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1.

Attendance rates and child outcomes
Ferguson, Daniel, September, 2014
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

Each September marks Attendance Awareness Month, which recognizes the important role attendance plays in supporting children's development, learning, and academic achievement. Research has examined this role extensively for attendance during children's K-12 school years. For children's early years there is a wide range of research exploring topics related to the time they spend enrolled in programs, including in full- versus part-day programs, their age at enrollment, and the number of years of program enrollment. However, there is less research asking: once children are enrolled in a given program, how often do they attend and how does attendance relate to their developmental and school outcomes? This Topic of Interest highlights research that addresses those questions. (author abstract)

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2.

Building high-quality after school systems: Research-to-policy resources
Ferguson, Daniel, July, 2017
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

This Research-to-Policy Resource List focuses on resources in the Research Connections collection published in the past ten years that focus on building high-quality after schools systems. The resources on this list have been assigned to the following categories: building systems, improving quality, supporting the workforce, and sustaining program finances. (author abstract)

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3.

Child Care and Development Block Grant Reauthorization and child care policy
Ferguson, Daniel, April, 2015
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

President Obama signed the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014 into law on November 19, reauthorizing the federal child care program for the first time since 1996. The law will have important implications for child care policy across the United States, in areas including provider health and safety requirements, consumer education, subsidy redetermination, quality improvement, and tribal child care. The full statute and a plain language summary are available on the Office of Child Care website, along with continually-updated resources on the reauthorization. The National Women's Law Center (NWLC) has developed a chart comparing provisions in the reauthorization to those in the former law, and with the Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP) has released an implementation guide for states. This Topic of Interest highlights recently released resources in the Research Connections collection on current child care policies that will be affected by the law. (author abstract)

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4.

Child care and early education for children who have experienced trauma: Research-to-policy resources
Ferguson, Daniel, January, 2017
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

This Research-to-Policy Resource List identifies resources in the Research Connections collection published in the past 10 years that examine the role child care and early education can play in both preventing traumatic experiences and in supporting children who have experienced or are at risk of experiencing trauma. The resources on this list have been assigned to the following categories: research reviews, programs, interventions/curricula/trainings, systems, policies, and access. (author abstract)

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5.

Child care decision-making
Ferguson, Daniel, April, 2014
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

Child care plays an important role in supporting families, from children's development to parents' employment. The complex process by which families find child care arrangements is informed by their preferences for features of care arrangements and constrained by such factors as availability, accessibility, affordability, and awareness of supply. A recent comprehensive literature review and accompanying webinar discuss research on multiple dimensions of the child care decision-making process, structured within the framework of a child care decision-making conceptual model. This Topic of Interest highlights that review, webinar, and conceptual model, as well as data sets, reports, journal articles, projects, and bibliographies from the Research Connections collection. (author abstract)

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6.

Child care during nonstandard work hours: Research to policy resources
Ferguson, Daniel, February, 2016
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

In November 2014, the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014 was signed into law, reauthorizing the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)--the federal child care subsidy program--for the first time since 1996. In December 2015, the U.S. Office of Child Care issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which updated CCDF regulations in light of the CCDBG Act of 2014 and research that has been published since the passage of the original 1996 law. Included in the proposed rule are provisions to increase the supply and quality of child care during nontraditional hours. Nontraditional hours child care, often also referred to as nonstandard hours child care, has been defined as care provided outside of the standard working day, including during evening, overnight, and weekend hours. This Topic of Interest includes resources from the Research Connections collection on the supply of nonstandard hours child care, child care arrangements of parents working nonstandard hours, and access to child care subsidies of parents working nonstandard hours.

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7.

Child Care Policy Research Consortium projects (1995-2015)
Craig, Donna; Stephens, Samuel A.; Ferguson, Daniel; et al., November, 2015
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

The year 2015 marks the 20th anniversary of the Child Care Policy Research Consortium (CCPRC). CCPRC was created by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) in 1995 to support national capacity for sound child care research, identify and respond to critical issues, and link child care research with policy and practice. Supported by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) and the Office of Child Care (OCC) (formerly the Child Care Bureau), the Consortium includes former and current grantees and contractors funded by ACF to conduct child care policy-related research. In partnership with OPRE, the CCPRC holds an annual research meeting that builds on work, webinars, and other activities by the Consortium and its workgroups throughout the year. At the meeting, CCPRC members are joined by Child Care and Development Fund State Administrators, technical assistance partners, and Federal staff from other agencies and departments to consider emerging research findings, questions, and methods that relate to improved outcomes for children and families. In its 20-year existence, the CCPRC has included more than 170 projects. To celebrate the CCPRC's 20th anniversary for its 2015 meeting in Washington, DC, on December 2nd and 3rd, Research Connections has produced this Topic of Interest, which features all of the OPRE- or Child Care Bureau-funded child care research and policy projects in its collection. (author abstract)

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8.

