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1.

Child care in poor communities: Early learning effects of type, quality, and stability
Loeb, Susanna; Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; et al., 2004
Child Development, 75(1), 47-65

A longitudinal analysis of the effects of child care type, quality, and stability on the social and cognitive development of preschool children of low-income single mothers

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2.

Child care in poor communities: Early learning effects of type, quality, and stability
Loeb, Susanna; Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; et al., 2003
(NBER Working Paper Series No. 9954). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

A study on the influence of child care type, quality, and stability on the social and cognitive development of the preschool children of low-income single mothers

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3.

Child care quality: Centers and home settings that serve poor families
Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Loeb, Susanna; et al., 2004
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19(4), 505-527

A multi-site, longitudinal study examining the quality of child care settings chosen by low-income mothers enrolled in welfare-to-work programs

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4.

Disparities in child care availability across communities: Differential reflection of targeted interventions and local demand
Bassok, Daphna; Loeb, Susanna; Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; et al., April, 2011
Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Center for Education Policy Analysis.

A study of trends from 1990 through 2009 in the size and characteristics of the child care workforce and in variations in child care availability across communities, based on data from the 1990 Decennial Census, the 2000 Decennial Census, and the 2009 American Community Survey

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5.

Does state preschool crowd-out private provision?: The impact of universal preschool on the childcare sector in Oklahoma and Georgia
Bassok, Daphna; Loeb, Susanna; Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; et al., November, 2012
(CEPWC Working Paper Series No. 6). Charlottesville: University of Virginia, Center on Education Policy and Workforce Competitiveness.

The success of any governmental subsidy depends on whether it increases or crowds out existing consumption. Yet to date there has been little empirical evidence, particularly in the education sector, on whether government intervention crowds out private provision. Universal preschool policies introduced in Georgia and Oklahoma offer an opportunity to investigate the impact of government provision and government funding on provision of childcare. Using synthetic control group difference-in-difference and interrupted time series estimation frameworks, we examine the effects of universal preschool on childcare providers. In both states there is an increase in the amount of formal childcare. In Georgia, both the private and public sectors grow, while in Oklahoma, the increase occurs in the public sector only. The differences likely stem from the states' choices of provision versus funding. We find the largest positive effects on provision in the most rural areas, a finding that may help direct policymaking efforts aimed at expanding childcare. (author abstract)

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6.

Does state preschool crowd-out private provision?: The impact of universal preschool on the childcare sector in Oklahoma and Georgia
Bassok, Daphna; Loeb, Susanna; Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; et al., December, 2012
(NBER Working Paper No. 18605). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

A study of the relationship of changes in the child care supply, in both the public and private sectors, to the introduction of universal preschool programs in Georgia and Oklahoma, based on two datasets compiled from Internal Revenue Service business tax returns and on administrative data from Georgia and Oklahoma

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7.

Does state preschool crowd-out private provision?: The impact of universal preschool on the childcare sector in Oklahoma and Georgia
Bassok, Daphna; Loeb, Susanna; Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; et al., September, 2014
Journal of Urban Economics, 83, 18-33

Universal preschool policies introduced in Georgia and Oklahoma offer an opportunity to investigate the impact of government intervention on provision of childcare. Since Georgia used a voucher-like program and Oklahoma utilized its existing public schools, the two states offer a case study of how government provision compares to government subsidization alone. Using a synthetic control group difference-in-difference estimation framework, we examine the effects of universal preschool on childcare providers. In both states there is an increase in the number of formal childcare centers. With the voucher-like program in Georgia, the overall increase in care is partly driven by an increase in the supply of formal childcare in the private sector and partly driven by new publicly-provided preschools. However, there is substantial crowd-out of private consumption of preschool. In Oklahoma, where universal preschool is publicly provided, the increase in the number of childcare providers occurred only in the public sector. The expansion of publicly-provided care seems to be driven largely by movement of employees from private centers to public settings. As such, this case-study comparison suggests that government subsidization through funding was more effective at expanding preschool than government provision. (author abstract)

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8.

