chinese cultural and social context, including score pattern comparisons with samples from the United States and some international contexts, measurement reliability analysis for different measurement error sources (e.g., interrater reliability and stability across time), and confirmatory factor analysis for several competing models. The findings from these different analyses indicated that the CLASS exhibited the same or very similar structures as in the U.S. sample, and the ratings of the CLASS showed other desirable psychometric characteristics. Practice or Policy: The evidence from the multiple analytical approaches provide strong support for the applicability of the CLASS in the Chinese context. The findings also reveal a critical need for Chinese teachers to improve the quality of instructional support in order to promote children's optimal development. Limitations are noted, and future research directions are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

5.

Assessing the implementation and cost of high quality early care and education: A review of the literature
Caronongan, Pia, April, 2016
(OPRE Report 2016-31). Washington DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

This report summarizes the findings of a literature review conducted as part of the Assessing the Implementation and Cost of High-Quality ECE (ECE-ICHQ) project funded by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation within the Administration for Children and Families at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The project's goal is to create a technically sound and feasible instrument that will provide consistent, systematic measures of the implementation and costs of education and care in center-based settings that serve children from birth to age 5. The ultimate measures will inform research, policy, and practice by improving understanding of variations in what centers do to support quality, their associated costs, and how resources for ECE may be better aligned with expectations for quality. We reviewed the literature and research syntheses in three areas--ECE quality, implementation science, and ECE costs--to create a conceptual framework that will guide measurement development. (author abstract)

Literature Review

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6.

Assessing the implementation and cost of high quality early care and education: A review of the literature [Executive summary]
Caronongan, Pia, April, 2016
(OPRE Report 2016-31). Washington DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Measures of implementation and cost of ECE are needed for use and testing together with measures of quality to shed light on what it takes--in terms of activities, capacities, and money--to achieve high quality within a center. Implementation measures need to reflect what ECE centers are doing to educate and care for children and how they are doing it. Cost measures need to capture the way ECE centers allocate the resources they have to work with. The Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) launched a new project--Assessing the Implementation and Cost of High-Quality ECE (ECE-ICHQ)--to develop measures of implementation and cost for an ECE center. The measures will inform research, policy, and practice by improving understanding of variations in what centers do to support quality, their associated costs, and how resources for ECE may be better aligned with expectations for quality. The project's goal is to create a technically sound, feasible, and useful instrument that will provide consistent, systematic measures of the implementation and costs of education and care in center-based settings that serve children from birth to age 5 ("ECE centers"). By "costs" we mean how much it costs to operate a center, including costs incurred by the center, as well as the value of in-kind contributions such as space or labor. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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7.

Best practices in creating and adapting quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) rating scales
Burchinal, Margaret, May, 2016
(OPRE Research Brief 2016-25). Washington DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

The brief summarizes an analysis that uses the data from six large studies of early care and education to simulate state QRIS ratings. The results suggest that QRIS ratings can achieve their desired goal of predicting gains in child outcomes when attention is paid to the psychometric principles of scale development including: dimensionality (ensuring that a scale represents one, not multiple dimensions), selecting items with strong evidence, and scoring items using established criteria for cut points. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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8.

Between deposit and release: Research Connections and your data
Bleckman, Johanna, 18 August, 2016
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

One way that Research Connections promotes secondary research and policy making is by performing data processing and enhancement on deposited research data in order to add value to data by making them easier to use for secondary analysis. The purpose of this video is to describe the process of archiving data with Research Connections and understand Research Connections' role in archiving your data. Viewers will: (1) Discover the benefits of contributing your research data to the Research Connections data archive. (2) Understand the ICPSR "pipeline" for processing and enhancement and the steps that Research Connections performs on your data before releasing a study on the Research Connections website. (3) Learn data management tips and techniques that can be incorporated into your research project to facilitate a smooth transition to the Research Connections archive at project completion.

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9.

Between deposit and release: Research Connections and your data [PowerPoint]
Bleckman, Johanna, 18 August, 2016
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

This PowerPoint presentation accompanies a webinar that describes the process of archiving data with Research Connections. Viewers will: (1) Discover the benefits of contributing your research data to the Research Connections data archive. (2) Understand the ICPSR "pipeline" for processing and enhancement and the steps that Research Connections performs on your data before releasing a study on the Research Connections website. (3) Learn data management tips and techniques that can be incorporated into your research project to facilitate a smooth transition to the Research Connections archive at project completion.

