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1.

21st Century Community Learning Centers: Evaluation of projects funded for the 2003-04 school year
Texas Education Agency, January, 2005
Austin, TX: Texas Education Agency.

An examination of the impact of children?s participation in after school learning programs, created or expanded pursuant to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act as amended by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, on their academic performance in various categories

Reports & Papers

2.

21st Century Community Learning Centers: Evaluation of projects funded for the 2003-04 school year [Executive summary]
Texas Education Agency, January, 2005
Austin, TX: Texas Education Agency.

A summary of an examination of the impact of children?s participation in after school learning programs, created or expanded pursuant to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act as amended by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, on their academic performance in various categories

Executive Summary

3.

Absenteeism in DC Public Schools early education program: An update for school year 2013-14
Dubay, Lisa C.; Holla, Nikhil, January, 2015
Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Enrollment in early childhood education programs can be an important stepping stone to higher educational achievement, particularly for low-income children. However, children cannot succeed in these programs unless they are present. This report examines the extent of absenteeism in the District of Columbia Public Schools' (DCPS) early education program in Title I schools in the 2013-14 school year (SY). This program is a Head Start School-Wide Model (HSSWM), which combines local funding for pre-kindergarten with Head Start dollars. (author abstract)

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4.

Absenteeism in DC Public Schools early education program: An update for school year 2013-14 [Executive summary]
Dubay, Lisa C.; Holla, Nikhil, January, 2015
Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Enrollment in early childhood education programs can be an important stepping stone to higher educational achievement, particularly for low-income children. However, children cannot succeed in these programs unless they are present. This report examines the extent of absenteeism in the District of Columbia Public Schools' (DCPS) early education program in Title I schools in the 2013-14 school year (SY). This program is a Head Start School-Wide Model (HSSWM), which combines local funding for pre-kindergarten with Head Start dollars. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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5.

Absenteeism in Head Start and children's academic learning
Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M., 2017
Child Development, , 1-11

Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort (n = 2,842), this study examined the implications of 3- and 4-year-old's absences from Head Start for their early academic learning. The findings from this study revealed that children who missed more days of school, and especially those who were chronically absent, demonstrated fewer gains in areas of math and literacy during the preschool year. Moreover, excessive absenteeism was found to detract from the potential benefits of quality preschool education and was especially problematic for the early learning of children who entered the Head Start program with a less developed skill set. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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6.

Access, quality and equity in early childhood education and care: A South Australian study
Krieg, Susan; Westenberg, Luke; Hall, Lauren; et al., August, 2015
Australian Journal of Education, 59(2), 119-132

While much is known about the factors related to student performance beyond Grade 3 less is known about the factors that are related to student performance in early childhood education and the early years in primary school. As part of the 'I go to school' project in South Australia, this study tracked children attending integrated preschool/childcare centres -- known as Children's Centres -- as they made their transition to school. Results indicated that children who attended early childhood education programs that were of higher quality -- as characterised by higher staff qualifications and a greater range and more engaging children's activities -- showed a greater gain in cognitive development than children who attended lower quality programs. Findings also suggested that children who benefitted the most from attendance in these programs were children from backgrounds of greater social disadvantage than children from less disadvantaged backgrounds. (author abstract)

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7.

Addressing adversity to support family and child well being
Guss, Shannon S.; Weeden, Serenity; Harden, Brenda Jones; et al., 2016
NHSA Dialog, 18(4), 105-110

This study documented that nearly half of a large national sample of Head Start and Early Head Start children enrolled in participating programs experienced adversity and that this adversity is related to their learning and development. However, children in the programs, including those who had experienced adversity, had better outcomes in some domains if they had longer durations in their early childhood programs. Implications of these findings include the need to a) understand the experiences of the children and families in Head Start as part of preventing and reducing adversity; b) address the effects of adversity in instructional and other interventions to promote children's learning and development; and c) work to retain high risk families through targeted programming and professional development. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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8.

