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1.

ABLE: A system for mental health screening and care for preschool children
Barbarin, Oscar, 2006
In B. T. Bowman & E. Moore (Eds.), School readiness and social-emotional development: Perspectives on cultural diversity (pp. 77-88). Washington, DC: National Black Child Development Institute

A proposal of a tool for the early detection of behavioral and emotional problems in special needs children

Other

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2.

Academic competence in preschool: Exploring the role of close relationships and anxiety
Wood, Jeffrey J., 2007
Early Education and Development, 18(2), 223-242

A discussion of preschool children’s psychosocial pathway to school readiness and the importance of primary caregiver attachment as it relates to children’s anxiety, peer relationships and academic success, based on parent and teacher interviews and evaluations of 31 preschool children

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3.

The accessibility of socio-dramatic play to culturally and linguistically diverse Australian preschoolers
Scrafton, Eleanor; Whitington, Victoria, April, 2015
European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 23(2), 213-228

Socio-dramatic play is preschool children's leading learning activity (Karpov 2005; Vygotsky 1978). Yet entering play often poses challenges (Corsaro 2003), particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) children (Hruska 2007). At preschool four-year-old CALD children are both acquiring a new language, and learning new rules, social structures and cultures. As 18% of Australian children possess diverse language heritages (Centre for Community Child Health and Telethon Institute for Child Health Research 2011), many CALD preschoolers may have compromised access to play. Using a multi-case study purposive design, this study investigated the circumstances under which CALD preschoolers access play. Ten children and four educators participated. Shyness/sociability, strategy use, English proficiency, common home knowledge and interests, mutual peer relationships, and peer support were found to be important to access. Recommendations include educator support for particularly shy, home-language-isolated CALD children through explicit language and social support, within a relevant, stimulating physical environment. (author abstract)

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4.

Accessing and affording child care and low-income mothers' employment over time: An ecological approach
Shjegstad, Brinn, 2009
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames

A study of the influence of child problem behaviors and maternal risk factors on low-income mothers’ ability to access and afford child care, an examination of family income as a mediator of the relationships between child problem behaviors, maternal risk factors and low-income mothers’ ability to access and afford child care, and an examination of the relationships between low-income mothers’ ability to access and afford child care and family income, child problem behaviors, maternal risk factors, and ability to obtain and maintain employment

Reports & Papers

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5.

Adding learning resources: A study of two toddlers' modes and trajectories of participation in early childhood education
Kultti, Anne, June, 2015
International Journal of Early Years Education, 23(2), 209-221

This study focuses on the nature of children's participation in an Australian early childhood context in which their second language is used. The aim is to create knowledge of toddlers' modes and trajectories of participation. Empirical data documenting the participation of two toddlers were gathered through video observations of everyday activities in the childcare programme across six weeks. The concepts of legitimate peripheral participation and changed participation were used as analytical tools for interpreting the empirical data. Interaction of the toddlers is illustrated through images and transcripts. The analysis show how their participation is carried out through non-verbal communication in silence and movement, and how the toddlers moved, in different ways, towards coordinating activities with other children. The children's trajectories illustrate how they come to participate in different ways and with additional learning resources. How the pedagogical approach acknowledges non-verbal actions and offers multiple modes and trajectories of participation is discussed. (author abstract)

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6.

Addressing challenging behaviors in Head Start: A closer look at program policies and procedures
Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene; et al., February, 2011
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30(4), 209-220

An examination of Head Start policies and procedures related to child guidance and challenging behaviors, based on interviews with program staff and document analysis from 6 Head Start programs in the Midwest

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7.

Addressing disruptive behaviors in the preschool classroom: An adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for Head Start teachers
Collett, Brent R., 2002
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Utah State University, Logan

A study describing the development, implementation, and evaluation of an early intervention program designed to improve teaching strategies and practices for Head Start children with behavioral problems

Reports & Papers

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8.

Addressing early adversity through mental health consultation in early childhood settings
Perry, Deborah F.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A., February, 2016
Family Relations, 65(1), 24-36

The science of early childhood adversity has advanced in recent years, documenting long-term consequences of exposure to traumatic events and toxic stress for health and development. Sequelae of toxic stress exposure can be mitigated by the buffering effect of a caregiver who can help young children manage their reactivity to these early stressors. Interventions are needed to build the capacity for caregivers (including the early childhood workforce) to build resilience in young children exposed to early adversity. This article shares best practices from the field of early childhood mental health consultation (ECMHC) as a strategy to help reduce the impact of stressors on young children. ECMHC embedded with child care, focused on children in foster care, and lessons learned from early work on ECMHC in home visiting are highlighted as examples of interventions to build the buffering capacities of important adults in children's lives. Policy recommendations are offered for integrating mental health services into early childhood settings to build resilience in high-risk children and families. (author abstract)

Other

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9.