City universal preschool initiative evaluations and research: Research-to-policy resources
Ferguson, Daniel, October, 2017
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

This Research-to-Policy Resource List provides a comprehensive list of city universal preschool initiative evaluations and research in the Research Connections collection. To count as universal, a city's program must aim to eventually provide universal access to publicly-funded preschool for all four-year-olds using at least some city funds, even if it does not currently achieve universal access. Some well-known programs do not meet these criteria, either because they are the city-based implementation of a state universal preschool program (Tulsa, Oklahoma) or because they do not aim for universal access (Chicago's Child-Parent Centers; Salt Lake City, Utah). Cities with universal preschool programs were identified in recent reviews by the American Institutes for Research and the Rand Corporation, as well as in news reports. A number of city programs have not produced evaluations or research publications or are still in the planning or early implementation stages, including Cincinnati, Ohio; Cleveland, Ohio; Dayton, Ohio; Santa Fe, New Mexico; Seattle, Washington; and West Sacramento, California. The city universal preschool initiatives that have produced research or evaluation publications and are included here are: Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; San Antonio, Texas; San Francisco, California; and Washington, District of Columbia. (author abstract)

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9.

Full-day kindergarten and School Improvement Grants
Ferguson, Daniel, May, 2015
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

Under the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program, states have the ability to competitively award funds from the federal Department of Education to local school districts to improve the lowest-performing schools. While past grantees incorporated early learning into school turnaround efforts, SIG requirements did not formally sanction using funds to support early learning efforts. However, the new SIG requirements effective on March 11, 2015, support early learning by formally allowing school districts to implement early learning intervention models in elementary schools. The new requirements stipulate that if an early learning intervention model is adopted, it must include full-day kindergarten, though the number of hours that constitute a full-day program is not specified. A recent webinar from two Department of Education-funded centers, the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes and the Center on School Turnaround, discussed key requirements of the model, including expanding full-day kindergarten. Since the new SIG requirements have brought more attention to full-day kindergarten, this Topic of Interest highlights data sets, reports, and journal articles published since 2010 in the Research Connections collection on policies, student enrollment, and child outcomes of full-day kindergarten in the United States. (author abstract)

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10.

Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) bibliography
Stephens, Samuel A.; Craig, Donna; Ferguson, Daniel; et al., March, 2016
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

This bibliography lists resources in the Research Connections collection related to the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), which has fielded cohorts in 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. It is intended as a reference tool for researchers and policymakers. It is divided into sections for data sets; official reports (data tables, methods, and findings); studies using FACES data; and instruments and documentation. Within each section resources are listed alphabetically by author and then by year and title. The FACES cohort(s) used by each resource follows its citation in brackets. (author abstract)

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11.

Impact of training and education for caregivers of infants and toddlers
Kreader, J. Lee; Lawrence, Sharmila; Ferguson, Daniel; et al., August, 2005
(Research-to-Policy Connections No. 3). New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

A policy examination of approaches to caregiver training and education touted to improve the quality of care for children under age 3 in family care homes and center-based programs, with data collected through examination of a small number of training initiatives targeting infant and toddler caregivers where quality was observed before and after training

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12.

Infant and toddler child care arrangements
Kreader, J. Lee; Lawrence, Sharmila; Ferguson, Daniel; et al., August, 2005
(Research-to-Policy Connections No. 1). New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

An examination of employed parents? child care arrangements for their infants and toddlers while working, at school, or otherwise unavailable to provide parental child care, and secondarily what factors influence the types of child care arrangements for children in the United States under the age of 3

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13.

Infant and toddler child care quality
Kreader, J. Lee; Lawrence, Sharmila; Ferguson, Daniel; et al., August, 2005
(Research-to-Policy Connections No. 2). New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

A policy examination of the factors that tend to predict higher quality in child care arrangements- family child care, center-based child care, and relative care- and describes the range of quality found in each type

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14.

Infant and toddler child care quality measures bibliography
Ferguson, Daniel, April, 2016
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

The Research Connections collection contains records for more than 1,300 instruments that have been used to conduct studies in the child care and early education field. This bibliography provides records for instruments in the collection that can be used to observe child care quality in center-based settings serving infants and toddlers. In addition to citations and descriptions for the various versions of instruments, this bibliography contains links to all of the studies in the Research Connections collection that have used that instrument. (author abstract)

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15.

