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1.

Defining family engagement among Latino Head Start parents: A mixed-methods measurement development study
McWayne, Christine M.; Kennedy, Joy L.; Mundt, Kevin; et al., Q3 2013
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(3), 593-607

Given the increasing numbers of Latino children and, specifically, of dual-language learning Latino children, entering the U.S. educational system, culturally contextualized models are needed to understand how parents construct their involvement roles and support their children's educational experiences. Current measures of parenting and family engagement have been developed primarily with European American families and, thus, might not capture engagement behaviors unique to other ethnic groups. Lacking culture-appropriate measurement limits our ability to construct programs that adequately incorporate protective factors to promote children's successful development. The present mixed-methods investigation employed an emic approach to understand family engagement conceptualizations for a pan-Latino population. One hundred thirteen parents from 14 Head Start programs in a large, northeastern city participated in the first study, in which domains of family engagement were identified and specific items were co-constructed to capture family engagement behaviors. Then, 650 caregivers participated in a second study examining the construct validity of the resulting 65-item measure across two language versions: Parental Engagement of Families from Latino Backgrounds (PEFL-English) and Participacion Educativa de Familias Latinas (PEFL-Spanish). Four theoretically meaningful dimensions of family engagement among Latino Head Start families were identified empirically. The measure was then validated with teacher report of family involvement and parent report of satisfaction with their experiences in Head Start. (author abstract)

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2.

DLLs and the development of self-regulation in early childhood
Guirguis, Ruth; Antigua, Kathy Carolina, 06 August, 2017
Cogent Education, 4(1), 1-16

Current literature and research demonstrates that learning multiple languages allows for young learners to develop higher levels of executive functioning skills. Research also suggests that Dual Language Learners (DLLs) can surpass monolinguals in these executive functioning skills. Yet, there is a dearth of literature that explicitly discusses DLLs in the early childhood setting and the development of self-regulatory skills. Self-regulation skills have been linked to better indicators of academic achievement than numeracy and literacy. This research describes the differences between DLLs' behavioral and emotional regulation, which are categorized as impulse control and cognitive regulation. This analysis examines the development of cognitive regulation and impulse control in both DLLs and non-DLLs. Results from an ANOVA of a convenience sample of 63 participants, 32 DLL (English and Spanish) and 31 non-DLL (English) preschool students, were assessed using the Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment (PSRA) and several measures of oral language proficiency. Participants were drawn from a Head Start and Universal Pre-Kindergarten program located in a low SES and culturally diverse district. The result yielded a statistically significant effect, (F(1, 61) = 8.56, p = .005; partial Eta squared = .123) for non-DLLs. ANOVA results suggest differences in cognitive regulation between the two groups. Implications relating to self-regulation, DLLs, culture and classroom practice, as well as policy are further discussed. (author abstract)

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3.

Effects of interaction with Pocoyo playsets on preschool (Spanish) ELL children's English language learning: A randomized controlled trial
MCG (Michael Cohen Group, LLC), 26 July, 2013
(Report No. 3-6 ELD). New York, NY: MCG.

The overall objective of this RCT study is to evaluate the educational effectiveness of the Pocoyo PlaySets in supporting English language learning among primarily Spanish-speaking preschool children. The specific objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of being exposed to and playing with two Pocoyo PlaySets on: (1) preschool-age ELL children's increases in English language fluency as measured by a standardized assessment of English language fluency (Pre-IPT), (2) participating children's learning of target vocabulary through a customized picture recognition task, and, (3) changes in children's attitudes towards learning English. The analysis of the findings from this study also included an examination of whether English language learning with Pocoyo PlaySets or other ELL learning apps is moderated by children's initial level of English fluency, familiarity with the Pocoyo character and other demographic variables (e.g., age or gender of child, city, language that parents speak to child, parent education, etc.). (author abstract)

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4.

"Ganchulinas" and "rainbowli" colors: Young multilingual children play with language in Head Start classroom
Axelrod, Ysaaca, January, 2017
Early Childhood Education Journal, 45(1), 103-110

The purpose of this ethnographic case study was to study the language development of 4-year-old emergent bilinguals in a bilingual (Spanish/English) Head Start classroom with flexible language practices. Data were collected throughout the 10-month school year by visiting the classroom 2-3 times per week. Data include: field notes (observations and detailed notes of children language practices); transcriptions of interviews with teachers, families and administrators; and artifacts of children's work. The data were analyzed by examining shifts and patterns in the children's language practices over the year and the ways in which they negotiated language with others. Interviews with teachers, families and administrators provide insight into the language ideologies of the classroom, school and community. This paper highlights the language practices of two children to demonstrate the ways in which hybrid language practices, fostered by the teachers, created a classroom environment that allowed children to draw from their full linguistic repertoire to develop and engage with the curriculum. (author abstract)

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5.

Instruction in Spanish in pre-kindergarten classrooms and child outcomes for English language learners
Burchinal, Margaret; Field, Samuel; Lopez, Michael; et al., Q2 2012
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(2), 188-197

An examination of the relationship between the language, reading, and math skills of English language learners and both the proportion of instruction in Spanish and observed quality of teacher-child interactions, based on data from 357 Spanish-speaking 4-year-old children who attended state-funded pre-kindergarten programs in 11 states

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6.

Observations of teacher-child interactions in classrooms serving Latinos and dual language learners: Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in diverse settings
Downer, Jason T.; Lopez, Michael; Grimm, Kevin J.; et al., Q1 2012
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(1), 21-32

A test of the validity of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) for the prediction of academic outcomes and the measurement of social interactions in classrooms with varying compositions of English only and dual language learners, based on a secondary analysis of data collected in 721 prekindergarten classrooms in 11 states

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7.

Segregation at an early age
Frankenberg, Erica, October, 2016
University Park: Pennsylvania State University, Center for Education and Civil Rights.

This report aims to begin to understand the extent to which young children enrolled in school-based preschools are in racially diverse settings. (author abstract)

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8.

Spanish-speaking children's social and language development in pre-kindergarten classrooms
Chang, Florence; Crawford, Gisele M.; Howes, Carollee; et al., 2007
Early Education and Development, 18(2), 243-269

A discussion of the Spanish and English language interactions that Spanish-speaking children experience in the pre-K classroom in relation to their social and cognitive outcomes, based on data from 345 Spanish-speaking students in pre-K programs

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9.

State early learning and development standards/guidelines, policies & related practices: How responsive are they to the needs of young dual language learners?
Espinosa, Linda M.; Calderon, Miriam E., October, 2015
Boston: Build Initiative.

The purpose of this report and accompanying state ELDS analysis is to review a subset of states' ELDS standards for pre-k-aged children (three to five years of age) to identify the most common approaches to meeting the needs of young DLLs, to determine the extent to which these standards reflect the current scientific research on the development and learning of preschool-aged DLLs, and the extent to which states provide adequate guidance for supporting early childhood programs and professionals in implementing effective programs for young DLLs. As a group, DLLs and ELLs have shown an achievement gap beginning during the preschool years that continues into kindergarten and throughout their schooling. This group of students has struggled to become fully proficient in English, lagged behind their peers on all measures of school achievement, and had school drop out rates almost double those of their native English speakers. In addition, we offer recommendations for strengthening states' ELDS to reflect current research and to fully support the learning needs of DLLs across multiple domains of development. Whenever possible, we provide exemplary standards from states' existing ELDS or accompanying documents that fully articulate a vision with consistent expectations and recommendations for practice. This is provided in order to assist states to further enhance their ELDS for DLLs and to facilitate cross-state collaboration. (author abstract)

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