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1.

American Indian - Alaska Native Head Start Research and Outcomes Assessment (AIAN)
ORC Macro, 2002
ORC Macro

In 2001, the Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, began a two-year initiative to review existing information, collect new data, and explore research needs for American Indian-Alaska Native Head Start programs. The goal of the project was to develop research responsive to the needs of American Indian-Alaska Native Head Start programs-research that takes into account (1) the unique cultural environments and values of these populations and (2) provides information that programs can use to improve services provided to children and families. The Head Start Bureau provided funding directly to Tribes. Currently, 153 grantees in 27 states serve over 25,000 American Indian and Alaska Native children. To date, American Indian and Alaska Native children have not always been the direct beneficiaries of knowledge that has been gained through research. Very little evidence has been systematically gathered from Head Start programs that serve American Indian and Alaska Native children, often because the population is small and has not been included in major Head Start research projects. To begin addressing this absence of research, this project synthesized existing information, collected data through site visits to and interviews with staff from American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start programs, and consulted with experts in early childhood education for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The project addressed the following questions: - What are the research needs of American Indian and Alaskan Native programs? - What issues should be considered in conducting research in American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start programs? - How can the Administration for Children and Families support partnerships among researchers and American Indian-Alaska Native Head Start programs? - To what extent are the instruments, measures, and procedures currently used to assess child outcomes culturally appropriate? - What technical assistance would be helpful for program staff in terms of conducting developmental screenings and assessing child outcomes? - How can the Head Start monitoring process be strengthened to provide the most benefit to Head Start programs serving American Indians and Alaska Natives?

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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2.

Another look at the influence of maternal education on preschoolers' performance on two norm-referenced measures
Abel, Alyson D.; Schuele, C. Melanie; Barako-Arndt, Karen; et al., August, 2017
Communication Disorders Quarterly, 38(4), 231-241

The purpose of this study was (a) to describe the performance of preschool children from families with college-educated mothers on two norm-referenced measures, the Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4) and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Tests-III (PPVT-III), and (b) to compare the findings with Qi and colleagues who reported PLS and PPVT scores for children from lower income families. The study involved a secondary analysis of previously collected PLS-4 and PPVT-III data. Participants included 146 typically developing preschoolers who attended preschools serving primarily children from college-educated mothers. Mean standard scores on both measures were at the upper end or exceeded one standard deviation above the normative mean with distributions that approximated normal. Means also greatly exceeded the lower socioeconomic status (SES) group means reported by Qi and colleagues. These results suggest that subsample norms, based on SES, yield multiple distinct but overlapping distributions. Thus, test developers should consider providing subsample norms in addition to traditional population-based norms. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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3.

Assessing the early literacy skills of toddlers: The development of four foundational measures
Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.; Lowman, Jennifer L.; et al., March/April 2017
Early Child Development and Care, 187(3-4), 744-755

Several challenges arise when researchers or practitioners attempt to assess the literacy skills of toddlers, including a lack of developmentally appropriate measures, toddlers' more limited communication ability, and how literacy is defined in the years before age three. This paper describes four new measures of early literacy development and provides preliminary evidence of their reliability and validity. Results show that the measures of Representational Knowledge, Concepts About Symbols, Book Handling Skills, and Environmental Symbols all performed well in a sample of 148 toddlers. The findings hold several implications for the study of the literacy development of toddlers. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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4.

Assessing early literacy with Hispanic preschoolers: The factor structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening--Espanol
Yaden, Jr., David B.; Cutshaw, Chris; Marx, Ronald W.; et al., May, 2017
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 39(2), 193-210

For two decades, it has been recommended that assessment of literacy for preschool children be conducted in a child's primary language. However, only a few literacy assessments have been validated with a preschool, Spanish-speaking population. The purpose of the present study was to test the latent structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Preschool (PALS-PreK) Espanol with a sample of Spanish-speaking children in the southwestern United States. Children who could recognize at least 16 uppercase and nine lowercase letters were included in the analyses. Subscales of the PreK Espanol included Name Writing, Letter/Sound Association, Print Concepts, and Rhyme Awareness. Confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a two-factor model of alphabet knowledge (upper and lowercase letter recognition, letter sounds) and print and phonological awareness (name writing, print and rhyme awareness, letter sounds) with letter sounds loading on both factors. We found that the structure of PALS-PreK Espanol is similar to the English version and discussed implications. (author abstract)

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5.

Assessing the performance of nonexperimental estimators for evaluating Head Start
Griffen, Andrew S.; Todd, Petra E., July, 2017
Journal of Labor Economics, 35(S1), S7-S63

This paper uses experimental data from the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) combined with nonexperimental data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) to study the performance of nonexperimental estimators for evaluating Head Start program impacts. The estimators studied include parametric cross-section and difference-in-differences regression estimators and nonparametric cross-section and difference-in-differences matching estimators. The estimators are used to generate program impacts on cognitive achievement test scores, child health measures, parenting behaviors, and parent labor market outcomes. Some of the estimators closely reproduce the experimental results, but a priori it would be difficult to know whether the estimator works well for any particular outcome. Pre-program exogeneity tests eliminate some outcomes and estimators with the worst biases, but estimators/outcomes with substantial biases pass the tests. The difference-in-differences matching estimator exhibits the best performance in terms of low bias values and capturing the pattern of statistically significant treatment effects. However, the variation in bias is greater across outcomes examined than across methods. (author abstract)

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6.

Assessing quality of kindergarten classrooms in Singapore: Psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--Revised
Bull, Rebecca; Ng, Ee Lynn; Yao, Shih-Ying; et al., April, 2017
International Journal of Early Childhood, 49(1), 1-20

The early childhood sector in Singapore has witnessed vast changes in the past two decades. One of the key policy aims is to improve classroom quality. To ensure a rigorous evaluation of the quality of early childhood environments in Singapore, it is important to determine whether commonly used assessments of quality are valid indicators across different national and community contexts. This study investigated the validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--Revised (ECERS-R) in Singapore focused on three major aspects: response process, structural, and criterion validity. Data were collected from 108 classrooms of the main providers of kindergarten programs in Singapore. Initial analyses showed that the quality indicators in most of the ECERS-R items were disordered, which indicated problems with the hypothesized response process underlying the standard ECERS-R scoring system in which high-level indicators are only rated if low-level indicators are met (stop-scoring). To deal with the problem of the "stop-scoring" method, we used the data from a full-scoring method (in which every indicator on every item was rated) in subsequent factor analyses to investigate the internal structure of the ECERS-R. Twenty-two of the 34 items were retained and found to load on two factors, one relating to activities/materials and the other related to language/interactions. Both of the identified subscales and the combined scale showed good internal consistency. The factor score on the combined scale mirrored the ECERS-R full score and could discriminate between classrooms in the top and bottom quartiles of quality scores. Findings on the relationship between the identified factors to the teacher-child ratio and to an alternative measure of classroom quality provided further evidence for criterion validity of the ECERS-R. Implications for the future development and use of the ECERS-R are discussed. (author abstract)

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7.