Adolescent emotional and behavioural outcomes of nonparental preschool childcare
Liang, Holan; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; et al., March, 2012
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(3), 399-407

An examination of the relationship between nonparental early child care and adolescent mental health outcomes, based on a secondary analysis of data from 197 participants in the Croydon Assessment of Learning Study in the United Kingdom

Reports & Papers

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9.

An after-school program for elementary school aged children: Academic and socio-emotional outcomes
Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J., 2005
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH

An investigation of the effects of an after-school program on elementary school students' academic and socioemotional outcomes, examining the relationship between students' outcomes and duration of program participation

Reports & Papers

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10.

Age for enrolling in full-time childcare: A qualitative study of parent and caregiver perspectives
Undheim, Anne Mari; Drugli, May Britt, December, 2012
Early Child Development and Care, 182(12), 1673-1682

The aim of this study was to explore the views of parents and caregivers on the optimal age for enrolment in childcare. The sample consisted of 41 parents of children aged 18 months or less who were in childcare (22 boys and 19 girls), and 34 of their caregivers. Parents and caregivers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Both parents and caregivers found the questions difficult to answer; individual differences between children were mentioned as one of the reasons. Many of the parents and caregivers suggested an enrolment age of 12-18 months. An interesting difference occurred between the two groups: five (13%) of the parents suggested enrolling children before the age of one year, such as at 9-10 months of age, but none of the caregivers wanted children enrolled before the age of one year. (author abstract)

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11.

Alterable predictors of child well-being in the Chicago Longitudinal Study
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu, 2004
Children and Youth Services Review, 26(1), 1-14

An overview of the major findings from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, including summaries of child well-being indicators and estimated effects of participation in preschool programs

Reports & Papers

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12.

America after 3pm: Key Findings
Afterschool Alliance,
Washington, DC: Afterschool Alliance.

Highlights of findings from an inquiry into children's participation rates in after school programs, based on a nationwide survey of more than 30,000 households across the United States

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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13.

Amount and timing of group-based childcare from birth and cognitive development at 51 months: A UK study
Barnes, Jacqueline; Melhuish, Edward, May, 2017
International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41(3), 360-370

This study investigated whether the amount and timing of group-based childcare between birth and 51 months were predictive of cognitive development at 51 months, taking into account other non-parental childcare, demographic characteristics, cognitive development at 18 months, sensitive parenting and a stimulating home environment. Children's (N=978) cognitive development was assessed at 51 months with four subscales of the British Ability Scales: two verbal and two non-verbal. Mothers were interviewed and observed at 3, 10, 18, and 36 months and the quality of group care was assessed at 10, 18, and 36 months (N=239) if it was used for [greater than or equal to] 12 hours per week. Age of starting in group care and amount were highly associated (r = -.75). Multiple regressions indicated that, controlling for other factors, higher cognitive development and particularly non-verbal ability was associated with more hours per week in group care from 0 to 51 months, or an earlier start, or group care before age 2. Nevertheless, the majority of variance was explained by other predictors: sex (girl), higher cognitive development at 18 months, older mother, first language English, mother of white ethnic background, with more qualifications, higher family social class, more maternal responsivity at 10 months and a more stimulating home learning environment (HLE) at 36 months. Hours per week in relative care or home-based care were not significant predictors of cognitive scores. For the smaller relatively advantaged sample who had group care quality information (N=239), quality was a marginal predictor of better cognitive development but age of starting group care was not. Most variance was explained by 18 month cognitive development, maternal education, and family social class. (author abstract)

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14.

Are two years better than one year?: A propensity score analysis of the impact of Head Start program duration on children's school performance in kindergarten
Wen, Xiaoli; Korfmacher, Jon; Marcus, Sue M.; et al., Q4 2012
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(4), 684-694

A comparison of academic and social outcomes by the end of kindergarten between children who attended Head Start for two years and the ones who attended for one year, based on data from 1,778 Head Start children from the Family and Child Experience Survey (FACES)2003

Reports & Papers

15.

The association between type of preschool experience and student achievement of economically disadvantaged students in four northeast Tennessee schools
McClellan, Robin Wade, 2005
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City

An examination of the impact of preschool experience on low income third grade students' academic achievements as measured by the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP)

Reports & Papers

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16.