The early childhood care and education workforce from 1990 through 2010: Changing dynamics and persistent concerns
Bassok, Daphna; Loeb, Susanna; Paglayan, Agustina S.; et al., October, 2012
(CEPWC Working Paper Series No. 5). Charlottesville: University of Virginia, Center on Education Policy and Workforce Competitiveness.

Despite heightened policy interest in early childhood care and education (ECCE), little is known about the ECCE workforce today or the extent to which this workforce has changed over a period of substantial investment in this sector. Using nationally-representative data, this paper fills this gap by documenting changes between 1990-2010 in the educational attainment, compensation and turnover of the ECCE workforce. We find that the national ECCE workforce remains a low-education, low-compensation, and high-turnover workforce. At the same time, the average educational attainment and compensation of ECCE workers increased substantially over the past two decades and turnover decreased sharply. We document a major shift in the composition of the ECCE workforce towards center-based settings and away from home-based settings. Surprisingly however, this shift towards more regulated settings is not the primary driver of the observed changes in the ECCE workforce. We show that improvements in the characteristics of the ECCE workforce were driven primarily by changes within sectors and, contrary to our expectations, we show that the home-based workforce, which faces the least stringent regulations, experienced the most improvement over the period examined, though home-based workers remain substantially different from formal care workers. (author abstract)

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9.

The early childhood care and education workforce from 1990 through 2010: Changing dynamics and persistent concerns
Bassok, Daphna; Loeb, Susanna; Paglayan, Agustina S.; et al.,
Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Center for Education Policy Analysis.

Despite heightened policy interest in early childhood care and education (ECCE), little is known about the ECCE workforce today or the extent to which this workforce has changed over a period of substantial investment in this sector. Using nationally-representative data, this paper fills this gap by documenting changes between 1990-2010 in the educational attainment, compensation and turnover of the ECCE workforce. We find that the national ECCE workforce remains a low-education, low-compensation, and high-turnover workforce. At the same time, the average educational attainment and compensation of ECCE workers increased substantially over the past two decades and turnover decreased sharply. We document a major shift in the composition of the ECCE workforce towards center-based settings and away from home-based settings. Surprisingly however, this shift towards more regulated settings is not the primary driver of the observed changes in the ECCE workforce. We show that improvements in the characteristics of the ECCE workforce were driven primarily by changes within sectors and, contrary to our expectations, we show that the home-based workforce, which faces the least stringent regulations, experienced the most improvement over the period examined, though home-based workers remain substantially different from formal care workers. (author abstract)

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10.

Estimating unmet need for child care and preschool: Alternative definitions and analytic tools
Loeb, Susanna; Fuller, Bruce; Hirshberg, Diane; et al., 2002
Berkeley: Policy Analysis for California Education

Other

11.

The extent of within- and between-sector quality differences in early childhood education and care
Bassok, Daphna; Greenberg, Erica; Loeb, Susanna; et al., December, 2013
(CEPWC Working Paper Series No. 17). Charlottesville: University of Virginia, Center on Education Policy and Workforce Competitiveness.

Using recent and nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study documents the substantial extent to which early childhood education program quality, defined using multiple measures, differs between (1) formal and informal providers; (2) Head Start, pre-kindergarten, and other centers and; (3) programs serving toddlers and those serving four-year olds. These large quality gaps are not explained by differential selection patterns into early childhood sectors by race and ethnicity or SES, and notably, differences in the quality of early education programs across demographic groups are much smaller than differences across sector. The observed quality differences are a likely mechanism for the well-documented differential effects of childcare settings on children's development. Implications for policy are discussed. (author abstract)

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12.

Growing Up in Poverty Project 
Fuller, Bruce,
Berkeley, CA: Policy Analysis for California Education

A longitudinal study of the effects of mothers moving from welfare-to-work on their economic well-being, home environment, child care quality and use, and their young children's early development

Major Research Projects

13.

How much is too much?: The influence of preschool centers on children's development nationwide: Summary
Loeb, Susanna; Fuller, Bruce; Bridges, Margaret; et al., 2005
Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Policy Analysis and Management, Washington, DC.