Other

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10.

Brigance Early Childhood Screens III
Brigance, Albert H., 2013
North Billerica, MA: Curriculum Associates.

Instruments

11.

Caring for Our Children Basics Health and Safety Standards Alignment Tool for Child Care Centers and Family Child Care Homes
National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance, June, 2016
Fairfax, VA: National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance.

Caring for Our Children Basics (CFOCB) represents the minimum health and safety standards experts believe should be in place where children are cared for outside their own homes, whether in a home-based program or center-based facility. It does not, however, represent all standards that should be present to achieve the highest quality of care and early learning. For example, the caregiver training requirements outlined in these standards are designed only to prevent harm to children, not to ensure children's optimal development and learning. Although use of Caring for Our Children Basics is voluntary, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) hopes Caring for Our Children Basics will be a helpful resource for States and other entities as they work to improve health and safety standards in both licensing and quality rating improvement systems (QRIS). This tool provides a simple format for States and Territories to compare their current early childhood program requirements and standards against the recommended health and safety standards in CFOCB. (author abstract)

Instruments

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12.

Can callous-unemotional traits be reliably measured in preschoolers?
Kimonis, Eva R., May, 2016
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(4), 625-638

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits designate an important subgroup of antisocial individuals at risk for early-starting, severe, and persistent conduct problems, but this construct has received limited attention among young children. The current study evaluated the factor structure, psychometric properties, and validity of scores on a comprehensive measure of CU traits, the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), in relation to measures of antisocial/prosocial behavior and emotional processing, administered to preschool children. The sample included 214 boys (52 %) and girls (48 %, [mean] age = 4.7, SD = 0.69) recruited from mainstream and high-risk preschools. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor structure including callous and uncaring dimensions from 12 of the 24 original ICU items. Scores on the parent- and teacher-reported ICU were internally consistent and combined CU scores showed expected associations with an alternate measure of CU traits and measures of empathy, prosocial behavior, conduct problems, and aggression. Preschool children high on CU traits were less accurate, relative to children scoring low, in recognizing facial expressions. They were also less attentionally engaged by images of others in distress when co-occurring conduct problems presented. Findings extend the literature by supporting the psychometric properties of the ICU among young children, and open several avenues for studying early precursors to this severe personality disturbance. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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13.

The Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ): Development and first validation steps
Gubbels, Jessica S., August, 2016
Public Health Nutrition, 19(11), 1964-1975

Objective: To develop and validate a questionnaire to measure food-related and activity-related practices of child-care staff, based on existing, validated parenting practices questionnaires. Design: A selection of items from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and the Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practices (PPAPP) questionnaire was made to include items most suitable for the child-care setting. The converted questionnaire was pre-tested among child-care staff during cognitive interviews and pilot-tested among a larger sample of child-care staff. Factor analyses with Varimax rotation and internal consistencies were used to examine the scales. Spearman correlations, t tests and ANOVA were used to examine associations between the scales and staff's background characteristics (e.g. years of experience, gender). Setting: Child-care centres in the Netherlands. Subjects: The qualitative pre-test included ten child-care staff members. The quantitative pilot test included 178 child-care staff members. Results: The new questionnaire, the Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ), consists of sixty-three items (forty food-related and twenty-three activity-related items), divided over twelve scales (seven food-related and five activity-related scales). The CFAPQ scales are to a large extent similar to the original CFPQ and PPAPP scales. The CFAPQ scales show sufficient internal consistency with Cronbach's [alpha] ranging between 0.53 and 0.96, and average corrected item-total correlations within acceptable ranges (0.30-0.89). Several of the scales were significantly associated with child-care staff's background characteristics. Conclusions: Scale psychometrics of the CFAPQ indicate it is a valid questionnaire that assesses child-care staff's practices related to both food and activities. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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14.

Child Caregiver Interaction Scale (Rev. ed.)
Carl, Barbara, 2010
Indiana, PA: Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Instruments

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15.

Classroom Assessment Scoring System: Infant Version
Jamison, Kristen Roorbach, May, 2014
Early Education and Development, 25(4), 553-572

Instruments

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16.