Association of a full-day vs part-day preschool intervention with school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Warner-Richter, Mallory; Richardson, Brandt A.; et al., 26 November, 2014
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 312(20), 2126-2134

Early childhood interventions have demonstrated positive effects on well-being. Whether full-day vs part-day attendance improves outcomes is unknown. Objective To evaluate the association between a full- vs part-day early childhood program and school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement. Design, setting, and participants End-of-preschool follow-up of a nonrandomized, matched-group cohort of predominantly low-income, ethnic minority children enrolled in the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for the full day (7 hours; n = 409) or part day (3 hours on average; n = 573) in the 2012-2013 school year in 11 schools in Chicago, Illinois. Intervention The Midwest CPC Education Program provides comprehensive instruction, family-support, and health services from preschool to third grade. Main outcomes and measures School readiness skills at the end of preschool, attendance and chronic absences, and parental involvement. The readiness domains in the Teaching Strategies GOLD Assessment System include a total of 49 items with a score range of 105-418. The specific domains are socioemotional with 9 items (score range, 20-81), language with 6 items (score range, 15-54), literacy with 12 items (score range, 9-104), math with 7 items (score, 8-60), physical health with 5 items (score range, 14-45), and cognitive development with 10 items (score range, 18-90). Results Full-day preschool participants had higher scores than part-day peers on socioemotional development (58.6 vs 54.5; difference, 4.1; 95% CI, 0.5-7.6; P = .03), language (39.9 vs 37.3; difference, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.6-4.6; P = .01), math (40.0 vs 36.4; difference, 3.6; 95% CI, 0.5-6.7; P = .02), physical health (35.5 vs 33.6; difference, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.5-3.2; P = .006), and the total score (298.1 vs 278.2; difference, 19.9; 95% CI, 1.2-38.4; P = .04). Literacy (64.5 vs 58.6; difference, 5.9; 95% CI, -0.07 to 12.4; P = .08) and cognitive development (59.7 vs 57.7; difference, 2.0; 95 CI, -2.4 to 6.3; P = .38) were not significant. Full-day preschool graduates also had higher rates of attendance (85.9%vs 80.4%; difference, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.6-8.4; P = .001) and lower rates of chronic absences ([greater than or equal to]10% days missed; 53.0% vs 71.6%; difference, -18.6; 95% CI, -28.5 to -8.7; P = .001;[greater than or equal to]20%days missed; 21.2% vs 38.8%; difference -17.6%; 95% CI, -25.6 to -9.7; P < .001) but no differences in parental involvement. Conclusions and relevance In an expansion of the CPCs in Chicago, a full-day preschool intervention was associated with increased school readiness skills in 4 of 6 domains, attendance, and reduced chronic absences compared with a part-day program. These findings should be replicated in other programs and contexts. (author abstract)

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17.

Associations of adversity to indicators of child well being in a high quality early education context
Guss, Shannon S.; Harden, Brenda Jones; Forestieri, Nina; et al., 2016
NHSA Dialog, 18(4), 1-23

Studies have shown that adversity in childhood has harmful effects on well-being across the lifespan. This study examined the prevalence of children's cumulative experiences of adversity, based on parent report, in a national sample of low-income children (N=3,208) enrolled in a high quality early childhood education (ece) program. It explored the association between family adversity that occurred within the year prior to the parents' interview and the child's well-being measured after the interview. Well-being was based on language, school readiness, and social emotional outcomes. Almost half of all families reported experiencing at least one adversity. Family adversity was associated with worse school readiness and health outcomes. Adversity had mixed associations with social-emotional outcomes and no association with language outcomes. This study also explored time enrolled in ece (dosage) as a protective or promotive factor in relation to adversity. Time in program had a positive relationship to most child outcomes and could be interpreted as a promotive factor within the context of adversity for all outcomes except behavioral concerns. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

18.