Assessment of Curriculum Practices in Head Start
Bracken, Stacey Storch, 2001
State University of New York, Stony Brook

This study proposes to develop a Preschool Curriculum Q-sort to be used in assessing the degree to which engagement in particular classroom activities by teachers promotes language and literacy development in Head Start children. Specific objectives of the study include: (a) developing a Q-sort measure to assess preschool curriculum practices that is practical to use and comprehensive in measuring literacy and language activities; (b) instructing teachers in the use of the Q-sort and having them complete it at specific points during the school year; (c) validating the measure using independent observers; and (d) assessing the degree to which teachers' responses to Q-sort items relate to student growth in school readiness skills, particularly emergent literacy. The first year of the project will consist of two phases. In the fall, a pilot group of Head Start and private preschool teachers will form a focus group to collaborate with the researchers in developing, testing, and revising the curriculum measure. In the winter and spring of the first year, a sample of approximately 40 Head Start teachers and classroom aides from 20 classrooms will complete the Q-sort. Children from these classrooms will be tested on the measures listed below upon their entrance to and exit from Head Start. These classrooms will also be observed using the ECERS-R and the Observational Code for Literacy Interactions. The second year of the study will involve an expansion of the Q-sort to involve approximately 80 Head Start teachers, who will complete the Q-sort three times during the school year. In addition, a subsample of approximately 160 children will be randomly selected from half of these classrooms and assessed using the battery of child measures at two time points during the Head Start year, once at Head Start entry and once at Head Start exit.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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8.

Assessment of nutrition and physical activity environments in family child care homes: Modification and psychometric testing of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation
Vaughn, Amber; Ostbye, Truls; Tovar, Alison; et al., 29 August, 2017
BMC Public Health, 17(), 1-11

Background: Early care and education (ECE) settings play an important role in shaping the nutrition and physical activity habits of young children. Increasing research attention is being directed toward family child care homes (FCCHs) specifically. However, existing measures of child care nutrition and physical activity environments are limited in that they have been created for use with center-based programs and require modification for studies involving FCCHs. This paper describes the modification of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) for use in FCCHs. Methods: The EPAO underwent a through modification process that incorporated an updated format for the data collection instrument, assessment of emerging best practices, tailoring to the FCCH environment, and creation of a new scoring rubric. The new instrument was implemented as part of a larger randomized control trial. To assess inter-rater reliability, observations on 61 different days were performed independently by two data collectors. To assess construct validity, associations between EPAO scores and measures of children's dietary intake (Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score) and physical activity (accelerometer-measured minutes per hour of moderate to vigorous physical activity, MVPA) were examined. Results: The modified EPAO assesses 38 nutrition and 27 physical activity best practices, which can be summarized into 7 nutrition-related and 10 physical activity-related environmental sub- scores as well as overall nutrition and overall physical activity scores. There was generally good agreement between data collectors (ICC > 0.60). Reliability was slightly lower for feeding practices and physical activity education and professional development (ICC = 0.56 and 0.22, respectively). Child HEI was significantly correlated with the overall nutrition score (r = 0.23), foods provided (r = 0.28), beverages provided (r = 0.15), nutrition education and professional development (r = 0.21), and nutrition policy (r = 0.18). Child MVPA was significantly associated with overall time provided for activity (r = 0.18) and outdoor playtime (r = 0.20). There was also an unexpected negative association between child MVPA and screen time (-0.16) and screen time practices (r = -0.21). Conclusions: The EPAO for the FCCH instrument is a useful tool for researchers working with this unique type of ECE setting. It has undergone rigorous development and testing and appears to have good psychometric properties. (author abstract)

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9.

Authentic assessment for infants and toddlers: Exploring the reliability and validity of the Ounce Scale
Meisels, Samuel J.; Wen, Xiaoli; Beachy-Quick, Kristy; et al., April, 2010
Applied Developmental Science, 14(2), 55-71

This study used a mixed methods methodology to investigate the reliability and validity of the Ounce Scale, an authentic, observational assessment of infants' and toddlers' development from birth through 42 months of age. Quantitative cross-sectional data were collected from 287 children and 124 teachers in seven urban Early Head Start programs; qualitative data were derived from interviews with 21 teachers and seven supervisors. Data were collected across eight age groups. Results showed moderate reliability of the Ounce Scale and provided evidence of agreement with criterion measures for concurrent validity. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses demonstrated very good levels of accuracy in predicting which children were at-risk or not at-risk. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child and family variables, the Ounce Scale contributed significantly to explaining the variance in children's performance on the criterion measures. Analysis of qualitative interview data elaborates on these findings in terms of the strength-based philosophy of the caregivers, the binary structure of the scale, the cultural context in which the scale was used, and the need for additional professional development. Discussion also centers on the relationship between norm-referenced and performance-based assessments in early childhood. (author abstract)

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10.

A brief description of the Examining Data Informing Teaching (EDIT) measure
Akers, Lauren; Monahan, Shannon; Wasik, Barbara A.; et al., November, 2016
(OPRE Brief No. 2016-104). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

This brief introduces the Examining Data Informing Teaching (EDIT) measure for researchers who seek to learn about preschool classroom teachers' use of ongoing assessment data to individualize instruction. In this brief, we discuss the EDIT's multi-method procedures, structure, and scoring; testing to date and future testing needs; a process for training EDIT raters; and potential uses of the measure. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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11.

