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1.

10 characteristics of preschool-age children: A state and local data tool to inform policy and action
Lou, Cary; Adams, Gina; Singer, Audrey; et al.,
Washington, DC: Urban Institute

This resource is an interactive online tool with individual state information. This tool permits users to develop state and community profiles of the characteristics of 3- to 5-year-old children, based on American Community Survey (ACS) data. The characteristics are enrollment in early education, race and ethnicity, citizenship, family income, parental education, parental employment, parental nativity, parental English proficiency, number of parents present in home, and primary parental language.

Other

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2.

2010 comprehensive community assessment: Head Start programs: Whom do we serve?
Denver (Colo.). Mayor's Office for Education and Children, 2010
Denver, CO: Denver, Mayor's Office for Education and Children.

A summary of an examination of the characteristics of children and families served by Head Start in Denver, Colorado

Fact Sheets & Briefs

3.

2010 comprehensive community assessment: Overview of children, families, and language groups: The Denver community context
Denver (Colo.). Mayor's Office for Education and Children, 2010
Denver, CO: Denver, Mayor's Office for Education and Children.

A summary of an examination of the characteristics of children and families in Denver, Colorado

Fact Sheets & Briefs

4.

2010 comprehensive community assessment: Reaching out to the low income families and children in the neighborhoods: Early Head Start and Head Start eligible populations
Denver (Colo.). Mayor's Office for Education and Children, 2010
Denver, CO: Denver, Mayor's Office for Education and Children.

A summary of an examination of the characteristics of the Head Start-eligible population in Denver, Colorado

Fact Sheets & Briefs

5.

2013 preschool education: Australia
Australian Bureau of Statistics, 07 March, 2014
(4240.0). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics.

This publication presents results from the 2013 National Early Childhood Education and Care Collection (the Collection). The Collection is a data development activity under the National Partnership Agreement on Early Childhood Education (NP ECE). The publication contains episode and unique counts of children enrolled in and attending a preschool program, and episode counts of workers delivering a preschool program across Australia in 2013. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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6.

21st Century Community Learning Center program: A study to evaluate the success of a program in a rural county in east Tennessee
Collingsworth, Joy, 2005
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City

An investigation of the impact of a 21st Century Community Learning Center program on students and their families in three schools in rural Tennessee and an examination of the extent to which the program successfully implemented criteria deemed necessary by the United States Department of Education

Reports & Papers

7.

21st Century Community Learning Centers: Evaluation of projects funded for the 2003-04 school year
Texas Education Agency, January, 2005
Austin, TX: Texas Education Agency.

An examination of the impact of children?s participation in after school learning programs, created or expanded pursuant to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act as amended by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, on their academic performance in various categories

Reports & Papers

8.

21st Century Community Learning Centers: Evaluation of projects funded for the 2003-04 school year [Executive summary]
Texas Education Agency, January, 2005
Austin, TX: Texas Education Agency.

A summary of an examination of the impact of children?s participation in after school learning programs, created or expanded pursuant to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act as amended by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, on their academic performance in various categories

Executive Summary

9.

The Abbott preschool program: Fifth year report on enrollment and budget: A report of the Abbott Indicators Project
Applewhite, Erain; Hirsch, Lesley, October, 2003
Newark, NJ: Education Law Center.

A study of the Abbott preschool program?s overall enrollment, overall budget, and its placement of children with disabilities, and a study of Head Start enrollment in the low income Abbott districts of New Jersey

Reports & Papers

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10.

Aboriginal early childhood development assessment: Issues and insights in a cultural context
Vancouver Island University. BC Regional Innovation Chair for Aboriginal Early Childhood Development, 2013
West Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: BC Aboriginal Child Care Society.

A review of child development screening and assessment methods, with a discussion of their relevance for Aboriginal children and communities in Canada

Other

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11.

Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada: Issues of context
Preston, Jane; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; et al., February, 2012
Journal of Early Childhood Research, 10(1), 3-18

Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the philosophical basis to conceptualize quality Aboriginal early childhood education. Based on this theoretical premise, we suggest Aboriginal early childhood programs should incorporate Aboriginal pedagogy, be infused with Aboriginal language and culture, be adequately staffed by qualified Aboriginal educators, be structured to empower Aboriginal communities and incorporate full-day kindergarten. Prominent Aboriginal early childhood programs are featured within the article. (author abstract)

Literature Review

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12.