Attendance counts from the start: How education leaders and policymakers in the District of Columbia can decrease chronic early absenteeism starting from pre-K
O'Keefe, Bonnie; Roche, Alexander, April, 2014
Washington, DC: DC Action for Children.

This policy brief focuses on chronic early absenteeism in the District of Columbia. It discusses the consequences for achievement, issues with measuring chronic early absenteeism, the necessity of identifying and addressing the causes of absenteeism, and current policies. Furthermore, it looks at the efforts being made in two DC schools and at strategies used in other jurisdictions. The authors provide recommendations for education leaders and policymakers to address chronic early absenteeism in the District of Columbia.

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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19.

Attendance rates and child outcomes
Ferguson, Daniel, September, 2014
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

Each September marks Attendance Awareness Month, which recognizes the important role attendance plays in supporting children's development, learning, and academic achievement. Research has examined this role extensively for attendance during children's K-12 school years. For children's early years there is a wide range of research exploring topics related to the time they spend enrolled in programs, including in full- versus part-day programs, their age at enrollment, and the number of years of program enrollment. However, there is less research asking: once children are enrolled in a given program, how often do they attend and how does attendance relate to their developmental and school outcomes? This Topic of Interest highlights research that addresses those questions. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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20.

Breast-feeding, day-care attendance and the frequency of antibiotic treatments from 1.5 to 5 years: A population-based longitudinal study in Canada
Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon, 2005
Social Science & Medicine, 60(9), 2035-2044

An investigation using a nationally representative sample of Canadian children to examine the impact of breast feeding on children's health and its relation to child care attendance during the child's first five years using antibiotic treatments as the general measure of health

Reports & Papers

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21.

Can the age of entry into child care and the quality of child care predict adjustment in kindergarten?
Howes, Carollee, 1990
Developmental Psychology, 26(2), 292-303

A longitudinal study of the effects of quality and length of child care attendance on adjustment to kindergarten

Reports & Papers

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22.

Can center-based childcare reduce the odds of early chronic absenteeism?
Gottfried, Michael A., Q3 2015
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 32(3), 160-173

This study was the first to position itself in the intersection on research on center-based care and on chronic absenteeism. Given the growth in the utilization of center-based care and given the recent vocalized policy concerns of the detrimental effects of chronic absenteeism in early school years, this study inquired as to whether attending center-based care predicted differential odds of early absence patterns. Using a newly-released national large-scale study of children (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011), the findings indicated that children who attended center-based care in prekindergarten had lower odds of being chronically absent in kindergarten. The conclusions were consistent even after employing multiple methodological approaches (fixed effects, propensity score matching) as well as exploring multiple definitions of chronic absenteeism, though were not differentiated by socioeconomic status. Additional noteworthy findings are discussed, including the significance of children's internalizing symptoms and parental mental health. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

23.

The challenges of change: A tracer study of San preschool children in Botswana
le Roux, Willemien, February 2002
(Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections 15: Following Footsteps). The Hague, Netherlands: Bernard van Leer Foundation.

Results of a survey, conducted from 1993-1995 among families dwelling in remote areas of the Ghanzi District of Botswana, comparing academic performance, dropout rates, foreign language acquisition, and parental support, among primary school children who had completed preschool versus those who had not

Reports & Papers

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24.

The challenges of change: A tracer study of San preschool children in Botswana [Executive summary]
le Roux, Willemien, February, 2002
(Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections 15: Following Footsteps). The Hague, Netherlands: Bernard van Leer Foundation.

A summary of results of a survey, conducted from 1993-1995 among families dwelling in remote areas of the Ghanzi District of Botswana, comparing academic performance, dropout rates, foreign language acquisition, and parental support, among primary school children who had completed preschool versus those who had not

Executive Summary

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25.

Child care and children's illness
Johansen, Anne; Waite, Linda; Leibowitz, Arleen; et al., 1988
American Journal of Public Health, 78(9), 1175-1177

A study examining the effect of child care on children's health, using the size of the child care group as a variable in a nationally representative sample of children

Reports & Papers

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26.