Causal mediation analysis in multi-site trials: An application of ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting to the Head Start Impact Study
Qin, Xu; Hong, Guanglei, 2014
In JSM Proceedings, Social Statistics Section (pp. 912-926). Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association

This study focuses on developing methods for causal mediation analysis in multisite trials and uses the national Head Start Impact Study as a motivating example. The causal effects of interest, defined in terms of potential outcomes, include the indirect effect of assignment to Head Start programs on child vocabulary learning mediated by a program-induced increase in parent reading to child and the direct effect of Head Start programs. The goal is to reveal not only the prevalent causal mechanism but also how the mechanism may vary across sites. Extending the ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting (RMPW) approach to causal mediation analysis in multi-site trials, we estimate the average direct effect, the average indirect effect, and the between-site variance and covariance of these causal effects. This strategy allows for treatment-by-mediator interaction. It greatly simplifies the outcome model specification and therefore avoids possible model misspecifications. The performance of the approach is assessed across a range of multi-site designs that differ in the number of sites and the sample size per site. We investigate the relative strengths and limitations of the RMPW strategy through simulations. (author abstract)

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12.

Comparing inference approaches for RD designs: A reexamination of the effect of Head Start on child mortality
Cattaneo, Matias D.; Vazquez-Bare, Gonzalo; Titiunik, Rocio; et al., Summer 2017
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 36(3), 643-681

The regression discontinuity (RD) design is a popular quasi-experimental design for causal inference and policy evaluation. The most common inference approaches in RD designs employ "flexible" parametric and nonparametric local polynomial methods, which rely on extrapolation and large-sample approximations of conditional expectations using observations somewhat near the cutoff that determines treatment assignment. An alternative inference approach employs the idea of local randomization, where the very few units closest to the cutoff are regarded as randomly assigned to treatment and finite-sample exact inference methods are used. In this paper, we contrast these approaches empirically by re-analyzing the influential findings of Ludwig and Miller (2007), who studied the effect of Head Start assistance on child mortality employing parametric RD methods. We first review methods based on approximations of conditional expectations, which are relatively well developed in the literature, and then present new methods based on randomization inference. In particular, we extend the local randomization framework to allow for parametric adjustments of the potential outcomes; our extended framework substantially relaxes strong assumptions in prior literature and better resembles other RD inference methods. We compare all these methods formally, focusing on both estimands and inference properties. In addition, we develop new approaches for randomization-based sensitivity analysis specifically tailored to RD designs. Applying all these methods to the Head Start data, we find that the original RD treatment effect reported in the literature is quite stable and robust, an empirical finding that enhances the credibility of the original result. All the empirical methods we discuss are readily available in general purpose software in R and Stata; we also provide the dataset and software code needed to replicate all our results. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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13.

Considerations for time sampling interval durations in the measurement of young children's classroom engagement
Zakszeski, Brittany N.; Wood, Brenna K.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; et al., May, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(1), 42-53

Classroom engagement is important to young children's academic and social development. Accurate methods of capturing this behavior are needed to inform and evaluate intervention efforts. This study compared the accuracy of interval durations (i.e., 5 s, 10 s, 15 s, 20 s, 30 s, and 60 s) of momentary time sampling (MTS) in approximating the duration of classroom engagement as measured by continuous duration recording (CDR). Twenty-four sessions of children in large-group instruction were observed using the Behavioral Observation of Students in School for Early Education (BOSS-EE). In general, shorter intervals produced engagement estimates that more highly correlated with CDR data and had less measurement error relative to estimates from longer intervals. Findings suggest that selection of MTS interval duration may affect the accuracy of estimates for children with low levels of engagement to a greater extent relative to children with high levels of engagement. Implications and future directions are discussed. (author abstract)

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14.

Considerations in preparing to analyze administrative data to address child care and early education research questions
Lin, Van-Kim Bui; Forry, Nicole D.; Maxwell, Kelly; et al., February, 2017
(OPRE Research Brief No. 2017-18). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

The purpose of this resource is to help researchers prepare for issues that may arise when using administrative data as the primary data source for a research project. This is the third in a series of resources related to the analysis of administrative data. The first resource, Developing Collaborative Partnerships with State Agencies to Strengthen Research Using Early Care and Education Administrative Data, provides considerations for building a strong partnership between researchers who want to analyze administrative data and the state partners who oversee the administrative data. The second resource, Determining the Feasibility of Using State Early Care and Education Administrative Data, is designed to help researchers and their state partners determine whether analyzing administrative data is feasible and appropriate for addressing their child care and early education research questions. Once researchers and state agency partners have determined that it is feasible to use administrative data to address a question of shared interest, then this third resource can be helpful in preparing to analyze the data. These resources have been designed for use by researchers who are new to the analysis of administrative data as well as seasoned researchers who are expanding their research to include new types of administrative data or expanding into new states or new agencies. The information generated for each of these resources was developed through conversations with grantees and researchers who have experience analyzing state administrative data. This resource is organized into six sections applicable to analyses of administrative data: 1) understanding the scope and limitations of administrative data when developing an analysis plan, 2) selecting variables to analyze, 3) assessing the feasibility of the plan, 4) preparing a data request, 5) creating a dataset, and 6) developing and maintaining adequate data documentation. For each of the sections, we have provided considerations, examples, and/or questions to ask that are specific to the use of state administrative data related to child care and early education. The purpose of each section is to provide insights to help researchers in identifying variables and problem solving issues that may arise in the analysis of administrative datasets. Although the sections are described separately, we expect the process to be iterative rather than linear, and to require continued discussions and reconsideration of decisions as new information is learned. (author abstract)

Other

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15.

Contextually Relevant Assessment of the Emotional and Behavioral Adjustment of Head Start Children
Lutz, Megan Noone, 1998
University of Pennsylvania

The primary purpose of this two-year research project was to develop an assessment tool to identify Head Start children with adjustment problems. The first objective was to develop a preschool version of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA), which assesses emotional and behavioral adjustment. The appropriateness of situations addressed on the ASCA was examined and new suggestions were considered for inclusion on the preschool version. The second objective was to examine the validity of the preschool measure for use in Head Start. Age and/or gender differences in Head Start children's problem behaviors were investigated. The final objective was to explore the usefulness of the measure in identifying at-risk children and determining effective interventions. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through interviews, surveys, and focus group meetings.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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16.

Conversation Compass(C) Communication Screener: A conversation screener for teachers
Gardner, Shari L.; Curenton, Stephanie M., March/April 2017
Early Child Development and Care, 187(3-4), 487-497

The purpose of this study was to report preliminary reliability and validity data from the Conversation Compass(C) Communication Screener (CCCS), a teacher-reported language screener intended to capture children's skills related to classroom conversations with peers and teachers. Three preschool teachers completed the CCCS and the Child Observation Record (COR) for 36 students. Results indicated six subscales -- literacy, clarity, social communication, decontextualized thinking, grammar, and negative communication behaviours -- in the CCCS were reliable at Cronbach's alphas of .71 or greater. Results also indicated its concurrent validity with the COR. Lastly, analyses indicated the screener was sensitive to maturation in conversation skills in that the measure was correlated with age. Implications are discussed in relation to how teachers can use this tool to inform their classroom practices. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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17.