Comparison of observational methods and their relation to ratings of engagement in young children
Wood, Brenna K., February, 2016
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 35(4), 211-222

Although, collectively, results of earlier direct observation studies suggest momentary time sampling (MTS) may offer certain technical advantages over whole-interval (WIR) and partial-interval (PIR) recording, no study has compared these methods for measuring engagement in young children in naturalistic environments. This study compared direct observations of child engagement using WIR, PIR, and MTS methods to continuous duration recording (CDR), using measurement error, correlations, and inter-observer agreement. Results indicated that MTS consistently demonstrated measurements closer to CDR compared with PIR and WIR, although in this study, the differences between MTS and PIR across indicators were not as great as has been demonstrated in the literature. WIR, PIR, and MTS were all strongly correlated with CDR, although there were issues with under and overestimations. Finally, the four observational methods were all moderately to strongly correlated with expert ratings of engagement, although none was significantly correlated with teacher rankings of classroom engagement. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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17.

Constructs of quality in early childhood education and care: A close examination of the NQS Assessment and Rating Instrument
Jackson, Jen, September, 2015
Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 40(3), 46-50

The National Quality Standard (NQS) Assessment and Rating Instrument is an important tool for supporting reliability and validity in the assessment and rating process for Australian early childhood education and care services. The Instrument provides a guide for authorised officers and practitioners, by describing each element of the NQS at each of the three most frequently applied quality levels: Working Towards NQS, Meeting NQS and Exceeding NQS. This minor research project involved detailed content analysis of the Instrument, to identify the constructs used to differentiate between the three quality levels and the frequency with which each construct occurred. The analysis found that intentionality, frequency, extent and inclusivity are the four constructs most commonly used for differentiating between NQS quality levels. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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18.

COR Advantage
High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, 2014
Ypsalanti, MI: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation.

Instruments

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19.

Creating spaces to hear parents' voices: Methodological reflections on the Families Commission's early childhood care and education project involving some migrant and former refugee families
Kindon, Sara, June, 2009
Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 35(), 139-151

How do recently arrived migrant and former refugee families from non-English-speaking backgrounds in Aotearoa New Zealand balance work, study and childcare? How do they access and experience early childhood care and education? This paper describes and reflects on a Families Commission-funded qualitative research project which sought to generate answers to these questions via focus groups and participatory diagramming. It outlines the context within which the research was commissioned before discussing the rationale and approach adopted. It offers reflections on the lessons learnt from negotiating cultural, linguistic and contextual differences, and from attempting to create appropriate spaces in which to listen to parents' experiences, including the context of the accountability environment of a New Zealand Crown entity. (author abstract)

Other

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20.

Data collection and use: An early childhood perspective
Bourassa, Jacqueline, 13 August, 2015
Washington, DC: Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands

This webinar presents findings from a study that explores the collection and use of data in several New England preschool programs. Analysis focuses on three domains: early learning outcomes (math, reading, and social-emotional); classroom quality measures; and dosage. The report addresses the challenges of combining multiple sources of data, as well as advising awareness of multiple explanations that can occur within data analysis. Presenters focus on data collection and use at both state and program levels.

Multimedia

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21.

Data collection and use: An early childhood perspective [PowerPoint]
Bourassa, Jacqueline, 13 August, 2015
Washington, DC: Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands

This PowerPoint presentation accompanies a webinar that presents findings from a study which explores the collection and use of data in several New England preschool programs. Analysis focuses on three domains: early learning outcomes (math, reading, and social-emotional); classroom quality measures; and dosage. The report addresses the challenges of combining multiple sources of data, as well as advising awareness of multiple explanations that can occur within data analysis. Presenters focus on data collection and use at both state and program levels.

Other

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22.

Design-corrected variance estimation of NSECE statistics
NORC, 25 February, 2016
Chicago: NORC

This brief describes the sampling techniques used in the collection of statistical data for the National Survey of Early Care & Education (NSECE), and provides information regarding the proper use of weighting to obtain valid inferences for statistics of interest such as percentages, means, totals, ratios, and regression coefficients. Two calculation examples are provided in Stata: a calculation of the total number of children enrolled by single age category, and a calculation of percent of programs by single age category.

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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23.