Child care and children's peer interaction at 24 and 36 months: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2001
Child Development, 72(5), 1478-1500

A study of how time spent in child care, child care quality, and availability of peers relate to children's peer social competence at 23 and 36 months, using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

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27.

Child care and common communicable illnesses in children aged 37 to 54 months
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2003
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 157(2), 196-200

A study of the relationship between experience in child care and common communicable illnesses in children aged 37 to 54 months

Reports & Papers

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28.

Child care and common communicable illnesses: Results from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2001
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155(4), 481-488

An examination of the relationship between experiences in child care and communicable illnesses (gastrointestinal tract illness, upper respiratory tract infection, and ear infections or otitis media) through a child's first 3 years of life, and an investigation of the relationship between the increased frequency of these illnesses and language development, school readiness, and behavior problems

Reports & Papers

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29.

Child care and cortisol across early childhood: Context matters
Berry, Daniel; The Family Life Project Key Investigators; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; et al., February, 2014
Developmental Psychology, 50(2), 514-525

A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large population-based sample of families from predominantly low-income backgrounds in rural communities, we tested the degree to which links between children's child-care experiences (at 7-36 months) and their subsequent cortisol levels (at 48 months) were moderated by their level of cumulative environmental risk. Our results provided evidence of a crossover interaction between cumulative risk and child-care quantity. For children from low-risk contexts, greater weekly hours in child care were predictive of higher cortisol levels. In contrast, for children facing several cumulative risk factors, greater hours in child care per week were predictive of lower cortisol levels. These effects were robust after adjusting for several controls, including children's cortisol levels in early infancy. Child-care quality and type were not predictive of children's cortisol levels, and neither mitigated the conditional effect of child-care quantity on cortisol. These findings suggest that links between child care and children's development may differ as a function of children's broader ecologies. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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30.

Child care and the family: Complex contributors to child development
Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Corasaniti, Mary Ann, 1990
New Directions in Child Development, 49, 23-37

A discussion on the benefits and detriments of long term child care to child development

Reports & Papers

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31.

Childcare and health: A review of using linked national registers
Kamper-Jorgensen, Mads; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Stabell Benn, Christine; et al., July, 2011
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 39(7), 126-130

A review of studies using the Childcare Database dataset to explore the association between child care attendance and the incidence of disease in a population of over 1 million young children in Denmark

Literature Review

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32.

Child care and mother-child interaction in the first 3 years of life
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 1999
Developmental Psychology, 35(6), 1399-1413

An analysis of the effects of child care on maternal sensitivity and child engagement during the first three years of life based on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

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33.

Childcare attendance and Helicobacter pylori infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Bastos, Joana; La Vecchia, Carlo; Carreira, Helena; et al., July, 2013
European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 22(4), 311-319

Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired predominantly during childhood. Childcare promotes interpersonal contact and may be an important determinant of infection. The aim was to quantify the association between childcare attendance and H. pylori infection in childhood or adolescence. PubMed was searched up to July 2012 to identify eligible studies. The DerSimonian and Laird method was used to compute summary odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs); heterogeneity was quantified with the [iota squared] statistic and explained through stratified analyses and metaregression. Sixteen studies compared participants attending childcare with those not exposed. The summary OR was 1.12 (95% CI: 0.82-1.52, [iota squared]=77.4%). Summary estimates were similar for crude and adjusted estimates, and higher when the infection was evaluated in children of 3 years or younger (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 0.94-4.29, [iota squared]=55.0%). Studies based on the detection of stool antigens yielded higher estimates (OR=2.65, 95% CI: 1.24-5.66, [iota squared]=36.4%). Those conducted in settings with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection yielded stronger associations (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 0.94-2.20, [iota squared]=74.3%). In multivariate metaregression, there was no significant association with any of these variables; taking them into account contributed to a reduction of [iota squared] to 67%. The role of childcare as a risk factor for H. pylori infection is confirmed by our results, especially in settings with a high prevalence of infection. However, the association was moderate, and the effect of the type of childcare setting or the duration or the intensity of exposure was seldom addressed, leaving considerable scope for improving our understanding of how this modifiable exposure contributes towards H. pylori infection. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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34.