Aboriginal young children's language and literacy development: Research evaluating progress, promising practices, and needs
Ball, Jessica, 2007
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: University of Victoria, Early Childhood Development Intercultural Partnerships.

This report summarizes what is known about language and literacy development of Aboriginal children under six years old living in Canada. As well, the report characterizes some of the views on this topic expressed by Aboriginal leaders, parents, Elders, and early childhood educators, as well as by speech-language pathologists who have worked with Aboriginal children in Canada. Research selected for review to inform this report did not include the availability, nature, or impacts of programs for school-aged children or adults, such as basic education, reading recovery, bilingual education, adult literacy, or Indigenous language instruction or immersion. Also, given the rapid development of speech and language in the early years as the foundation for emerging literacy, this report focuses more on speech-language development than on literacy. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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13.

Aboriginal young children's language and literacy development: Research evaluating progress, promising practices, and needs [Executive summary]
Ball, Jessica, 2007
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: University of Victoria, Early Childhood Development Intercultural Partnerships.

This report summarizes what is known about language and literacy development of Aboriginal children under six years old living in Canada. As well, the report characterizes some of the views on this topic expressed by Aboriginal leaders, parents, Elders, and early childhood educators, as well as by speech-language pathologists who have worked with Aboriginal children in Canada. Research selected for review to inform this report did not include the availability, nature, or impacts of programs for school-aged children or adults, such as basic education, reading recovery, bilingual education, adult literacy, or Indigenous language instruction or immersion. Also, given the rapid development of speech and language in the early years as the foundation for emerging literacy, this report focuses more on speech-language development than on literacy. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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14.

Absenteeism in DC Public Schools early education program: An update for school year 2013-14
Dubay, Lisa C.; Holla, Nikhil, January, 2015
Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Enrollment in early childhood education programs can be an important stepping stone to higher educational achievement, particularly for low-income children. However, children cannot succeed in these programs unless they are present. This report examines the extent of absenteeism in the District of Columbia Public Schools' (DCPS) early education program in Title I schools in the 2013-14 school year (SY). This program is a Head Start School-Wide Model (HSSWM), which combines local funding for pre-kindergarten with Head Start dollars. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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15.

Absenteeism in DC Public Schools early education program: An update for school year 2013-14 [Executive summary]
Dubay, Lisa C.; Holla, Nikhil, January, 2015
Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Enrollment in early childhood education programs can be an important stepping stone to higher educational achievement, particularly for low-income children. However, children cannot succeed in these programs unless they are present. This report examines the extent of absenteeism in the District of Columbia Public Schools' (DCPS) early education program in Title I schools in the 2013-14 school year (SY). This program is a Head Start School-Wide Model (HSSWM), which combines local funding for pre-kindergarten with Head Start dollars. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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16.

Absenteeism in Head Start and children's academic learning
Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M., 2017
Child Development, , 1-11

Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort (n = 2,842), this study examined the implications of 3- and 4-year-old's absences from Head Start for their early academic learning. The findings from this study revealed that children who missed more days of school, and especially those who were chronically absent, demonstrated fewer gains in areas of math and literacy during the preschool year. Moreover, excessive absenteeism was found to detract from the potential benefits of quality preschool education and was especially problematic for the early learning of children who entered the Head Start program with a less developed skill set. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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17.

Abuse and neglect in nonparental child care: A risk assessment
Margolin, Leslie, 1991
Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53(3), 694-704

A study evaluating the validity of risk factors typically associated with child abuse and neglect in nonparental child care settings

Reports & Papers

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18.

"Academic redshirting" in kindergarten: Prevalence, patterns, and implications
Bassok, Daphna; Reardon, Sean F., September, 2013
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 35(3), 283-297

We use two nationally representative data sets to estimate the prevalence of kindergarten "redshirting"-- the decision to delay a child's school entry. We find that between 4% and 5.5% of children delay kindergarten, a lower number than typically reported in popular and academic accounts. Male, White, and high-SES children are most likely to delay kindergarten, and schools serving larger proportions of White and high-income children have far higher rates of delayed entry. We find no evidence that children with lower cognitive or social abilities at age 4 are more likely to redshirt, suggesting parents' decisions to delay entry may be driven by concerns about children's relative position within a kindergarten cohort. Implications for policy are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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19.