Addressing social-emotional development and infant mental health in early childhood systems
Zeanah, Paula D.; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Stafford, Brian S.; et al., 2005
(Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series No. 12). University of California, Los Angeles, National Center for Infant and Early Childhood Health Policy.

A policy report addressing several issues associated with infant mental health (IMH), including organization; delivery of services; and funding and training opportunities

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10.

Adjustment to the first year in school: A Singapore perspective
Yeo, Lay See; Clarke, Christine, 2006
European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 14(2), 55-68

An examination of adjustment to school by 90 first graders from different ethnic, language, and socioeconomic backgrounds entering a school in western Singapore

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11.

Administering measures from the PRI Learning-Related Cognitive Self-Regulation Study : (Peg Tap, Head Toes Knees Shoulders, Dimensional Change Card Sort, Kansas-Reflection Impulsivity Scale for Preschoolers, Digit Span, Copy Design)
Meador, Deanna N.; Lipsey, Mark W.; Farran, Dale Clark; et al.,
Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University, Peabody Research Institute.

The Learning-Related Cognitive Self-Regulation School Readiness Measures for Preschool Children Study (aka the Self-Regulation Measurement Study), was designed to develop measures of learning-related cognitive self-regulation for Pre-K children that are both 1) predictive of their achievement gains and 2) easily used in Pre-K settings (portable, do not require computer administration). Such measures are in great need for screening Pre-K children to identify those with weak cognitive self-regulation skills that put them at risk for poor academic achievement and for tracking improvements in cognitive self-regulation that result from classroom practices aimed at facilitating those skills in young children. This project consisted of two phases. The goal of Phase One was to develop a child assessment battery and parallel teacher rating instrument that best met the above criteria. The goal of Phase Two was to cross-validate the refined child assessment battery and the parallel teacher rating instrument developed in Phase One. This guide contains information on the administration and scoring for six measures of self-regulation identified in this study as being easily administered and the most predictive of achievement gains across the Pre-K year. (author abstract)

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12.

Adolescent emotional and behavioural outcomes of nonparental preschool childcare
Liang, Holan; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; et al., March, 2012
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(3), 399-407

An examination of the relationship between nonparental early child care and adolescent mental health outcomes, based on a secondary analysis of data from 197 participants in the Croydon Assessment of Learning Study in the United Kingdom

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13.

Adult attunement and child availability: Interaction of mother and caregiver with three-year-old Kibbutz children
Eshel, Yohanan; Landau, Rivka; Ben-Aaron, Miriam; et al., 2000
Infant Mental Health Journal, 21(6), 411-427

An investigation of adult attentiveness and intrusiveness in dyadic relations between children and their mothers and caregivers, in a sample of 33 three-year-old Kibbutz children in Israel

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14.

Adults' imagination and young children's experiences of quality in early years education [Special issue]
Munn, Penny, March 2010
International Journal of Early Years Education, 18(1)

A special issue of the International Journal of Early Years Education, focusing on the adult use of imagination to create social spaces for young children

Other

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15.

Adult talk in the inclusive classroom and the socially competent behavior of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder
Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Odom, Samuel L.; et al., 2014
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, , 1-12

Difficulty with social competence is a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine the link between adult talk and the socially competent behavior displayed by preschoolers with ASD concurrently and over time. A modified version of Kontos's Teacher Talk classification was used to code videos of 73 children with ASD (ages 3-5) in inclusive classrooms (n = 33). Supporting peer relation and positive social contact forms of adult talk were concurrently associated with children's socially competent behavior. In comparison, higher amounts of supporting object play talk positively affected children's social competence over time (i.e., 1 school year), and more behavior management talk was related to worsening social competence as perceived by teachers. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. (author abstract)

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16.

Advancement of preschoolers' resilience: The A.R.Y.A. Project
Israelashvili, Moshe; Wegman-Rozi, Orit, 2003
Early Childhood Education Journal, 31(2), 101-105

A discussion of the Advancement of Preschoolers’ Resilience Project's (A.R.Y.A.) resiliency-building intervention program for 4-year-old kindergarten students in Israel

Other

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17.