Creating spaces to hear parents' voices: Methodological reflections on the Families Commission's early childhood care and education project involving some migrant and former refugee families
Kindon, Sara; Broome, Anne, June, 2009
Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 35, 139-151

How do recently arrived migrant and former refugee families from non-English-speaking backgrounds in Aotearoa New Zealand balance work, study and childcare? How do they access and experience early childhood care and education? This paper describes and reflects on a Families Commission-funded qualitative research project which sought to generate answers to these questions via focus groups and participatory diagramming. It outlines the context within which the research was commissioned before discussing the rationale and approach adopted. It offers reflections on the lessons learnt from negotiating cultural, linguistic and contextual differences, and from attempting to create appropriate spaces in which to listen to parents' experiences, including the context of the accountability environment of a New Zealand Crown entity. (author abstract)

Other

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18.

A critical review of the advantages and limitations of using large-scale national surveys to examine childcare patterns and the ECEC workforce in Britain
Simon, Antonia, 2017
Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, , 1-13

OECD countries have established statistical collections to ensure quality within Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). Focusing on one part of ECEC -- preschool 'childcare services' -- this paper critically reviews statistical collections specifically designed to measure childcare patterns in England alongside UK data collected for other purposes which can be used to examine childcare patterns. The paper evaluates how far these data provide a reliable basis for examining the childcare workforce, how well childcare usage and provision patterns can be analysed and the degree to which the data provide comparable geographical coverage. Results show analysis is restricted by the various ways data-sets count and classify occupations. Differences in geographical coverage make them difficult to compare. More refinement of occupation categories would make existing sources more useful. The themes discussed here are relevant for other countries seeking to understand how best to utilise their statistical collections for examining childcare patterns. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

19.

Culturally Sensitive Measurement of Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behaviors
Horodynski, Mildred A. Omar; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Weatherspoon, Lorraine; et al., 2004
Michigan State University

Michigan State University, working with eight Early Head Start (EHS) programs, developed a measure for assessing toddler-parent mealtime feeding behaviors. This measure can be used to (1) identify key issues in mealtime feeding behaviors that may inform appropriate intervention strategies and (2) evaluate family and EHS program progress in the area of toddler-parent mealtime feeding behaviors and toddler nutrition. Participants included African American mother-toddler dyads (N = 200) and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads (N = 200) enrolled in EHS. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase one consisted of focus group sessions with low-income, African American families with toddlers, with the goal of tailoring existing instruments developed for Caucasian EHS families with toddlers. Phase two employed survey methods to collect responses to survey items generated in the focus group sessions, with the goal of testing the psychometric properties of the measure within the two target populations and testing the validity of the self report measure. In Phase three, EHS staff were trained to use the measurement instruments. The expected outcome of this study was an observational measure that directly assesses parent-toddler mealtime feeding behavior as well as a companion self-report mealtime behavior measure that is culturally appropriate for use with both African American and Caucasian EHS families with toddlers.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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20.

Dads' Parenting Interactions with Children Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO-D): Developing a Measure for Head Start Practitioners to Use with Fathers
Anderson, Sheila; Roggman, Lori A., 2009
Utah State University

To promote father contributions to child development outcomes, Head Start/Early Head Start programs need a valid and reliable measure of positive father-child interaction linked to child outcomes. The purpose of this project is to develop a valid, reliable measure of father-child interaction that predicts child outcomes, identifies fathers' strengths, and meets the needs of Davis/Morgan/Summit Head Start/Early Head Start Fatherhood program. The new PICCOLO-D Checklist of father interactive behaviors will complement the PICCOLO Checklist developed for mothers (Roggman et al., 2009). The Checklist will be developed based on the literature on father-child interactions and validated using archived video clips of father-child interaction observations. After the measure is developed, it will be pilot field-tested and its usefulness for Head Start practitioners and programs evaluated.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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21.

Dads' Parent Interactions with Children-Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO-D): Developing an observational measure of father-child interaction
Anderson, Sheila, 2012
(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Utah State University, Logan, UT

Intervention programs providing support for father parenting skills need a practical but psychometrically strong observational measure of fathers' early positive parenting interactions with children. The primary purpose of this project was to develop a valid, reliable observational measure of father-child interaction, based on research and theory, that predicts child outcomes, identifies fathers' strengths, and will be useful for home visiting practitioners. This study sought to fulfill this need by developing a new measure called Dads' Parenting Interactions with Children--Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO-D) for home visitors to use to identify fathering strengths. Developed with extant video observations of over 400 ethnically diverse, low-income fathers, 73 positive observable behavioral items of early positive father-child interaction were tested for variability, reliability, and validity. The final measure of 21 items representing four domains of positive parenting, affection, responsiveness, encouragement, and teaching, demonstrated good reliability and validity, including associations with children's language, cognitive, and social emotional outcomes into prekindergarten. Contextual influences were examined within father ethnicity and child gender groups and in a second observational setting. European and Latino American fathers had higher scores than African American fathers. Fathers had higher scores with daughters than sons. Fathers had higher scores in a semistructured play setting than in a father-choice setting. The new measure is intended for use as part of an individualized strengths-based approach for home visiting practitioners. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

22.