Developing a tool to examine teachers' use of ongoing child assessment to individualize instruction
Monahan, Shannon, November, 2016
(OPRE Report No. 2016-103). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

In 2012, the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation at the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) engaged Mathematica Policy Research and its partners to conduct a project titled "Assessing Early Childhood Teachers' Use of Child Progress Monitoring to Individualize Teaching Practices." The purpose of the project was twofold: (1) to develop a research-informed conceptual model for early childhood teachers' use of ongoing assessment to individualize instruction, and (2) to create a measure to examine this process. Prior reports describe in detail the results of a literature review, conceptual framework, and measurement plan (Akers et al. 2014; Atkins-Burnett et al. 2014). This report describes the iterative development of the Examining Data Informing Teaching (EDIT) measure. This report includes the results of a pretest study in 18 classrooms and a proposal for next steps for the EDIT. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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24.

Developing a tool to examine teachers' use of ongoing child assessment to individualize instruction [Executive summary]
Monahan, Shannon, November, 2016
(OPRE Report No. 2016-103). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

In 2012, the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation at the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) engaged Mathematica Policy Research and its partners to conduct a project titled "Assessing Early Childhood Teachers' Use of Child Progress Monitoring to Individualize Teaching Practices." The purpose of the project was twofold: (1) to develop a research-informed conceptual model for early childhood teachers' use of ongoing assessment to individualize instruction, and (2) to create a measure to examine this process. Prior reports describe in detail the results of a literature review, conceptual framework, and measurement plan (Akers et al. 2014; Atkins-Burnett et al. 2014). This report describes the iterative development of the Examining Data Informing Teaching (EDIT) measure. This report includes the results of a pretest study in 18 classrooms and a proposal for next steps for the EDIT. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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25.

Development and transfer of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish-speaking language minority preschool children
Goodrich, J. Marc, September, 2016
Journal of Child Language, 43(5), 969-992

In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N= 96, mean age = 54.51 months, 54.3% male; Sample 2: N= 116, mean age = 60.70 months, 56.0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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26.

The development and validation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System to characterize preschoolers' social and emotional interactions
Johnson, Stacy R., October, 2016
Early Education and Development, 27(7), 896-913

Research Findings: This article describes the development and evaluation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System (BEEOS), a direct observation tool to characterize preschoolers' social and emotion behaviors during semistructured activities in the classroom. The BEEOS was used to observe 148 Head Start preschoolers, and questionnaires were completed by teachers and parents to provide psychometric comparisons to the observational system. Findings support both the reliability and criterion-related validity of the behavior indicators and emotion expressions that make up the BEEOS. Preschoolers in the current sample engaged in expected patterns of social behavior and emotion expression. Furthermore, both constructs were related to teacher and parent reports of preschoolers' social behavior, externalizing and internalizing symptomatology, emotion regulation, and perceived emotion expressions. Practice or Policy: Findings suggest that the BEEOS can be used to supplement caregiver report and standardized assessments of preschoolers' social and emotion behaviors. The potential applications and implications of the BEEOS for research and education are discussed and include informing teaching planning and practices as well as the effectiveness of social-emotional interventions. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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27.

Development of a tool to evaluate asthma preparedness and management in child-care centers
Young, Chelsea A., June, 2015
Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology, 28(2), 121-128

Introduction: Asthma is a common condition affecting many children in child-care centers. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program offers recommendations about creating an asthma-friendly childcare setting. However, no studies have investigated the extent to which child-care centers adhere to these recommendations. This study describes the development of a novel instrument to determine the ability of childcare centers to meet national recommendations for asthma. Methods: The Preparing for Asthma in Child Care (PACC) Instrument was developed using information from existing recommendations and standards, the peer-reviewed literature, site visits, and expert interviews. The survey questions were pilot-tested at 36 child-care centers throughout San Francisco. Results: The instrument is composed of 43 items across seven domains: smoking exposure, presence of a medical consultant and policies, management of ventilation and triggers, access to medication, presence of asthma action plans, staff training, and encouragement of physical activity. Discussion: The PACC Instrument is an evidence-based and comprehensive tool designed to identify areas to target to improve asthma care for children in child-care centers. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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28.