Access, quality and equity in early childhood education and care: A South Australian study
Krieg, Susan; Westenberg, Luke; Hall, Lauren; et al., August, 2015
Australian Journal of Education, 59(2), 119-132

While much is known about the factors related to student performance beyond Grade 3 less is known about the factors that are related to student performance in early childhood education and the early years in primary school. As part of the 'I go to school' project in South Australia, this study tracked children attending integrated preschool/childcare centres -- known as Children's Centres -- as they made their transition to school. Results indicated that children who attended early childhood education programs that were of higher quality -- as characterised by higher staff qualifications and a greater range and more engaging children's activities -- showed a greater gain in cognitive development than children who attended lower quality programs. Findings also suggested that children who benefitted the most from attendance in these programs were children from backgrounds of greater social disadvantage than children from less disadvantaged backgrounds. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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20.

Access to early childhood development services for homeless families with young children: An exploratory project
United States. Administration for Children and Families, July, 2016
Washington, DC: U.S. Administration for Children and Families.

This policy brief summarizes selected literature on homeless families with children who are less than five years old, and incorporates findings from a project prepared for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families (ACF) on the challenges facing families with young children who are temporarily staying with others or in motels/hotels. The aim of this policy brief is to examine the following questions from the project: (1) What are families' current living arrangements, and do they have alternative plans for shelter if they cannot stay at their current temporary location and are unable to receive the services of a shelter? (2) What conditions are homeless families and children exposed to when they cannot or do not access the services of a shelter? (3) To what extent are families knowledgeable about the federally sponsored early childhood support services available to them? (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

21.

Access to early childhood programs for young children experiencing homelessness: A survey report
Perlman, Staci M.,
Minneapolis, MN: National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

This brief presented the results of a national survey focused on understanding the barriers and facilitators of access to early childhood services among young children and families experiencing homelessness, as well as identifying strategies for addressing barriers and increasing access. Notably, transportation and variants of cross-systems collaboration were cited as the most successful strategies for increasing access to early childhood services. (author abstract)

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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22.

Access to early childhood services for young children experiencing homelessness
Perlman, Staci M.; Shaw, Sara H.; Bires, Carie; et al., 2017
SpringerBriefs in Psychology, , 65-82

Prior research demonstrates that engagement in high-quality early childhood services can serve as a protective factor against these early risks (Puma et al., 2010). However, little is known about what factors facilitate/impede access to these services for young children experiencing homelessness. In that context, these two companion studies were designed to address several overlapping research questions: (1) Are providers and parents aware of early education services for young children experiencing homelessness and do parents receive support to access these services? (2) What factors impede access to early childhood services among young children experiencing homelessness? (3) What factors facilitate access to early childhood services? (4) In what ways does cross-systems collaboration facilitate homeless family participation in early childhood services? (5) What can be identified as promising practices among communities for facilitating access to early childhood services for families experiencing homelessness? (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

23.

Access to preschool education in the year before full-time school
Maguire, Brigit; Hayes, Alan, 2012
In B. Maguire & B. Edwards (Eds.), The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children: Annual statistical report 2011 (pp. 57-66). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

An examination of variations in child care arrangements in Australia by child sociodemographic characteristics, based on data for 5,872 4- and 5-year-old children from two cohorts of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

Reports & Papers

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24.

Access to preschool for Hispanic and Latino children
Lindsey, Kevin; Howard, Mimi, October, 2013
Washington, DC: First Focus.

An overview of obstacles and a discussion of potential academic benefits of increased enrollment of Latino children in early education

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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25.

Access to print for children in poverty: Differential effects of adult mediation and literacy-enriched play settings on environmental and functional print tasks
Neuman, Susan B.; Roskos, Kathleen, 1993
American Educational Research Journal, 30(1), 95-122

An article on the effects of adult interaction and literacy environment on literacy development in Head Start children.

Reports & Papers

26.

Access to Quality Child Care in Montana: Exploring Parent and Provider Perspectives
McGregor, Gail; Mulligan, Sarah A., 2000
Montana University Affiliated Rural Institute on Disabilities, Child Care plus+

An examination of the capacity of Montana's child care system to serve Native American families and rural families of children with disabilities. The study focuses on issues of access, supply, and demand, and seeks to determine whether the availability of child care services is substantially different for Native American children and children with disabilities than for other families. Methodology includes parent and provider surveys as well as on-site assessment of child care programs.

Administration for Children and Families/OPRE Projects

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27.