A summary of a study of the relationship of preschool attendance to kindergarten language, literacy, and math skills and social development, based on the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K)

Executive Summary

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14.

How much is too much?: The influence of preschool centers on children's development nationwide: Technical report
Loeb, Susanna; Fuller, Bruce; Bridges, Margaret; et al., 2005
Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Policy Analysis and Management, Washington, DC.

An analysis of the effects of different preschool arrangements on children’s cognitive and social proficiencies at the start of kindergarten and how it may vary across different social classes and ethnic groups

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15.

How much is too much?: The influence of preschool centers on children's social and cognitive development
Loeb, Susanna; Fuller, Bruce; Bridges, Margaret; et al., February 2007
Economics of Education Review, 26(1), 52-66

An analysis of effects of center-based care prior to kindergarten on children’s cognitive and social-behavioral capacities upon kindergarten entry, according to intensity and duration of center attendance, and social and ethnic group, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K)

Reports & Papers

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16.

How much is too much?: The influence of preschool centers on children's social and cognitive development
Loeb, Susanna; Fuller, Bruce; Bridges, Margaret; et al., 2005
(NBER Working Paper Series No. 11812). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

A study of the effects of age of child care age of entry, child care duration, and child care hours per week on kindergarten prereading and math skills and social development, based on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K)

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17.

How welfare reform affects young children: Experimental findings from Connecticut
Loeb, Susanna; Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; et al., 2003
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 22(4), 537-550

A study of the effects of mothers’ rising employment levels and program participation on young children’s early learning and cognitive growth, comparing participant outcomes in Connecticut’s Jobs First program and a traditional welfare program

Reports & Papers

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18.

Missing the target: We need to focus on informal care rather than preschool
Loeb, Susanna, 16 July, 2016
(Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, No. 19). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, Center on Children and Families.

Despite the widely-recognized benefits of early childhood experiences in formal settings that enrich the social and cognitive environments of children, many children--particularly infants and toddlers--spend their days in unregulated (or very lightly regulated) "informal" childcare settings. Over half of all one- and two-year-olds are regularly cared for by caregivers other than their parents but only about half of those, i.e., a quarter of this age group, are in a licensed formal care setting. More four-year-olds attend licensed centers but still many primarily experience informal, non-parental care. The difference in quality between formal and informal care is striking. Four-year-olds in home-based, informal care watch an average of almost two hours of television per day, compared with fewer than 7 minutes in formal care. Similarly, 93 percent of formal caregivers report doing both reading and math activities on a daily basis compared with 68 percent of informal caregivers for reading and 60 percent for math. The differences for younger children are as great. These differences in care correspond to large differences in learning. Children in informal settings learn meaningfully less, on average, in both literacy and math than those in formal childcare centers or preschools. These differences are not explained by differences in the background characteristics of children, as a wide range of families choose informal settings. Current policy discussions focus primarily on preschool access and preschool quality, largely ignoring the low quality of care in informal settings. Yet many families are choosing those settings. They choose informal care for a variety of reasons, including lack of information about quality, the need for flexible or non-standard hours, cost, and availability. If policies do not address quality in this sector, they forsake the majority children under the age of four, a time of great potential for development of the capacities needed to thrive in school and after. (author abstract)

Other

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19.

Missing the target: We need to focus on informal care rather than preschool [Executive summary]
Loeb, Susanna, 16 July, 2016
(Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, No. 19). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, Center on Children and Families.