Child care before 6 months of age: A qualitative study of mothers' decisions and feelings about employment and non-maternal care
Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Stein, Alan; et al., 2006
Infant and Child Development, 15(5), 471-502

A qualitative study of British mothers' beliefs in terms of infant child care and employment, examining reasons for returning to work, process of selecting child care, range and type of advice received, and involvement of fathers

Reports & Papers

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35.

Child care before age two and the development of language and numeracy: Evidence from a lottery
Drange, Nina; Havnes, Tarjei, March, 2015
(Discussion Paper No. 8904). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

Young children are thought to be vulnerable to separation from the primary caregiver/s. This raises concern about whether early child care enrollment may harm children's development. We use child care assignment lotteries to estimate the effect of child care starting age on early cognitive achievement in Oslo, Norway. Getting a lottery offer lowers starting age by about four months, from a mean of about 19 months in the control group. Lottery estimates show significant score gains for children at age seven. Survey evidence and an increase in labor supply of both mothers and fathers following the offer, suggest that parental care is the most relevant alternative mode of care. We document that the assignment lottery generates balance in observable characteristics, supporting our empirical approach. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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36.

Child care before age two and the development of language and numeracy: Evidence from a lottery
Drange, Nina; Havnes, Tarjei, February, 2015
Oslo, Norway: Frisch Centre.

Young children are thought to be vulnerable to separation from the primary caregiver/s. This raises concern about whether early child care enrollment may harm children's development. We use child care assignment lotteries to estimate the effect of child care starting age on early cognitive achievement in Oslo, Norway. Getting a lottery offer lowers starting age by about four months, from a mean of about 19 months in the control group. Lottery estimates show significant score gains for children at age seven. Survey evidence and an increase in labor supply of both mothers and fathers following the offer, suggest that parental care is the most relevant alternative mode of care. We document that the assignment lottery generates balance in observable characteristics, supporting our empirical approach. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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37.

Child care choices and children's cognitive achievement: The case of single mothers
Bernal, Raquel; Keane, Michael P., July, 2011
Journal of Labor Economics, 29(3)

An investigation of the effect of child care attendance and mother-child interactions on children's cognitive achievement, based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort (NLSY79)

Reports & Papers

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38.

Child care choices and children's cognitive achievement: The case of single mothers
Bernal, Raquel; Keane, Michael P., 25 January, 2010
Unpublished manuscript, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia.

An investigation of the effect of child care attendance and mother-child interactions on children's cognitive achievement, based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort (NLSY79)

Reports & Papers

39.

Child Care during the First Year of School: How Extent, Type, and Quality Relate to Child Well-Being
Claessens, Amy; Duncan, Greg J., 2006
Northwestern University

A systematic examination of the links between extent, type, and quality of child care and children's social-emotional and cognitive well-being, using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K). The sample for this study includes approximately 14,000 kindergarteners in the ECLS-K. The research explores the full range of child care options (formal and informal), focusing on sub-groups of children including low-income and subsidy-eligible. This study informs Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) policy regarding school-age child care, including how to design subsidy programs and cost effective quality enhancement strategies that best support school-age child well-being.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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40.

Child care effects on the development of toddlers with special needs
Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Kelly, Jean F., 2002
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17(2), 171-196

A study comparing the development of toddlers with special needs in nonmaternal child care with those cared for at home by mothers

Reports & Papers

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41.

Child care exposure influences childhood adiposity at 2 years: Analysis from the ROLO study
Scully, Helena A.; Horan, Mary H.; Lindsay, Karen L.; et al., April, 2017
Childhood Obesity, 13(2), 93-101