Achievement in the first 2 years of school: Patterns and processes
Alexander, Karl L.; Entwisle, Doris R., 1988
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 53(2), 1-157

A study of the influence of home and school factors on adaptation to school, using data from the Beginning School Study conducted in Baltimore in 1982

Reports & Papers

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28.

Addressing adversity to support family and child well being
Guss, Shannon S.; Weeden, Serenity; Harden, Brenda Jones; et al., 2016
NHSA Dialog, 18(4), 105-110

This study documented that nearly half of a large national sample of Head Start and Early Head Start children enrolled in participating programs experienced adversity and that this adversity is related to their learning and development. However, children in the programs, including those who had experienced adversity, had better outcomes in some domains if they had longer durations in their early childhood programs. Implications of these findings include the need to a) understand the experiences of the children and families in Head Start as part of preventing and reducing adversity; b) address the effects of adversity in instructional and other interventions to promote children's learning and development; and c) work to retain high risk families through targeted programming and professional development. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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29.

Addressing classism in early childhood education: How social-class sensitive pedagogy and the Montessori method can work together
Christensen, Olivia; Gast, Kelly, 2015
Advances in Early Education and Day Care, 19, 113-135

Classist perspectives embedded in our meritocratic society permeate early childhood education. Curricula, instructional practices, and classroom interaction have the potential to send messages to children about who and what is valued by society; frequently influenced by the characteristics and abilities of a middle-class child. In order to best serve the needs and abilities of children from any social class, early childhood educators should be well versed in social-class sensitive pedagogy, a pedagogy that helps teachers to be inclusive of social class diversity in their classrooms. This chapter argues that aspects of Montessori theory, such as the four planes of development and the prepared adult, complement social-class sensitive pedagogy in ways that all early childhood educators may apply to their own teaching. (author abstract)

Other

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30.

Adolescent emotional and behavioural outcomes of nonparental preschool childcare
Liang, Holan; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; et al., March, 2012
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(3), 399-407

An examination of the relationship between nonparental early child care and adolescent mental health outcomes, based on a secondary analysis of data from 197 participants in the Croydon Assessment of Learning Study in the United Kingdom

Reports & Papers

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31.

Advancing the language skills of young Latino children: Fresh evidence: What works
Bridges, Margaret; Anguiano, Rebecca; Fuller, Bruce; et al., 2010
Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Human Development, New Journalism on Latino Children.

An overview of research on the relationship of preschool education to the English language development of Latino children

Fact Sheets & Briefs

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32.

Affecting girls' activity and job interests through play: The moderating roles of personal gender salience and game characteristics
Coyle, Emily F.; Liben, Lynn S., March/April 2016
Child Development, 87(2), 414-428

Gender schema theory (GST) posits that children approach opportunities perceived as gender appropriate, avoiding those deemed gender inappropriate, in turn affecting gender-differentiated career trajectories. To test the hypothesis that children's gender salience filters (GSF--tendency to attend to gender) moderate these processes, 62 preschool girls (M = 4.5 years) were given GSF measures. Two weeks later, they played a computer game about occupations that manipulated the game-character's femininity (hyperfeminized Barbie vs. less feminized Playmobil Jane). Following game play, girls' interests in feminine activities showed an interaction of game condition and GSF: High-GSF girls showed intensified feminine activity interests only with Barbie; low-GSF girls showed no change with either character. Neither GSF nor game condition affected occupational interests. Implications for GST, individual differences, and occupational interventions are discussed. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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33.

Affective social competence and teacher-child relationship quality: Race/ethnicity and family income level as moderators
Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita, August, 2015
Social Development, 24(3), 678-697

This study examined whether race/ethnicity and family income level moderated associations between children's affective social competence and teacher-child relationships among 132 Black, White, and Latino preschoolers. Boys and girls were equally represented in the sample. Of the three racial/ethnic groups, Latino children scored lowest on emotion regulation, were less close to their teachers, and experienced more teacher-child conflict and dependence. In contrast, Black children had closer, less conflict-laden, and less dependent teacher-child relationships than children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds. Emotion regulation served as a protective factor against problematic teacher-child relationships, particularly for Latino and Black children compared with high-income White children. Emotion regulation was positively associated with teacher-child closeness for Black children. However, it was negatively associated with teacher-child conflict for Latino children, regardless of income. For all outcomes, teacher characteristics accounted highly for the differences in teacher-child relational quality. Findings are discussed in terms of the functional role of emotions for teacher-child relationships and suggest important contextual influences on the associations. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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34.