Design for Migrant and Seasonal Head Start Survey
O'Brien, Robert W.; Barrueco, Sandra; Lopez, Michael; et al., 2007
CDM Group, The Catholic University of America, The National Center for Latino Child & Family Research, Social Dynamics, and Abt Associates

To further the expansion of Head Start research efforts, the Head Start Act of 1998 called for continued evaluation and research activities that explore program quality and effectiveness, identify ways in which services may be improved, and contribute to the understanding of the characteristics and needs of population groups eligible for services. The 'Design for Migrant and Seasonal Head Start Survey' project will provide ACF with a reliable and valid research plan to gather periodic information that describes the Migrant and Seasonal Head Start (MSHS) programs and participating families. In collaboration with Federal staff, this design project will be conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, including multicultural researchers, early childhood and dual language learner assessment experts, sampling and analytic specialists, and representatives from MSHS programs, families, and communities. The Design Team will draw on the experiences and findings from the existing descriptive studies of Head Start such as The Family and Child Experiences Survey and The Early Head Start Survey. These surveys provide state-of-the-art models for conducting periodic program surveys of MSHS and accurate estimates of the resources necessary to implement the study. The MSHS Survey design will be tailored to consider the unique characteristics of MSHS programs and families such as language needs, culture, services provided to children from birth to five years old, family mobility, and shorter and erratic service seasons. The result of this project will be a comprehensive, multi-method research design that describes variations in program services, identifies strengths and gaps in MSHS services, and describes the families and children served by the programs through observations, interviews, surveys, and direct assessments of children. The project will begin the work of establishing a collaborative research partnership with administrators, staff, children and families of MSHS and the Office of Head Start. The primary tasks of this project are to complete the sampling plan, select appropriate study instruments, provide a plan for working closely with MSHS programs, prepare a data collection plan, and develop a plan for data analyses.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

23.

Design Options for the Assessment of Head Start Quality Enhancements
Ross, Christine, 2003
Mathematica Policy Research

In September of 2003, the Office of Planning Research and Evaluation (OPRE) contracted with Mathematica to prepare design options for potential evaluations of Head Start quality enhancements. In light of Head Start's significant focus on quality improvement and the development and implementation of a wide range of enhancement ideas, this project was intended to explore ways to maximize learning from innovation. The project developed a framework for designing rigorous evaluations of enhancement initiatives and program variations in Head Start. The framework provides flexible guidelines for designing research to evaluate the effectiveness of specific quality enhancements in Head Start across a range of different settings, on either a small or large scale. The final report lays out this framework, identifies specific quality enhancement ideas related to Head Start's current activities and priorities, and describes appropriate evaluation options. While the report highlights specific interventions, the framework can be applied to any number of interventions.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

24.

Design Options for Understanding Child Maltreatment
Stagner, Matthew, 2015
Mathematica Policy Research

In September 2015, the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) in collaboration with the Children's Bureau awarded a contract to Mathematica Policy Research to carry out the Design Options for Understanding Child Maltreatment Incidence. The purpose of this project is to develop design options for a potential future study or group of studies that would leverage existing administrative data, innovative methods, and advanced statistical techniques to obtain accurate and ongoing surveillance on both the incidence of child abuse and neglect and types of related risk. This project will allow for the identification and prioritization of key research questions; exploration of design options, including innovative methodological approaches; review of existing administrative datasets and ongoing surveys; examination of measurement issues; and consideration of resource allocation.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

25.

Determining the feasibility of using state early care and education administrative data
Lin, Van-Kim Bui; Forry, Nicole D.; Maxwell, Kelly; et al., February, 2017
(OPRE Research Brief No. 2017-17). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

The purpose of this resource is to help early childhood researchers determine the feasibility of using administrative data in their research. Administrative data refers to information about individual children, families, and/or service providers that is collected and maintained as a part of program operations. Administrative data can describe and inform the implementation of policies and programs. This resource provides questions for researchers to consider and discuss with agency leaders before finalizing a research plan that uses administrative data. This resource has been designed for use by researchers who are new to the analysis of administrative data, as well as seasoned users of administrative data who are expanding their research to include new types of administrative data (e.g., expanding to a new state or new agency). The questions generated for this resource were developed through conversations with grantees and researchers who had experience analyzing state administrative data. Two other resources may be helpful to researchers interested in using early care and education administrative data: Developing Collaborative Partnerships with State Agencies to Strengthen Research Using Early Care and Education Administrative Data and Considerations in Preparing to Analyze Administrative Data to Address Early Care and Education Related Research Questions. We have organized this resource into three sections, each of which covers a different set of questions to help determine the feasibility of using administrative data: 1) data stewardship and management, 2) data contacts and coordination, and 3) data usability. (author abstract)

Other

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26.

Developing collaborative partnerships with state agencies to strengthen research using early care and education administrative data
Maxwell, Kelly; Lin, Van-Kim Bui, February, 2017
(OPRE Research Brief No. 2017-16). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Collaborative partnerships between researchers and agency staff are mutually beneficial, and they respect and build upon the specific expertise of each partner. While collaborative partnerships may take time to develop, they not only improve the feasibility and quality of research using administrative data but also support the applicability of research to inform policy and practice. Working together, researchers and agency staff can co-construct research questions that address issues related to program operations, policies, or pressing issues in the field that can be adequately answered with administrative data. The purpose of this resource is to offer ideas to researchers about how to build relationships with state partners to facilitate the effective use of administrative data for research and to inform policy. Different contexts, histories, and institutional capacities require distinct approaches to collaboration, so we offer researchers a range of possible strategies for establishing a partnership with state agency staff. This is the first in a series of three resources designed to help researchers interested in using administrative data. The other briefs in this series are entitled Determining the Feasibility of Using State Administrative Data and Considerations in Preparing to Analyze Administrative Data to Address Early Care and Education Related Research Questions. (author abstract)

Other

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27.

Developing Methods for Tracking Bilingual Children's Early Language Development
Pan, Barbara A.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; et al., 2004
Harvard University

Harvard University partnered with several Early Head Start (EHS)/Head Start programs in Boston and Lawrence, MA, to achieve two primary goals. First, project staff investigated the feasibility of combining parent and teacher reports of toddlers' vocabulary over time, with the ultimate goal of developing accurate, efficient means for EHS/Head Start staff to assess and monitor the vocabulary development of toddlers, particularly those from Spanish-speaking homes. Second, researchers focused analysis on developing a deeper understanding of language development and attrition in toddlers and preschoolers who are acquiring more than one language. Participants included a sample of approximately 75 toddlers from Spanish-speaking homes and a peer sample of approximately 45 toddlers from English-speaking homes. Children and families entered the study at child age 2, 2 1/2, or 3 years. Children were followed through their pre-kindergarten year of Head Start. Results informed development of an integrated system to identify appropriate reporter(s) and languages to be assessed, integrate reports from multiple reporters, and to display results over time.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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28.