Aesthetic experience and early language and literacy development
Johnson, Helen L., April 2007
Early Child Development and Care, 177(3), 311-320

An exploration of the connections between theory and research in language development and children’s engagement with the arts, and their implications for early childhood classroom practice

Other

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18.

Affecting girls' activity and job interests through play: The moderating roles of personal gender salience and game characteristics
Coyle, Emily F.; Liben, Lynn S., March/April 2016
Child Development, 87(2), 414-428

Gender schema theory (GST) posits that children approach opportunities perceived as gender appropriate, avoiding those deemed gender inappropriate, in turn affecting gender-differentiated career trajectories. To test the hypothesis that children's gender salience filters (GSF--tendency to attend to gender) moderate these processes, 62 preschool girls (M = 4.5 years) were given GSF measures. Two weeks later, they played a computer game about occupations that manipulated the game-character's femininity (hyperfeminized Barbie vs. less feminized Playmobil Jane). Following game play, girls' interests in feminine activities showed an interaction of game condition and GSF: High-GSF girls showed intensified feminine activity interests only with Barbie; low-GSF girls showed no change with either character. Neither GSF nor game condition affected occupational interests. Implications for GST, individual differences, and occupational interventions are discussed. (author abstract)

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19.

The affective bond between preschool aged children and mentors
Moffatt, Michael J., 1997
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New School University, New York

A study on the effects of mentoring relationships on preschool age children’s behavior within the context of Head Start programs

Reports & Papers

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20.

Affective social competence and teacher-child relationship quality: Race/ethnicity and family income level as moderators
Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita, August, 2015
Social Development, 24(3), 678-697

This study examined whether race/ethnicity and family income level moderated associations between children's affective social competence and teacher-child relationships among 132 Black, White, and Latino preschoolers. Boys and girls were equally represented in the sample. Of the three racial/ethnic groups, Latino children scored lowest on emotion regulation, were less close to their teachers, and experienced more teacher-child conflict and dependence. In contrast, Black children had closer, less conflict-laden, and less dependent teacher-child relationships than children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds. Emotion regulation served as a protective factor against problematic teacher-child relationships, particularly for Latino and Black children compared with high-income White children. Emotion regulation was positively associated with teacher-child closeness for Black children. However, it was negatively associated with teacher-child conflict for Latino children, regardless of income. For all outcomes, teacher characteristics accounted highly for the differences in teacher-child relational quality. Findings are discussed in terms of the functional role of emotions for teacher-child relationships and suggest important contextual influences on the associations. (author abstract)

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21.

Affiliative subgroups in preschool classrooms: Integrating constructs and methods from social ethology and sociometric traditions
Santos, Antonio J.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.; et al., 02 July, 2015
PLoS One, 10(7), 1-17

Recent studies of school-age children and adolescents have used social network analyses to characterize selection and socialization aspects of peer groups. Fewer network studies have been reported for preschool classrooms and many of those have focused on structural descriptions of peer networks, and/or, on selection processes rather than on social functions of subgroup membership. In this study we started by identifying and describing different types of affiliative subgroups (HMP- high mutual proximity, LMP- low mutual proximity, and ungrouped children) in a sample of 240 Portuguese preschool children using nearest neighbor observations. Next, we used additional behavioral observations and sociometric data to show that HMP and LMP subgroups are functionally distinct: HMP subgroups appear to reflect friendship relations, whereas LMP subgroups appear to reflect common social goals, but without strong, within-subgroup dyadic ties. Finally, we examined the longitudinal implications of subgroup membership and show that children classified as HMP in consecutive years had more reciprocated friendships than did children whose subgroup classification changed from LMP or ungrouped to HMP. These results extend previous findings reported for North American peer groups. (author abstract)

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22.

African American and Puerto Rican American parenting styles, paternal involvement, and Head Start children's social competence
Fagan, Jay, 2000
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46(4), 592-612

A comparison of African-American and Puerto Rican-American parenting styles and paternal involvement, and an examination of the relationship of mother’s and father’s parenting styles and child care involvement on Head Start participating children’s social competence

Reports & Papers

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23.

After-school activities and the development of low-income urban children: A longitudinal study
Posner, Jill K.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe, 1999
Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 868-879

A longitudinal study of the relationships among child characteristics, academic performance, social adjustment, after school program participation and family variables for children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families in third and fifth grade

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24.