Background: The first 2 years of life are instrumental for childhood physical development. Factors contributing to childhood obesity are difficult to determine; child care exposure is one to consider, by influencing food preference and physical activity development. Objective: To investigate the association of child care exposure with adiposity at 2 years. Methods: Data were collected as part of the secondary analysis of the prospective ROLO study (randomized control trial of low glycemic index diet) in Dublin, Ireland. Mothers were recruited antenatally and followed up at 2 years postpartum. Maternal and childhood anthropometric data and lifestyle questionnaires, reporting on child care attendance (defined as nonparental care), exposure (weeks), and infant-feeding practices, were collected. Results: Anthropometric measures and lifestyle data were collected for 273 mothers and children aged 2 years, 52.7% of whom attended child care. Child care was predominately provided by a nonrelative (83.7%), either in a creche (57%) or by a childminder (26.7%). More than half (56.2%) of the children attended child care part-time ([less than or equal to] 30 hours/week). Central adiposity measures (abdominal circumference, waist:height ratio) and total adiposity (sum of all skin folds) were significantly elevated in children with increasing time in child care. Children provided with "meals and snacks" had elevated adiposity measures versus those given "snacks or no food." No difference in the infant-feeding practices was identified between the child care groups. Conclusions: Children attending child care have higher total and central adiposity, proportional to exposure. More research is required to investigate this link to appropriately design health promotion and obesity prevention programs targeting children at 2 years. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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42.

Child care in Canada
Bushnik, Tracey, 2006
(Catalogue no. 89-599-MIE, Children and Youth Research Paper Series No. 003). Ottawa, Ontario: Statistics Canada.

A study of child care arrangements in Canada from 1994-1995 to 2002-2003 based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), a national, biannually fielded longitudinal survey

Reports & Papers

43.

Child care in Canada [Executive summary]
Bushnik, Tracey, 2006
(Catalogue no. 89-599-MIE, Children and Youth Research Paper Series No. 003). Ottawa, Ontario: Statistics Canada.

A summary of a study of child care arrangements in Canada from 1994-1995 to 2002-2003 based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), a national, biannually fielded longitudinal survey

Executive Summary

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44.

Child care in the first year of life
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 1997
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43(3), 340-360

An analysis of the hours, type, and stability of child care used in infants' first year of life based on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Reports & Papers

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45.

Child care services, socioeconomic inequalities, and academic performance
Laurin, Julie C.; Raynault, Marie-France; Tremblay, Richard E.; et al., December, 2015
Pediatrics, 136(6), 1112-1124

Objective: To determine if child-care services (CCS) at a population level can reduce social inequalities in academic performance until early adolescence. Methods: A 12-year population-based prospective cohort study of families with a newborn (n = 1269). Two CCS variables were estimated: "intensity" (low, moderate, and high number of hours) and "center-based CCS type" (early onset, late onset, and never exposed to center-based CCS). Results: Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families who received high-intensity CCS (any type), compared with those who received low-intensity CCS, had significantly better reading (standardized effect size [ES] = 0.37), writing (ES = 0.37), and mathematics (ES = 0.46) scores. Children from low-SES families who received center-based CCS, compared with those who never attended center care, had significantly better reading (ES early onset = 0.68; ES late onset = 0.37), writing (ES early onset = 0.79), and mathematics (ES early onset = 0.66; ES late onset = 0.39) scores. Furthermore, early participation in center-based CCS eliminated the differences between children of low and adequate SES on all 3 examinations (ES = -0.01, 0.13, and -0.02 for reading, writing, and mathematics, respectively). These results were obtained while controlling for a wide range of child and family variables from birth to school entry. Conclusions: Child care services (any type) can reduce the social inequalities in academic performance up to early adolescence, while early participation in center-based CCS can eliminate this inequality. CCS use, especially early participation in center-based CCS, should be strongly encouraged for children growing up in a low-SES family. (author abstract)

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46.

Child care setting affects salivary cortisol and antibody secretion in young children
Watamura, Sarah; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Coe, Christopher L.; et al., September 2010
Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(8), 1156-1166

A study of the relationship of illness frequency to both cortisol levels and antibody secretions, measured several times throughout each day and both at home and at child care, in a sample of 65 children from upstate New York

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47.