Developing a Multidimensional Measure of Family Engagement for Toddlers in the Early Head Start Program: A Mixed-Method Approach
Bouza, Johayra; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J., 2016
University of Miami

This dissertation project has the following objectives: (1) to gain an understanding of family engagement from the perspective of Early Head Start (EHS) family support staff, teachers, and ethnically diverse families of toddlers; (2) to develop and obtain construct validity evidence for a measure of family engagement that is relevant for ethnically diverse Early Head Start families of toddlers; (3) to investigate the concurrent validity of the family engagement measure by examining its relationship with other constructs related to family engagement, children's social emotional skills, and children's language outcomes; and (4) to develop procedures and protocols in collaboration with the EHS program to ensure that the data from the measure is consistently used to inform appropriate and effective family intervention efforts in the center-based programs.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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29.

Developing a Parent-Derived Measure of Latino Family Involvement: A Mixed-Methods Approach with English-Learning Children and Their Families
McWayne, Christine M.; Melzi, Gigliana, 2007
New York University

New York University will examine the ways in which Spanish-speaking, Head Start Latino families support children's school readiness through their involvement behaviors. Specifically, the study will address four research questions: (a) how is family involvement in children's education conceptualized by Spanish-speaking Latino families? (b) can unique and reliable dimensions of family involvement in children's education be identified for Spanish-speaking Latino families of preschool children? (c) do dimensions of family involvement relate meaningfully to related parent constructs? and (d) do dimensions of family involvement relate meaningfully to preschool children's social-emotional and language skills? Study participants included a sample of Latino families drawn from 10 Head Start sites in Year 1, and 500 parent-child pairs drawn from various Head Start sites in Years 2-3. Results of the study are expected to provide a better understanding of culturally-situated practices as well as suggest implications for early childhood programs serving Latino families and children.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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30.

Developing short forms of the EARLI numeracy measures: Comparison of item selection methods
Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong; Morgan, Paul L.; et al., October, 2009
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69(5), 825-842

Currently, few measures are available to monitor young children's progress in acquiring key early academic skills. In response to this need, the authors have begun developing measures (i.e., the Early Arithmetic, Reading and Learning Indicators, or EARLI) of preschoolers' numeracy skills. To accurately and efficiently monitor acquisition of early skills, users require multiple short forms that are appropriate in difficulty level for young children at different points in time. In the current study, the authors used three item selection methods to create multiple short forms for two EARLI numeracy measures. The authors then compared these item selection methods on projected internal consistency and concurrent validity estimates for the resulting forms. The short forms selected by these methods did not differ significantly on either criterion and appeared to be sufficiently sensitive to measure initial and acquisition of numeracy skills over time by preschool children enrolled in Head Start. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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31.

Developing a tool to examine teachers' use of ongoing child assessment to individualize instruction
Monahan, Shannon; Akers, Lauren; Wasik, Barbara A.; et al., November, 2016
(OPRE Report No. 2016-103). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

In 2012, the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation at the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) engaged Mathematica Policy Research and its partners to conduct a project titled "Assessing Early Childhood Teachers' Use of Child Progress Monitoring to Individualize Teaching Practices." The purpose of the project was twofold: (1) to develop a research-informed conceptual model for early childhood teachers' use of ongoing assessment to individualize instruction, and (2) to create a measure to examine this process. Prior reports describe in detail the results of a literature review, conceptual framework, and measurement plan (Akers et al. 2014; Atkins-Burnett et al. 2014). This report describes the iterative development of the Examining Data Informing Teaching (EDIT) measure. This report includes the results of a pretest study in 18 classrooms and a proposal for next steps for the EDIT. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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32.

Developing a tool to examine teachers' use of ongoing child assessment to individualize instruction [Executive summary]
Monahan, Shannon; Akers, Lauren; Wasik, Barbara A.; et al., November, 2016
(OPRE Report No. 2016-103). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

In 2012, the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation at the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) engaged Mathematica Policy Research and its partners to conduct a project titled "Assessing Early Childhood Teachers' Use of Child Progress Monitoring to Individualize Teaching Practices." The purpose of the project was twofold: (1) to develop a research-informed conceptual model for early childhood teachers' use of ongoing assessment to individualize instruction, and (2) to create a measure to examine this process. Prior reports describe in detail the results of a literature review, conceptual framework, and measurement plan (Akers et al. 2014; Atkins-Burnett et al. 2014). This report describes the iterative development of the Examining Data Informing Teaching (EDIT) measure. This report includes the results of a pretest study in 18 classrooms and a proposal for next steps for the EDIT. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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33.

Development and transfer of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish-speaking language minority preschool children
Goodrich, J. Marc; Kleuver, Cherie G.; Farver, Jo Ann M.; et al., September, 2016
Journal of Child Language, 43(5), 969-992

In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N= 96, mean age = 54.51 months, 54.3% male; Sample 2: N= 116, mean age = 60.70 months, 56.0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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34.

Development of Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators for Head Start Populations
DiPerna, James C.; Morgan, Paul L.; Lei, Pui-Wa; et al., 2004
Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University partnered with the Lebanon County Head Start Program to develop a set of progress-monitoring measures to assess key early literacy and mathematics skills for 3-and-4-year old children enrolled in Head Start. The project carefully developed skill probes in the early literacy domain (including alphabet recitation, letter identification, letter-sound correspondence, and phonemic awareness) and in the early mathematics domain (including number recitation, number identification, counting, and subitizing). Participants included approximately 200 Head Start children per year. The measures developed for this study can help ensure that children are developing key literacy and mathematics skills and can provide data regarding when a child is at risk of later academic difficulty and would benefit from change in instruction.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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35.

Development of a Measure of Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality (FPTRQ)
Kim, Kwang; Forry, Nicole D.; Guzman, Lina; et al., 2010
Westat

The Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality (FPTRQ) project has developed new measures to assess the quality of family provider/teacher relationships in early care and education programs. The measures examine this relationship from both the parent and the provider/teacher perspectives, and capture important elements of family provider/teacher relationships, such as attitudes of respect, commitment, and openness to adapting practices. The project developed measures that are appropriate for use across different types of early care and education settings, including Head Start and Early Head Start programs, center based child care, pre-K classrooms, and home-based child care. In addition, a high priority of the project is to make the new measures culturally appropriate for diverse populations, including lower income and higher income families, ethnically/racially diverse providers and families, and non-English speaking families and providers.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

36.