African American preschoolers' language, emergent literacy skills, and use of African American English: A complex relation
Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K., August 2006
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(4), 771-792

An examination of the relation between Head Start African American preschoolers' use of African American English and their language and emergent literacy skills

Reports & Papers

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35.

An African American youth mentoring program: A pilot study
Johnson, Martin K., 2005
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA

An investigation of the effectiveness of a youth mentoring program in terms of character, skills, and attitude development in order to help prepare African American young people for school and life success

Reports & Papers

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36.

An after-school obesity prevention program for African-American girls: The Minnesota GEMS pilot study
Story, Mary; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Smyth, Mary; et al., 2003
Ethnicity & Disease, 13(1 Suppl. 1), S54-S64

A presentation of findings on the development of an after school obesity prevention program for African-American girls in Minnesota, based on a sample of 54 8 to 10-year-old girls and their caregivers

Reports & Papers

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37.

After-school program attendance and the social development of rural Latino children of immigrant families
Riggs, Nathaniel R., 2006
Journal of Community Psychology, 34(1), 75-87

A study of the influence of attendance on the social outcomes of Latino elementary school children who participated in an academically-oriented after school program, based on attendance records and teacher, parent, and child questionnaires

Reports & Papers

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38.

An after-school program for elementary school aged children: Academic and socio-emotional outcomes
Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J., 2005
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH

An investigation of the effects of an after-school program on elementary school students' academic and socioemotional outcomes, examining the relationship between students' outcomes and duration of program participation

Reports & Papers

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39.

After-school programs for low-income children: Promise and challenges
Halpern, Robert, 1999
The Future of Children, 9(2), 81-95

A study of after school programs for low-income children in terms of demand and supply, program activities, sponsoring and supporting organizations, and funding, based on information from the ongoing evaluation of the after school program initiative Making the Most of Out-of-School Time (MOST)

Other

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40.

Afterschool programs: Helping kids succeed in rural America
Afterschool Alliance, September, 2007
(Afterschool Alert Issue Brief No. 4). Washington, DC: Afterschool Alliance. (No longer accessible as of August 29, 2013).

An overview of the special challenges faced by poor children in rural areas and examples of after school programs successfully meeting these challenges

Fact Sheets & Briefs

41.

After-school pursuits: An examination of outcomes in the San Francisco Beacon Initiative: Executive summary
Walker, Karen E.; Arbreton, Amy, 2004
Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.

A summary of a program evaluation of the San Francisco Beacon Initiative (SFBI), a community-based after school program

Executive Summary

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42.

Against the unchallenged discourse of homelessness: Examining the views of early childhood preservice teachers
Kim, Jinhee, October-December 2013
Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 34(4), 291-307

This study investigated views about children experiencing homelessness held by preservice teachers in an early childhood education program. Thirteen early childhood preservice teachers were actively involved in class discussion, reading, doing class assignments, and visiting homeless shelters as community-based field experience. They were asked to participate in focus groups, and some of them also participated in individual interviews. The analysis showed that the preservice teachers viewed homelessness in a way parallel to public discourse, which neglects and stigmatizes children experiencing homelessness. They believed that those children and families would be abnormal and held stereotypes attached to the spaces they occupied. By connecting these preservice teachers' views to the dominant discourse of homelessness in U.S. society, this study addresses how early childhood educators can support preservice teachers to prepare children experiencing homelessness in their future classrooms. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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43.

Age 2: Findings from the 2-year-old follow-up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)
Mulligan, Gail M.; Flanagan, Kristin Denton, 2006
(E.D. TAB, NCES 2006-043). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

A description of the demographic characteristics, early childhood development, maternal attachment, nonparental care experiences, and father involvement of two-year-old children, based on data from the nationally representative 2-year-old follow-up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)

Reports & Papers

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44.

Age and schooling effects on emergent literacy and early reading skills
Crone, Deanne A.; Whitehurst, Grover J., 1999
Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(4), 604-614

A longitudinal study examining age and schooling on emergent literacy and early reading skills, based on a sample of 337 children from low-income backgrounds

Reports & Papers

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45.

Age at preschool entrance and noncognitive skills before school: An instrumental variable approach
Schlotter, Martin, November, 2011
(Ifo Working Paper No. 112). Munich, Germany: Ifo-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung (Ifo Institute for Economic Research Munich).