Afterschool Alliance backgrounder: Formal evaluations of afterschool programs' impact on behavior, safety and family life
Afterschool Alliance, August, 2005
Washington, DC: Afterschool Alliance.

A review of evaluations of the impact of after school programs on student safety, behavior, and discipline, and on parents' concerns about their children's safety

Other

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25.

After-school care arrangements and maternal employment: A study of the effects on third and fourth grade children
Howie, Pauline M., 1996
Child & Youth Care Forum, 25(1), 29-43

A study on the effects of parental and non-parental child care on the self esteem and school achievement of third and fourth grade Australian children

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26.

After-school child care in an elementary school: Social development and continuity and complementarity of programs
Howes, Carollee; Der-Kiureghian, Tagoush; Olenick, Michael; et al., 1987
Elementary School Journal, 88(1), 93-103

A study of the impact of an out-of-school child care program on the social experiences and social development of 30 kindergarten-age children versus children that went home after school

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27.

Age at preschool entrance and noncognitive skills before school: An instrumental variable approach
Schlotter, Martin, November, 2011
(Ifo Working Paper No. 112). Munich, Germany: Ifo-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung (Ifo Institute for Economic Research Munich).

A study of the relationship of children's age at preschool entry to behavioral and socioemotional skills in the year prior to starting school in Germany, based on maternal reports collected at age 5 and 6 of children's date of preschool entry and children's assertiveness and ability to form friendships

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28.

Age-related changes in preschool children's systematic use of private speech in a natural setting
Winsler, Adam; Barry, Maryann J.; Carlton, Martha P.; et al., 2000
Journal of Child Language, 27(3), 665-687

An into the situational use of self-talk by preschool students, based on observations of 14 three- and four-year-old children from two preschool classrooms in the southeastern United States

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29.

Aggression: Is it stimulated by daycare?
Finkelstein, Neal W., 1982
Young Children, 37(1), 3-9

A description of the child care program, Carolina Abecadarian Project, and its effective social development remedies on aggressive peer interactions

Reports & Papers

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30.

Aggressive and prosocial children's evaluation and justification of transgressions and their relationship to the teacher-child relationship in Tanzania
Shavega, Theresia J.; Brugman, Daniel; Tuijl, Cathy van; et al., Q3 2016
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36(3), 233-243

This cross-sectional study examines the evaluation and justification of transgressions in the moral and non-moral domain by children nominated by their peers as prosocial or as aggressive, and their relationship to the teacher-child relationship. Eighty children from ten pre-primary schools, 40 nominated as prosocial and 40 as aggressive, aged 5-7 years (M = 6.0 and SD = .64), responded to hypothetical transgression stories in the moral and non-moral domain. Children from both groups evaluated moral transgressions as more wrong than non-moral transgressions. However, children nominated as prosocial more frequently evaluated the moral transgressions as wrong compared to children nominated as aggressive. Furthermore, children nominated as prosocial more frequently justified moral transgressions on the basis of intrinsic factors, whereas both groups more frequently justified non-moral transgressions on the basis of non-moral factors. Teacher-child relationship was more strongly related to children's peer nominated social behavior than children's evaluation of transgressions in the moral and non-moral domain. (author abstract)

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31.

Aggressors, victims, and defenders in preschool: Peer, self-, and teacher reports
Monks, Claire P.; Smith, Peter K.; Swettenham, John; et al., 2003
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49(4), 453-469

An interview-based analysis of the differences in perceptions of aggressor, victim, and defender roles among young British children and their teachers and peers in school settings

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32.

Agreement between parents and teachers on preschool children's behavior in a clinical sample with externalizing behavioral problems
Korsch, Franziska; Petermann, Franz, October, 2014
Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 45(5), 616-627

An accurate interpretation of information obtained from multiple assessors is indispensible when complex diagnoses of behavioral problems in children need to be confirmed. The present study examined the similarity of parents and kindergarten teachers ratings on children's behavior in a sample of 160 preschool children (a clinical group including 80 children with externalizing behavioral problems and a matched control group including 80 children). Behavioral problems were assessed using the SDQ, and the DISYPS-II questionnaires for ADHD and conduct disorders. The results revealed low levels of parent-teacher agreement for their ratings on the children's behavior in both groups with the highest correlations in the non-clinical sample. Parent-teacher agreement did not differ significantly across the samples. Parent and teacher ratings correlated with the prevalence of externalizing disorders and were found to be almost independent of each other. The results highlight the importance of multiple informants and their independent influence within the diagnostic process. (author abstract)

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33.