Doing something differently: Lessons learned from a case study using implementation science to guide program change
Mathias, Debi, 12 December, 2016
Boston, MA: Build Initiative

This webinar discusses implementation science and how it can guide quality improvement initiatives and inform technical assistance. Presenters explore the role of implementation teams, data and feedback loops, and infrastructure as core elements that support continuous quality improvement. A case study of Rowan University's Early Childhood Demonstration Center in New Jersey provides an example of how these core elements are incorporated within stages of implementation. Implications for program administrators and technical assistants are discussed.

Multimedia

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29.

Doing something differently: Lessons learned from a case study using implementation science to guide program change [PowerPoint]
Mathias, Debi, 12 December, 2016
Boston, MA: Build Initiative

This PowerPoint presentation accompanies a webinar that discusses implementation science and how it can guide quality improvement initiatives and inform technical assistance. Presenters explore the role of implementation teams, data and feedback loops, and infrastructure as core elements that support continuous quality improvement. A case study of Rowan University's Early Childhood Demonstration Center in New Jersey provides an example of how these core elements are incorporated within stages of implementation. Implications for program administrators and technical assistants are discussed.

Other

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30.

Early care, early education, and home visiting in American Indian and Alaska Native communities: Design options for assessing early childhood needs
Malone, Lizabeth M., April, 2016
(OPRE Report 2016-49). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

The report documents the process of creating three design topics for an early childhood needs assessment of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children and families. The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) developed three broad design topics, and Mathematica Policy Research convened a community of learning (CoL) made up of child care practitioners and researchers, Head Start/Early Head Start practitioners and researchers, tribal home visiting practitioners and researchers, ACF federal staff, including representatives from the Office of Child Care, the Office of Head Start, the Office of Early Childhood Development, and the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, and research partners from the Tribal Early Childhood Research Center. The CoL met monthly throughout 2015 and provided a range of perspectives on the key decision points about the designs that came up in those discussions. The three design topics are as follows: Design One will describe the population of AI/AN children and families and their participation in early childhood services based on existing data sources. To the extent possible, this design will provide a broad picture of the programs and providers serving AI/AN children and families at a national level. Design Two will study service organization and delivery systems in AI/AN communities, including the current number of children served and not served, workforce capacity, and cultural resources at the community level and will involve new data collection. Design Three will assess key features needed to support AI/AN communities' capacity for conducting early childhood needs assessments at the community level and will involve new data collection. The report begins with a description of the framework underlying each design topic: the population of interest and the definition of early childhood needs, services, and indicators, followed by details on each of the three design topics. Each chapter addresses the key research questions for the design topic, the population of interest, measurement topics to consider when addressing the research questions, and data sources, including primary data collection or existing data sources available for secondary analysis. The report concludes with a summary of each design topic and future considerations. The goal of this report is to inform the future design of a needs assessment. However, it does not include the details for specific sample designs, data collection protocols or instruments, or analysis plans. (author abstract)

Other

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31.

Early Screening Project: A proven child find process
Lane, Kathleen L., 2011
In Lane, K. L., Menzies, H. M., & Oakes, W. P., Systematic screenings of behavior to support instruction: From preschool to high school (pp. 57-93). New York: Guilford Press

In this chapter, we begin with an overview of the ESP, including step-by-step directions on how to complete this multistage assessment, and provide responses to frequently asked questions regarding logistical considerations. Next, we synthesize the supporting research conducted with the ESP, including studies (1) examining the reliability and validity of this screening tool as well as (2) demonstrating how to use the ESP to identify students who might require secondary (Tier 2) or tertiary (Tier 3) supports. Then we provide a balanced discussion of the strengths and challenges associated with preparation, administration, scoring, and interpretation. We conclude this chapter with two illustrations. The first explains how to monitor the overall level of risk and then use that information to provide individual supports in a large preschool setting. The second illustration demonstrates how to use the data from the screening tool in a three-tiered model of support in an elementary school kindergarten program to identify students for a manualized tertiary support, First Step to Success (Walker et al., 1997). (author abstract)

Other

32.

Engaging families in the assessment process and use of data: An early childhood example
Keizer, Janice, 12 August, 2014
Washington, DC: Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands

This webinar provides an overview of the Research Program Partnership at the University of Kansas and its work at Educare of Kansas City. Presenters share strategies for using child data as a tool to inform daily practice, to promote family engagement, and to plan within programs and agencies.

Multimedia

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33.