Development of a Measure of the Quality of Caregiver-Child Interactions for Infants and Toddlers (Q-CCIIT)
Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Monahan, Shannon; Tarullo, Louisa B.; et al., 2010
Mathematica Policy Research

Under this project, DCFD developed a new measure that assesses the quality of caregiver-child interactions in settings serving infants and toddlers. The Quality of Caregiver-Child Interactions for Infants and Toddlers (Q-CCIIT) evaluates caregivers' responsiveness while accounting for the developmental levels of children from birth to three years old. Researchers will be able to apply Q-CCIIT to a variety of child care settings, including center-based and family child care homes, as well as both single- and mixed-aged classrooms. In addition to developing the tool, a psychometric field test was conducted to examine the reliability and validity of the new tool and ensure the soundness of the measure for diverse populations and settings. In 2015, DCFD began work to ensure the dissemination and sustainability of the Q-CCIIT through a variety of methods, including train-the-trainer models.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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37.

Development of measures to assess young children's early academic skills: Preliminary findings from a Head Start-University partnership
Reid, Erin E.; Morgan, Paul L.; Lei, Pui-Wa; et al., 2006
Insights on Learning Disabilities, 3(2), 25-38

The Early Arithmetic and Reading Learning Indicators (EARLI) Project is a Head Start-University partnership aimed at providing practitioners with brief, easy-to-administer, and psychometrically sound progress-monitoring measures of children's early literacy and mathematics skills. The development of these measures is an important contribution to the field of special education as early assessment can lead to early identification of learning difficulties, which in turn allows educators to target interventions toward young children at risk for developing learning problems later in their academic careers. In this article, we (a) provide both a historical and a research-based rationale for the EARLI project, (b) detail preliminary findings from the first year of the project, and (c) discuss directions for future research. (author abstract)

Other

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38.

Dialogic reading in early childhood settings: A summary of the evidence base
Towson, Jacqueline A.; Fleury, Veronica P.; Fettig, Angel; et al., November, 2017
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(3), 132-146

Dialogic reading (DR) is an evidence-based practice for young children who are typically developing and at risk for developmental delays, with encouraging evidence for children with disabilities. The purpose of this review was to comprehensively evaluate the evidence base of DR across early childhood settings, with specific attention to fidelity features. We coded identified studies (n = 30) published in peer-reviewed journals on a number of variables, including participant characteristics, setting, adherence to intervention components, fidelity of training procedures, implementation fidelity, dependent variables, overall outcomes, and study rigor. Our findings indicate wide variance is present in adherence to the DR protocol despite all studies reporting use of DR. In addition, although most researchers describe training procedures, none reported fidelity of those practices. Variability was also noted in how the implementation of DR with children is monitored in research. (author abstract)

Literature Review

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39.

Doing something differently: Lessons learned from a case study using implementation science to guide program change
Mathias, Debi; Perkins, Kelley; Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; et al., 12 December, 2016
Boston, MA: Build Initiative

This webinar discusses implementation science and how it can guide quality improvement initiatives and inform technical assistance. Presenters explore the role of implementation teams, data and feedback loops, and infrastructure as core elements that support continuous quality improvement. A case study of Rowan University's Early Childhood Demonstration Center in New Jersey provides an example of how these core elements are incorporated within stages of implementation. Implications for program administrators and technical assistants are discussed.

Multimedia

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40.

Doing something differently: Lessons learned from a case study using implementation science to guide program change [PowerPoint]
Mathias, Debi; Perkins, Kelley; Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; et al., 12 December, 2016
Boston, MA: Build Initiative

This PowerPoint presentation accompanies a webinar that discusses implementation science and how it can guide quality improvement initiatives and inform technical assistance. Presenters explore the role of implementation teams, data and feedback loops, and infrastructure as core elements that support continuous quality improvement. A case study of Rowan University's Early Childhood Demonstration Center in New Jersey provides an example of how these core elements are incorporated within stages of implementation. Implications for program administrators and technical assistants are discussed.

Other

41.

Dynamic assessment of narratives among Navajo Head Start children
Henderson, Davis E., May, 2017
(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

Purpose: Over-identification of Navajo Head Start children into special education on the Navajo Reservation has come to the attention of Tribal leaders, Educational leaders, and parents due to the use of invalid assessment measures. Dynamic assessment (DA) of narratives may be a tool for distinguishing language differences from language disorders. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the Predictive Early Assessment of Reading and Language (PEARL), a dynamic assessment of narratives, accurately classifies Navajo Head Start students with typically developing (TD) language or with language impairment (LI), and to examine which measures best predict children's overall performances on the PEARL. Method: Ninety, 4- and 5-year-old Navajo preschoolers with LI and with TD language were selected. Children completed the PEARL, which measured both language comprehension and production using pretest and posttest scores, and a modifiability scale. In addition, children completed the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamental, Preschool, Second Edition (CELF - Preschool 2) and language samples. A Navajo Speech Language Pathologist confirmed the diagnosis of the participants. Research assistants pretested, briefly taught the principles of narrative structure (story grammar, language complexity and episode) and evaluated response to learning using an index of modifiability. Results: Results of discriminant analysis indicated that PEARL pretest differentiated both ability groups with 89% accuracy. In addition, posttest scores discriminated with 89% accuracy and modifiability scores with 100% accuracy. Further, the subtest story grammar was the best predictor at pretest and posttest, although modifiability scores were better predictors of both ability groups. Conclusion: Findings indicate that the PEARL is a promising assessment for accurately differentiating Navajo preschool children with LI from Navajo preschool children with TD language. The PEARL's recommended pretest cut score over-identified Navajo children with TD language; therefore, a new recommended cut score was determined. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

42.

Dynamic Assessment of Narratives Among Navajo Preschoolers
Henderson, Davis E.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida, 2015
Arizona State University

Navajo Head Start children are more likely to be referred for language assessments and be over-identified with language disorders at higher rates (70%) than the main stream children (7%). There are no measures available to evaluate Navajo Head Start children that are valid for the population; and therefore, there is an urgent need for developing alternative assessments that are valid in this context with Navajo children. The purpose of this study is to examine whether a dynamic assessment measure, the Predictive Early Assessment of Reading and Language (PEARL) discriminates accurately Navajo children with language differences from those with language disorders.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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43.

Early Childhood Secondary Data Analysis Project
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 2012
Mathematica Policy Research

The purpose of this task order is to expand the knowledge base on early childhood development and programming by supporting secondary data analysis using archived datasets funded by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE). In the near term, it is expected that the focus will be on the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), Family and Child Experience Study (FACES), Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP), Early Head Start Family and Child Experience Study (Baby FACES), and Head Start Classroom-based Approaches and Resources for Emotion and Social skill promotion (Head Start CARES) datasets. Other Administration for Children and Families (ACF) datasets providing information regarding early childhood development may also be utilized including, for example, the data from the National Survey of Early Care and Education or the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. The primary role of this project will be to expand the knowledge base on early childhood development and programming to a new state of understanding through activities utilizing existing archived datasets maintained by ACF.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

44.

Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Study (Baby FACES)
Boller, Kimberly; Xue, Yange; Vogel, Cheri; et al., 2007
Mathematica Policy Research

The Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Study (Baby FACES) continues a series of ongoing descriptive studies aimed at maintaining an up-to-date, extensive knowledge base to support Early Head Start policies and programs. Building on the findings from the Survey of Early Head Start Programs, and similar in design to the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), Baby FACES has five main goals: - Provide descriptive information about Early Head Start services offered, their frequency and intensity; - Identify key characteristics of families currently served in Early Head Start; - Investigate how programs individualize services to meet family needs; - Learn how Early Head Start children and families are faring over time; and - Explore associations between the type and quality of Early Head Start services and child and family well-being. The study employs a longitudinal cohort design that identifies a representative sample of 89 Early Head Start programs in 2009 and two cohorts of families: (1) a perinatal group, and (2) a group of infants about 1 year old. Data are collected annually, in the spring, until the sample children reach 3 years of age and complete the Early Head Start program, with a supplemental interview about transition activities with some parents when the children are 3 1/2. The study has a wide group of experts in Early Head Start and early childhood development serving as consultants.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

45.

Early Head Start Program Performance Measures
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 2001
Mathematica Policy Research

As a national laboratory for early childhood education, Head Start has long emphasized continuous program improvement and has been a leader in developing outcome-oriented accountability. Head Start began developing program performance measures in 1995, and in 1997 the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES; ACYF, 2001) was launched to collect data on the performance indicators underlying the performance measures. Following the re-authorization of Head Start in 1998, Head Start programs were required to include child outcomes in their self-assessment by 2003. Furthermore, the National Reporting System, a new national child outcomes and assessment reporting system for all 4 and 5 year old children, was initiated in 2003. Although Early Head Start programs have not been required to report child outcomes or participate in the National Reporting System, many have started to define and measure outcomes. In spring 2001, the Head Start Bureau, decided to develop program performance measures for Head Start programs serving infants and toddlers (Early Head Start and Migrant Head Start) to support these efforts. The brief document entitled, Program Performance Measures for Head Start Programs Serving Infants and Toddlers, outlines the framework of intended goals for management systems, services, and outcomes for children and families as well as underlying performance measures for each goal. This framework is designed to support continuous program improvement efforts of individual programs as well as at the regional and national levels. The document entitled Serving Infants and Toddlers: A Resource Guide for Measures Services and Outcomes provides information for programs on creating a performance measurement plan, including guidelines for choosing appropriate measures and detailed information on selected instruments.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

46.

Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSRE)
Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Draper, Diane; Fine, Mark A.; et al., 1996
Mathematica Policy Research

The Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, a rigorous, large-scale, random-assignment evaluation of Early Head Start, was designed to carry out the recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers for a strong research and evaluation component to support continuous improvement within the Early Head Start program and to meet the 1994 reauthorization requirement for a national evaluation of the new infant-toddler program. The Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project was funded in three waves. The Congressionally-mandated Birth to Three Phase (1996-2001) included an Implementation Study, an Impact Evaluation that investigated program impacts on children and families through their time in the program, and local research projects. In 2001, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) funded the Pre-Kindergarten Follow-up Phase (2001-2004) to build upon the earlier research and follow the children and families who were in the original study from the time they left the Early Head Start program until they entered kindergarten. In 2005, ACF funded the Elementary School Follow-up Phase (2005-2010) to again build upon earlier research and follow the children and families from the original study while the children are in fifth grade, or attending their sixth year of formal schooling.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

47.

Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP): 1996-2010 measures compendium
Klein, Ashley Kopack; West, Jerry; Kemmerer, Charlene; et al., November, 2016
(OPRE Report 2016-101). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Early Head Start (EHS) is a two-generation program for pregnant women and families with infants or toddlers. Offered to those with limited incomes, its goal is to enhance children's development and health and to strengthen family and community partnerships. The Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (ACF), was designed to answer questions about the overall impact of EHS programs and services on children and families and reveal how specific types of programs and services affect children and families that have different characteristics and life circumstances. Mathematica Policy Research led the rigorous evaluation, which was launched at about the same time the EHS program was authorized in 1995. In this data compendium, we provide a single source for information about the measures used throughout the EHSREP. We begin with an overview of the EHSREP design and then report the sample, data collection instruments, and response rates for each of three EHSREP data collection phases (birth to age 3, prekindergarten, and grade 5). Next, we describe the various data sets and documentation that are available to data users, and we provide a general description of how we have organized the more detailed information on the measures we used to create variables and scores for the public use data files. Appendix A contains detailed descriptions of the measures, including measure citations, publisher psychometrics and permissions, the wave or waves in which each measure was used, and information on the scales or variables in the EHSREP data set that were derived from these measures. (author abstract)

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48.

Early Learning Mentor Coach (ELMC) Study: Coach Survey
Howard, Eboni C.; Hawkinson, Laura E.; Helsel, Fiona; et al., 11 June, 2011
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Instruments

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49.

Early Learning Mentor Coach (ELMC) Study: Grantee Survey
Howard, Eboni C.; Hawkinson, Laura E.; Helsel, Fiona; et al., 11 June, 2011
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Instruments

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50.

An early years toolbox for assessing early executive function, language, self-regulation, and social development: Validity, reliability, and preliminary norms
Howard, Steven J.; Melhuish, Edward, June, 2017
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 35(3), 255-275

Several methods of assessing executive function (EF), self-regulation, language development, and social development in young children have been developed over previous decades. Yet new technologies make available methods of assessment not previously considered. In resolving conceptual and pragmatic limitations of existing tools, the Early Years Toolbox (EYT) offers substantial advantages for early assessment of language, EF, self-regulation, and social development. In the current study, results of our large-scale administration of this toolbox to 1,764 preschool and early primary school students indicated very good reliability, convergent validity with existing measures, and developmental sensitivity. Results were also suggestive of better capture of children's emerging abilities relative to comparison measures. Preliminary norms are presented, showing a clear developmental trajectory across half-year age groups. The accessibility of the EYT, as well as its advantages over existing measures, offers considerably enhanced opportunities for objective measurement of young children's abilities to enable research and educational applications. (author abstract)

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