A study of the relationship of children's age at preschool entry to behavioral and socioemotional skills in the year prior to starting school in Germany, based on maternal reports collected at age 5 and 6 of children's date of preschool entry and children's assertiveness and ability to form friendships

Reports & Papers

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46.

Age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic patterns in early computer use: A national survey
Calvert, Sandra L.; Barr, Rachel F.; Rideout, Victoria J.; et al., 2005
American Behavioral Scientist, 48(5), 590-607

A study of computer use patterns in children 6 months to 6 years of age focusing on the influences of age, gender, ethnicity, income, parental education, and family structure and the relationship between computer screen time and reading skills

Reports & Papers

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47.

Age for enrolling in full-time childcare: A qualitative study of parent and caregiver perspectives
Undheim, Anne Mari; Drugli, May Britt, December, 2012
Early Child Development and Care, 182(12), 1673-1682

The aim of this study was to explore the views of parents and caregivers on the optimal age for enrolment in childcare. The sample consisted of 41 parents of children aged 18 months or less who were in childcare (22 boys and 19 girls), and 34 of their caregivers. Parents and caregivers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Both parents and caregivers found the questions difficult to answer; individual differences between children were mentioned as one of the reasons. Many of the parents and caregivers suggested an enrolment age of 12-18 months. An interesting difference occurred between the two groups: five (13%) of the parents suggested enrolling children before the age of one year, such as at 9-10 months of age, but none of the caregivers wanted children enrolled before the age of one year. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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48.

Age-related differences in the relation between the home numeracy environment and numeracy skills
Thompson, Rebecca J.; Napoli, Amy R.; Purpura, David J.; et al., September/October 2017
Infant and Child Development, 26(5), 1-13

The home numeracy environment (HNE) is often predictive of children's early mathematics skills, though the findings are mixed. Overall, research on kindergarten-aged children demonstrates a relation between the HNE and early numeracy skills, whereas findings for preschool-aged children are more equivocal. One potential reason for equivocality of these findings is that previous studies have not accounted for the way different practices may relate to children's mathematics skills at different ages. The purpose of the present study was to explore a potential reason for discrepancies in findings of the relation between the HNE and mathematics skills in preschool. Reports of HNE practices were collected from parents of 184 preschool children (71 three year olds and 113 four year olds) and children were assessed on their numeracy skills. Parents of 4-year-olds engaged in HNE activities more frequently than parents of 3-year-olds. Furthermore, more advanced HNE activities were correlated with numeracy performance of older children, but more basic HNE activities were not correlated with numeracy performance of either age group after accounting for parental education. These findings suggest that nuanced approaches in the way the HNE is measured at different ages may be needed in order to accurately assess relations between developmentally appropriate HNE activities and children's outcomes. Highlights - The relation between specific home numeracy environment practices and children's numeracy skills were compared across preschool aged children (3 and 4 years old). Complex home numeracy environment practices were related to numeracy skills of older children, but basic home numeracy environment practices were only related to numeracy skills with younger children until controlling for parental education. More targeted measurement of the home numeracy environment may be needed in order to fully assess its impact on the development of mathematics cognition. (author abstract)

Reports & Papers

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49.

Ahakoa he iti: Early childhood pedagogies affirming of Maori children's rights to their culture
Rau, Cheryl; Ritchie, Jenny, September, 2011
Early Education and Development, 22(5), 795-817

A discussion of the ways in which the features and history of Maori culture are realized in New Zealand's early education environments in light of the rights afforded to native education systems by the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Other

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50.

Aligning early childhood programs to serve children experiencing homelessness: A comparison of preschool, Head Start, and child care policies
Duffield, Barbara; Bires, Carie; Whitney, Grace-Ann C.; et al., 04 October, 2016
Minneapolis, MN: National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

Within the next few months, new federal rules for preschool, Head Start, and child care will go into effect. These rules include many new policies designed to remove barriers and better support young children experiencing homelessness. This convergence and alignment of federal policies represent a critical opportunity for state and local action to better serve our youngest children experiencing homelessness. While the governance and structure of public preschool, Head Start, and Child Care and Development Fund services may differ, we are hopeful that the new emphasis on young children experiencing homelessness will bring communities together to make the most of these new provisions. To that end, we have developed the chart below, which summarizes the new most significant new rules by topic area, across three federal programs. We will update this document on an ongoing basis to reflect any new guidance or policy clarifications that may be forthcoming. (author abstract)

Other

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