Alabama PK expulsion fact sheet
Gilliam, Walter S., 2005
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

A fact sheet detailing statistics on Alabama's preschool children, including comparing the state's expulsion rate with the nation's expulsion rate

Fact Sheets & Briefs

34.

Alaska PK expulsion fact sheet
Gilliam, Walter S., 2005
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

A statistical fact sheet on the expulsion rate of the Alaska State Funded Head Start program as compared with the national expulsion rate for state funded preschools

Fact Sheets & Briefs

35.

All children ready for school: Social-emotional development
Hutter-Pishgahi, Lois, 2006
(Early Childhood Briefing Paper Series). Bloomington, IN: Indiana Institute on Disability and Community, Early Childhood Center.

A discussion of the importance of children's socioemotional development in their preparation for school

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36.

Allegiances or attachments: Relationships among infants and their daycare teachers
Farran, Dale Clark; Hutaff, Susan E.; Ramey, Craig T.; et al., 1984
In R. Ainslie (Ed.), The child and the daycare setting: Qualitative variations and development (pp. 133-158). New York: Praeger Publishers

A study of infants’ social interactions and relationships with alternative caregivers in child care

Reports & Papers

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37.

Alternate child care, history of hospitalization, and preschool child behavior
Youngblut, JoAnne M.; Brooten, Dorothy, 1999
Nursing Research, 48(1), 29-34

An examination of alternate child care experiences on the relationship between hospitalization and behavior of preschool children living in female-headed single-parent families

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38.

Analysis of two early childhood education settings: Classroom variables and peer verbal interaction
Hojnoski, Robin L.; Harman, Jennifer L.; Sumara, Kimberly; et al., Winter 2008
Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 23(2), 193-209

An observational study of peer verbal interactions, types of activities, social configurations, and teacher behaviors at both a Montessori and a traditional preschool in an urban area

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39.

Antecedents and correlates of the popular-aggressive phenomenon in elementary school
Rodkin, Philip C.; Roisman, Glenn I., May/June 2010
Early Child Development and Care, 81(3), 837-850

A study of the relationship between popular-aggressive behavior in grades 3 through 6 and cognitive functioning, maternal sensitivity, and participation in child care through age 4.5 from a secondary analysis of data from 1022 children

Reports & Papers

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40.

The application of the preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form to mainland Chinese children: Syndrome structure, gender differences, country effects, and inter-informant agreement
Liu, Jianghong; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Cheng, Halina; et al., February 2011
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(2), 251-264

A test of the cross-cultural factorial validity of the Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form, the applicability of the taxonomy of preschool psychopathology they embody to Mainland Chinese preschoolers, an examination of country effects, gender differences, and cross-informant agreement between teachers and parents, based on data from 876 Chinese preschoolers and the original United States sample upon which the instruments were normed

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41.

Are approaches to learning in kindergarten associated with academic and social competence similarly?
Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; et al., December, 2015
Child & Youth Care Forum, 44(6), 757-776

Approaches to learning (ATL) is a key domain of school readiness with important implications for children's academic trajectories. Interestingly, however, the impact of early ATL on children's social competence has not been examined. Objective This study examines associations between children's ATL at age 5 and academic achievement and social competence at age 9 within an at-risk sample. We tested whether ATL followed a compensatory growth model (was most helpful to those with the fewest skills) with respect to academics, and a cumulative advantage model (was most helpful to those with the most skills) with respect to socioemotional outcomes. Methods Participants (n = 669) were drawn from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a predominantly low-income, minority sample. Models regressing age 9 academic and social competence on age 5 ATL tested for moderation of ATL by age 5 levels of competence within each domain. Results ATL was associated with both academic (i.e., reading and math achievement) and social (i.e., externalizing problems and social skills) competence. Interestingly, ATL was more advantageous with respect to externalizing problems for children with higher initial levels of competence (fewer problem behaviors), but more advantageous for academic competence for children with lower initial levels of competence. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of early ATL for both academic and social success and support it as a critical intervention target. While ATL may help narrow the achievement gap for at-risk children, reducing the gap in externalizing problems may require targeted strategies for those with high early problem behavior. (author abstract)

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42.

Are children ready for school?: Assessment of kindergarten readiness in San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties: Special issue report on self-regulation
Santa Clara County Partnership for School Readiness; Peninsula Community Foundation (Menlo Park, Calif.). Peninsula Partnership for Children, Youth and Families, 2006
San Jose, CA: Santa Clara County Partnership for School Readiness.