Despite the widely-recognized benefits of early childhood experiences in formal settings that enrich the social and cognitive environments of children, many children--particularly infants and toddlers--spend their days in unregulated (or very lightly regulated) "informal" childcare settings. Over half of all one- and two-year-olds are regularly cared for by caregivers other than their parents but only about half of those, i.e., a quarter of this age group, are in a licensed formal care setting. More four-year-olds attend licensed centers but still many primarily experience informal, non-parental care. The difference in quality between formal and informal care is striking. Four-year-olds in home-based, informal care watch an average of almost two hours of television per day, compared with fewer than 7 minutes in formal care. Similarly, 93 percent of formal caregivers report doing both reading and math activities on a daily basis compared with 68 percent of informal caregivers for reading and 60 percent for math. The differences for younger children are as great. These differences in care correspond to large differences in learning. Children in informal settings learn meaningfully less, on average, in both literacy and math than those in formal childcare centers or preschools. These differences are not explained by differences in the background characteristics of children, as a wide range of families choose informal settings. Current policy discussions focus primarily on preschool access and preschool quality, largely ignoring the low quality of care in informal settings. Yet many families are choosing those settings. They choose informal care for a variety of reasons, including lack of information about quality, the need for flexible or non-standard hours, cost, and availability. If policies do not address quality in this sector, they forsake the majority children under the age of four, a time of great potential for development of the capacities needed to thrive in school and after. (author abstract)

Executive Summary

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20.

New lives for poor families?: Mothers and young children move through welfare reform: The Growing Up in Poverty Project: Wave 2 findings: California, Connecticut, and Florida: Executive summary
Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Loeb, Susanna; et al., 2002
Berkeley: Policy Analysis for California Education.

A summary of a study of 948 mothers and their preschool-age children who entered new welfare-to-work programs in California, Connecticut, and Florida

Executive Summary

21.

New lives for poor families?: Mothers and young children move through welfare reform: The Growing Up in Poverty Project: Wave 2 findings: California, Connecticut, and Florida: Technical report
Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Loeb, Susanna; et al., 2002
Berkeley: Policy Analysis for California Education.

A study of the long-term effects of welfare reform on mothers' employment, children's development, and family well-being among a sample of mothers and preschool-age children who entered new welfare programs in California, Connecticut, and Florida

Reports & Papers

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22.

One step at a time: The effects of an early literacy text messaging program for parents of preschoolers
York, Benjamin N.; Loeb, Susanna, November, 2014
(NBER Working Paper No. 20659). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Substantial systematic differences exist in children's home learning experiences. The few existing parenting programs that have shown promise often are not widely accessible, either due to the demands they place on parents' time and effort or cost. In this study, we evaluate the effects of READY4K!, a text messaging program for parents of preschoolers designed to help them support their children's literacy development. The program targets the behavioral barriers to good parenting by breaking down the complexity of parenting into small steps that are easy-to-achieve and providing continuous support for an entire school year. We find that READY4K! positively affected the extent to which parents engaged in home literacy activities with their children by 0.22 to 0.34 standard deviations, as well as parental involvement at school by 0.13 to 0.19 standard deviations. Increases in parental activity at home and school translated into student learning gains in some areas of early literacy, ranging from approximately 0.21 to 0.34 standard deviations. The widespread use, low cost, and ease of scalability of text messaging make texting an attractive approach to supporting parenting practices. (author abstract)

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23.

State formation of the child care sector: Family Demand and Policy Action
Fuller, Bruce; Loeb, Susanna; Strath, Annelie; et al., 2004
Sociology of Education, 77(4), 337-358

An analysis of the extent to which fiscal and regulatory action by state governments shapes the formation of the child care sector

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24.

Where do Head Start attendees end up?: One reason why preschool effects fade out
Lee, Valerie E.; Loeb, Susanna, 1995
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 17(1), 62-82

A study of the relationship between Head Start experience and the quality of schools subsequently attended by eighth graders

Reports & Papers

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25.

Within- and between-sector quality differences in early childhood education and care
Bassok, Daphna; Greenberg, Erica; Loeb, Susanna; et al., September, 2016
Child Development, 87(5), 1617-1626

This study leverages nationally representative data (N [is approximately] 6,000) to examine the magnitude of quality differences between (a) formal and informal early childhood education and care providers; (b) Head Start, prekindergarten, and other center-based care; and (c) programs serving toddlers and those serving preschoolers. It then documents differences in children's reading and math skills at age 5 between those who had enrolled in formal and informal settings. Cross-sector differences are substantially reduced when accounting for a set of quality measures, though these measures do less to explain more modest differences in outcomes within the formal sector. Results inform current efforts aimed at improving the quality of early childhood settings by highlighting the large quality differences across sectors and their relationship with child development. (author abstract)

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