Childcare use and overweight in Finland: Cross-sectional and retrospective associations among 3- and 5-year-old children
Lehto, Reetta; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola; et al., April, 2016
Pediatric Obesity, 11(2), 136-143

Background: Different types of non-parental childcare have been found to associate with childhood overweight in several, but not all studies. Studies on the matter are mainly North American. Objectives: The objective of our study was to examine associations between childcare use and overweight in Finland. Methods: The cross-sectional and partly retrospective data consists of 1683 3- and 5-year-old children participating in the Child Health Monitoring Development project (LATE-project) conducted in 2007-2009 in Finland. Children were measured at health check-ups and information on child's age when entering childcare, the number of childcare places the child has had, current type of childcare (parental, informal, [group] family childcare, childcare centre) and the current amount of childcare (hours) were gathered. Parents' body mass indices, family educational level, family structure, maternal smoking during pregnancy and child's birth weight were treated as covariates. Results: Beginning childcare before age 1 (adjusted model: odds ratio [OR] 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.52) and, for girls only, number of childcare places (adjusted model: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), were associated with an increased risk of overweight. The current type of childcare or the time currently spent in childcare was not associated with overweight. Conclusion: Beginning childcare before age 1, which is quite rare in Finland, and having attended several childcare places were associated with overweight even when adjusting for family socioeconomic status and other family background variables. The significance of these findings needs to be further studied. (author abstract)

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48.

Child developmental impact of Pittsburgh's Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) in high-risk communities: First-phase authentic evaluation research
Bagnato, Stephen J.; Smith-Jones, Janell; Suen, Hoi K.; et al., 2002
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17(4), 559-580

An inquiry into the correlation between participation in an early childhood program and children’s outcomes, based on an assessment of 155 high-risk youth who participated in the Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

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49.

Children in Early Head Start and Head Start: A profile of early leavers
Caronongan, Pia; West, Jerry; Moiduddin, Emily M.; et al., August, 2014
(OPRE Report 2014-54). Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation.

Early Head Start serves pregnant women and children up to age 3, allowing families to enroll a child at any point in this age range. Head Start serves preschool-age children, who can enter the program at age 3 or 4. Engaging and retaining families in the program is a priority for Early Head Start and Head Start. However, some children who enroll in these programs do not stay for the full length of time they are eligible. In this brief, we explore the child-, family-, and program-level factors that may be associated with whether children leave the program early. We used data from the Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (Baby FACES) and from the 2009 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2009). Analyses show that most families who enrolled stayed for as long as they were eligible. However, a sizable percentage -- 35 percent in Early Head Start and 27 percent in Head Start left early. Early leaving was only related to a few child, family, or program characteristics examined in this brief. The findings suggest that the rate of early leaving was higher among families with several risk factors and who experienced instability, but mainly for Early Head Start families. In Head Start, early leaving was less associated with family risk and more related to program characteristics; children were more likely to leave early if they attended urban programs, if the turnover rates for lead or assistant teachers were high, and if program directors reported there were factors making it more difficult for them to do their jobs. To fully understand the circumstances related to leaving early and what programs can do to keep children enrolled, it will be important to gather additional data about families' needs and what they opt to do in lieu of participating in Early Head Start or Head Start. (author abstract)

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50.

Children's attendance rates and quality of teacher-child interactions in at-risk preschool classrooms: Contribution to children's expressive language growth
Logan, Jessica A. R.; Justice, Laura M.; Petrill, Stephen A.; et al., December, 2011
Child & Youth Care Forum, 40(6), 457-477

The present research examines whether children's daily attendance rates would be predictive of gains in expressive language within the context of high-quality preschool classrooms. The quality of preschool classrooms was assessed by measuring the quality of the teacher's interactions with the children in his or her classroom. Hierarchical linear models, nesting children within classroom, were used to examine children's growth in expressive language in two independent samples (n = 129 children in 14 classrooms; n = 160 children in 46 classrooms). Results showed positive relations between daily attendance and language gains for children enrolled in higher quality preschool classrooms. Findings suggest that at-risk children who are rarely absent from high-quality preschool classrooms show accelerated expressive language growth, thus indicating that preschool attendance is an important factor to consider in future research and policy decisions. (author abstract)

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