Findings from a study of school readiness in San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties, California, that focus particularly on the importance that early childhood education and kindergarten teachers place on self-regulation for children's school readiness

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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43.

Are insecure-avoidant infants with extensive day-care experience less stressed by and more independent in the Strange Situation
Belsky, Jay; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M., 1991
Child Development, 62(3), 567-571

A study of the relationship between child reactions to stressful situations and the amount of non-parental child care experienced by the child in his or her first year, in a sample of 20 insecure-avoidant infants

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44.

Are there long-term effects of early child care?
Belsky, Jay; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; NICHD Early Child Care Research Network; et al., March/April 2007
Child Development, 78(2), 681-701

An analysis of the links between early child care and school-age children's development, socioemotional functioning, and academic performance, based on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

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45.

Are we leaving them behind?: The case for helping childcare providers and parents address behavioral problems in very young children
Jewish Healthcare Foundation, 2002
Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, School of Education, Office of Child Development.

A study of the status of behavioral health services available to children from birth to age five in early care and education settings in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

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46.

Are we talking about the same child?: Parent-teacher ratings of preschoolers' social-emotional behaviors
Major, Sofia O.; Seabra-Santos, Maria J.; Martin, Roy P.; et al., September, 2015
Psychology in the Schools, 52(8), 789-799

The parent-teacher agreement has become an important issue of children's psychological assessment. However, the amount of research available for preschool children is small and mainly based on one index of agreement with samples of modest size/representativeness. This study examined parent-teacher agreement (correlations) and discrepancies (t tests) on preschoolers' social skills and problem behaviors for the normative Portuguese sample (N = 1,000) of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales -- 2nd Edition (PKBS-2). Analyses were replicated according to the child's gender and mothers' educational level. Correlational analyses suggest weak to moderate informant agreement (mean correlation = .32). Parents' and teachers' ratings are significantly different for all PKBS-2 scores, with parents assigning higher scores both on social skills and problem behaviors. Results highlight the importance of both parents' and teachers' perspectives to achieve a more comprehensive picture of preschoolers' social-emotional behaviors, and reinforce the evidence of reliability of the PKBS-2 Portuguese version. (author abstract)

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47.

Arizona's Smart Support evaluation report: The first four years
Shivers, Eva Marie, 2015
Phoenix, AZ: Indigo Cultural Center, Institute for Child Development Research and Social Change.

From the very inception of Smart Support and throughout its first four years, a rigorous and comprehensive external evaluation was integrated into the program. By establishing a close partnership and following Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) principles, Smart Support program leaders and the Indigo Cultural Center evaluation team pursued the following evaluation goals: 1. To determine whether Smart Support is meeting its stated objective; 2. To inform the program's ongoing design and implementation; 3. To contribute to the literature on effective strategies for infant and early childhood mental health consultation; and 4. To provide findings that could guide Arizona and national efforts to build a comprehensive system of quality enhancement initiatives for the entire continuum of child care providers. (author abstract)

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48.

Arizona's Smart Support evaluation report: The first four years [Executive summary]
Shivers, Eva Marie, 2015
Phoenix, AZ: Indigo Cultural Center, Institute for Child Development Research and Social Change.

From the very inception of Smart Support and throughout its first four years, a rigorous and comprehensive external evaluation was integrated into the program. By establishing a close partnership and following Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) principles, Smart Support program leaders and the Indigo Cultural Center evaluation team pursued the following evaluation goals: 1. To determine whether Smart Support is meeting its stated objective; 2. To inform the program's ongoing design and implementation; 3. To contribute to the literature on effective strategies for infant and early childhood mental health consultation; and 4. To provide findings that could guide Arizona and national efforts to build a comprehensive system of quality enhancement initiatives for the entire continuum of child care providers. (author abstract)

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49.

Arizona PK expulsion fact sheet
Gilliam, Walter S., 2005
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

A statistical fact sheet on the expulsion rate of the Arizona Early Childhood State Block Grant program as compared with the national expulsion rate for state funded preschools

Fact Sheets & Briefs

50.

Arkansas PK expulsion fact sheet
Gilliam, Walter S., 2005
New York: Foundation for Child Development.

A statistical fact sheet on the expulsion rate of the Arkansas Better Chance program, as compared with the national expulsion rate for state funded preschools

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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