Engaging families in the assessment process and use of data: An early childhood example [PowerPoint]
Keizer, Janice, 12 August, 2014
Washington, DC: Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands

This PowerPoint presentation accompanies a webinar that provides an overview of the Research Program Partnership at the University of Kansas and its work at Educare of Kansas City. Presenters share strategies for using child data as a tool to inform daily practice, to promote family engagement, and to plan within programs and agencies.

Other

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34.

Essential organizational supports for early education: The development of a new survey tool to measure organizational conditions
Ehrlich, Stacy, July, 2016
Chicago: University of Chicago Consortium on School Research.

We present this brief to practitioners and researchers who are interested in measuring the quality of organization-level supports. For all audiences, this brief aims to explain why the early education field would benefit from a measurement system that captures the strength of organizational processes. By providing concrete definitions of the organizational conditions being measured by our new surveys, we encourage practitioners to begin conceptualizing what this may mean for their own work. For other researchers seeking to develop new surveys, this brief provides a roadmap of our rigorous survey development process, whereby we describe our methods for achieving reliable and valid measurement of our intended constructs. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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35.

Examining a self-report measure of parent-teacher cocaring relationships and associations with parental involvement
Lang, Sarah N., January, 2017
Early Education and Development, 28(1), 96-114

By adapting a self-administered assessment of coparenting, we sought to provide a new tool, the Cocaring Relationship Questionnaire, to measure parent-teacher, or cocaring relationships, and provide additional construct validity for the multidimensional concept of cocaring. Next, recognizing the importance of parental involvement for young children's development, we examined the associations between dimensions of cocaring and aspects of parental involvement. We investigated the parent-teacher relationships of 90 families utilizing full-time, center-based childcare for their 12-36 month old children. Parents and teachers completed a set of questionnaires. Research findings: exploratory factor analysis revealed a four factor structure for the cocaring relationship: Support, Undermining, Endorsement, and Agreement. After controlling for a number of child- and parent-level covariates, parents' perceptions of different dimensions within the cocaring relationship were associated with different aspects of their self-reported and teacher-reported involvement. Most notably, parents' perception of cocaring support was positively associated with three different forms of parental involvement. Practice or Policy: the Cocaring Relationship Questionnaire offers researchers and practitioners a means to assess multiple dimensions within parent-teacher relationships. Understanding that parent-teacher relationships are multifaceted can help practitioners consider their interactions with families in new ways, which may influence, or be influenced by, parental involvement. (author abstract)

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36.

Examining the validity of the ECERS-R: Results from the German National Study of Child Care in Early Childhood
Mayer, Daniela, Q3 2016
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36(3), 415-426

The psychometric properties of the revised Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS-R) were examined using data from the German National Study of Child Care in Early Childhood (NUBBEK). Our findings on the validity of the ECERS-R replicate prior research on the scale's response process validity, structural validity, and criterion validity. The Partial Credit Model (PCM) identified disorder of rating categories. Factor analyses did not identify a single global factor of quality of child care, but three factors. Regression analyses revealed small effect sizes for predicting child outcomes and small to moderate effect sizes for predicting alternative measures of quality. Implications for the use and revision of the scale and the development of other measures of child care quality are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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37.

Exploring the use of emoji as a visual research method for eliciting young children's voices in childhood research
Fane, Jennifer, 2016
Early Child Development and Care, (), 1-16

Recognition of the need to move from research on children to research with children has prompted significant theoretical and methodological debate as to how young children can be positioned as active participants in the research process. Visual research methods such as drawing, photography, and videography have received substantive attention in child-centred research paradigms. However, despite their increasing ubiquity in young children's lifeworlds, technology or media-based visual materials have received little interest. This article reports on a study which used emoji as a visual research method for eliciting young children's (aged three to five years) understandings and experiences of well-being. Findings elucidate the capacity of emoji as a visual research method for eliciting children's voices, and considerations for its use in child research. (author abstract)

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38.

Factor analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for children in Head Start programs
Cress, Cynthia J., August, 2016
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34(5), 473-486

Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in preschool children. The PreBERS has well-established reliability and validity for typically developing children as well as children with identified special education needs, but this has not yet been established for children in Head Start programs, who tend to be at high risk for development of emotional and behavioral concerns. This study explores the factorial validity of the PreBERS scores for a large sample of children participating in Head Start programs around the United States. Results not only confirm the fit of the four-factor model of the PreBERS for this population, but also demonstrate the application of a bifactor model to the structure of the PreBERS which, in turn, allows for the computation of model-based reliability estimates for the four subscales (Emotional Regulation, School Readiness, Social Confidence, Family Involvement) and overall strength index score. The implications suggest that the PreBERS items are reliable scores that can be used to identify behavioral strengths in preschool children in Head Start, and support planning of interventions to selectively address component skills to promote child social and academic success. (author abstract)

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39.

Feasibility and acceptability of adapting the eating in the absence of hunger assessment for preschoolers in the classroom setting
Soltero, Erica G., December, 2015
Eating Behaviors, 19(), 68-71

Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) represents a failure to self-regulate intake leading to overconsumption. Existing research on EAH has come from the clinical setting, limiting our understanding of this behavior. The purpose of this study was to describe the adaptation of the clinical EAH paradigm for preschoolers to the classroom setting and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of measuring EAH in the classroom. The adapted protocol was implemented in childcare centers in Houston, Texas (N = 4) and Phoenix, Arizona (N = 2). The protocol was feasible, economical, and time efficient, eliminating previously identified barriers to administering the EAH assessment such as limited resources and the time constraint of delivering the assessment to participants individually. Implementation challenges included difficulty in choosing palatable test snacks that were in compliance with childcare center food regulations and the limited control over the meal that was administered prior to the assessment. The adapted protocol will allow for broader use of the EAH assessment and encourage researchers to incorporate the assessment into longitudinal studies in order to further our understanding of the causes and emergence of EAH. (author abstract)

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40.

Fidelity of implementation for an early-literacy intervention: Dimensionality and contribution to children's intervention outcomes
Guo, Ying, Q4 2016
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 37(4), 165-174

This study examined fidelity of implementation (FOI) in the context of an early-literacy intervention involving 83 early childhood special education (ECSE) teachers and 291 three- to five-year old children with disabilities in their classrooms. Adherence, dosage, participant responsiveness, and program differentiation were assessed as multiple dimensions of FOI. Results demonstrated that a three-factor model of adherence and dosage, participant responsiveness, and program differentiation offered the best fit to the data to represent FOI. Further, program differentiation significantly related to children's early-literacy gains, and the effects of the intervention on children's gains in early literacy were fully mediated by program differentiation. Findings have implications for the design of effective early-literacy interventions and also for theorizing the construct of FOI. (author abstract)

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41.

Finding and exploring existing large-scale data to study early care and education among Hispanics
Lopez, Michael, 13 October, 2016
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

This webinar, held on October 13, 2016, was hosted by Research Connections and the National Research Center on Hispanic Children and Families and was intended to help researchers learn about several new early care and education data resources. The National Research Center on Hispanic Children and Families recently released a series of data briefs and interactive tools to facilitate the access and use of existing, large-scale data sets to examine policy-relevant questions about early care and education use among low-income Hispanic families. The webinar introduced the series of four early care and education data briefs and described data sets that were included; described the use of the interactive tools; and provided two illustrative examples of how to use the briefs and interactive tools to access the most relevant data set(s) that will best help answer researchers' questions.

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42.

Finding and exploring existing large-scale data to study early care and education among Hispanics [PowerPoint]
Lopez, Michael, 13 October, 2016
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

This PowerPoint presentation accompanies a webinar held on October 13, 2016, hosted by Research Connections and the National Research Center on Hispanic Children and Families. The webinar was intended to help researchers learn about several new early care and education data resources. The National Research Center on Hispanic Children and Families recently released a series of data briefs and interactive tools to facilitate the access and use of existing, large-scale data sets to examine policy-relevant questions about early care and education use among low-income Hispanic families. The webinar introduced the series of four early care and education data briefs and described data sets that were included; described the use of the interactive tools; and provided two illustrative examples of how to use the briefs and interactive tools to access the most relevant data set(s) that will best help answer researchers' questions.

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43.

Framing mothers: Childcare research and the normalization of maternal care
Wolf, Joan B., Spring 2016
Signs, 41(3), 627-651

In this article, I deconstruct the mechanics of normalization in the National Institute of Child and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD). Conducted from 1991 to 2009, the SECCYD was intended to improve on earlier childcare studies, which were often small, concerned with only one moment in or aspect of development, and focused on "main effects" rather than on the interaction between multiple variables in widely varying family and childcare environments. In an effort to provide a "more holistic, context-sensitive, and dynamic" analysis (NICHD ECCRN 1994, 382), the study's investigators, the Early Child Care Research Network (ECCRN), looked for links between different home environments, child characteristics, and childcare situations. Roughly 1,300 families were examined according to various factors, including race, socioeconomic status, age, gender, parental attitudes and education, family size and structure, maternal depression, maternal sensitivity and responsiveness, and mother and child temperament. The study also distinguished among childcare situations according to type, size, quality, and quantity and then analyzed the interplay, across time, between different children, families, and forms of care (382, 384-87). Yet, as I will show, while the SECCYD took great care to break down such sweeping categories as "children," "family," and "childcare," it left in place a universal standard of primary maternal care. While it successfully challenged the idea that all children and all forms of care are analytically interchangeable, it also reinforced the notion that primary maternal care is normal for all children, or the standard by which any other care should be evaluated. (author abstract)

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44.

Generative mechanisms in early childhood interventions: A confirmatory research framework for prevention
Reynolds, Arthur J., October, 2016
Prevention Science, 17(7), 794-805

This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the Five-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion. (author abstract)

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45.

Getting better and better: How three QIS/QRIS systems are moving forward with quality
Mathias, Debi, 17 June, 2015
Boston: Build Initiative

This webinar examines ways in which states and localities are using data as a tool to improve their quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS). Presenters from Palm Beach, Florida, as well as New York and Washington State, discuss the implementation of expanded data-based systems in their states, the outputs of which have provided information valuable to stakeholder decisionmaking.

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46.

Getting better and better: How three QIS/QRIS systems are moving forward with quality [PowerPoint]
Mathias, Debi, 17 June, 2015
Boston: Build Initiative

This PowerPoint accompanies a webinar that examines ways in which states and localities are using data as a tool to improve their quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS). Presenters from Palm Beach, Florida, as well as New York and Washington State, discuss the implementation of expanded data-based systems in their states, the outputs of which have provided information valuable to stakeholder decisionmaking.

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47.

Governance, accountability and the datafication of early years education in England
Roberts-Holmes, Guy, August, 2016
British Educational Research Journal, 42(4), 600-613

In this paper we attempt to critically 'make visible the flow and circulation of data' through analyzing the datafication of the early years education sector in England (children aged 2-5). The concept of datafication is used to understand the processes and impacts of burgeoning data-based governance and accountability regimes. This analysis builds upon early childhood researchers who were influenced by Foucault and others, who have noted the ways in which the surveillance and performative culture of accountability both affirms, legitimates and seduces through discourses of quality while increasingly regulating and governing the early years. Using data from three research sites (a children's centre, a primary school and a combined nursery school and children's centre) as well as an interview with a local authority early years advisor, we examine how comparative data-based accountability increasingly governed early years teachers' professionalism and pedagogies. We argue that the planned tracking of children's performance from baseline assessment at four years old to eleven years old may further govern and constrain early years professionalism as young children are reconfigured as 'miniature centres of calculation'. (author abstract)

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48.

Group Mathematics Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation
Williams, Kathleen T., 2004
San Antonio, TX: Pearson Assessments.

Instruments

49.

Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation
Williams, Kathleen T., 2001
San Antonio, TX: Pearson Assessments.

Instruments

50.

Head Start and the distribution of long term education and labor market outcomes
Haan, Monique de, April, 2016
(Discussion Paper No. 9915). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

In this paper we investigate the effect of Head Start on long term education and labor market outcomes using data from the NLSY79. The contributions to the existing literature on the effectiveness of Head Start are threefold: (1) we are the first to examine distributional effects of Head Start on long term outcomes (2) we do not rely on quasi-experimental variation in Head Start participation but instead perform a nonparametric bounds analysis that relies on weak stochastic dominance assumptions and (3) we consider education and labor market outcomes observed for individuals in their early 30s. The results show that Head Start has a statistically significant positive effect on years of education, in particular for women, blacks and Hispanics. For wage income we also find evidence that Head Start has beneficial impacts, with effects located at the lower end of the distribution. (author abstract)

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