Integrated early childhood data systems
Ferguson, Daniel, October, 2014
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

To improve data-driven decision making, states and localities are beginning to integrate administrative data systems that have historically been developed and maintained independently by the programs that serve young children. A number of federal initiatives, such as State Advisory Councils on Early Childhood Education and Care, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems Grants and State Fiscal Stabilization Funds, and Race to the Top, provide funding to states to support these early childhood data system efforts. A paper from the Early Childhood Data Collaborative (ECDC), a consortium of seven national research and policy organizations, presents a framework for approaching early care and education data system coordination and integration, and identifies key elements of an integrated early childhood data system. Recently INQUIRE (Quality Initiatives Research and Evaluation Consortium), funded by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), has developed a tool and guides focusing on the components of a high-quality early childhood data system that are relevant to state quality rating and improvement systems. Through its Interoperability Initiative, ACF has released a confidentiality toolkit to aid human services agencies in data systems integration while ensuring the privacy and security of the children and families they serve. This Topic of Interest highlights the ECDC paper, the INQUIRE tool and guides, and the ACF Interoperability Initiative toolkit, as well as other resources, including reports, projects, and bibliographies from the Research Connections collection, that explore the state of state early childhood data systems and state efforts to develop high-quality integrated early childhood data systems. (author abstract)

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16.

Leadership development for center-based child care and early education program directors: Research-to-policy resources
Ferguson, Daniel, September, 2017
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

Of the nearly 3,000 early childhood undergraduate degree programs in the United States, only 2.9 percent focus on early childhood administration, management, or leadership. To address this gap and to support those already serving in leadership roles, institutions of higher education, state agencies, school districts, and other human services organizations have created early childhood-specific professional development programs to strengthen leadership development in the field. This Research-to-Policy Resource List identifies research in the Research Connections collection published since 2000 on the outcomes of early childhood leadership development programs. The resources on the list are organized by program name and, where indicated, identify the program's sponsor. (author abstract)

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17.

Off-site coaching in early childhood center-based settings
Ferguson, Daniel, November, 2015
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

Of the elements in a strong professional development system, one promising approach is coaching, which typically involves on-site, ongoing individualized expert technical assistance. Literature reviews on the sizable body of research on early childhood coaching conducted by Mathematica and Child Trends, both published in 2011, show it can have positive outcomes for teachers and children. Because in-person professional development approaches such as coaching can be costly and logistically complicated to deliver, interest is growing in the use of technology to deliver off-site support. A recent project funded by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) examined the role of technology in early childhood practice. The final report provides in-depth descriptions of evidence-based professional development approaches that incorporate technology to support off-site delivery, including two coaching programs: Classroom Links to Early Literacy and My Teaching Partner. This resource list expands on the OPRE project by identifying research in the Research Connections collection on additional approaches to using technology for off-site delivery of coaching in early childhood center-based settings. (author abstract)

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18.

Parent engagement
Ferguson, Daniel, April, 2014
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

The concept of parent engagement has been used to describe parent behavior, expectations, and activities that have the potential to promote children's learning and development. Here the term is used to refer to parents' support for their young children's learning fostered through relationships with child care and early education programs and providers, which includes parent engagement with programs, as well as their involvement in their children's learning activities. This Topic of Interest highlights a recent review of research on the role of parent engagement in promoting young children's early mathematics and literacy skills and social-emotional learning. Other resources examine parent engagement in the context of Head Start programs, features of family-provider and family-program relationships that may influence parent engagement, and opportunities to strengthen parent engagement through state policies. This Topic of Interest includes journal articles, reports, data sets, and webinars from the Research Connections collection published since 2010. (author abstract)

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19.

Preventing preschool expulsion
Ferguson, Daniel, February, 2015
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

An accumulation of strong messages from policymakers and advocates suggests that preschool expulsion is becoming an important target for change. In May 2014, the My Brother's Keeper Task Force--part of an initiative to address persistent opportunity gaps faced by boys and young men of color and ensure that all young people can reach their full potential--released its first report to the President, offering recommendations to "eliminate suspensions and expulsions in preschool and other early learning settings," including the use of early childhood mental health consultation. In November 2014, the quality improvement provisions of the reauthorized Child Care and Development Block Grant required "effective behavior management strategies and training, including positive behavior interventions and support models, that promote positive social and emotional development and reduce challenging behaviors, including reducing expulsions of preschool-aged children for such behaviors." Most tellingly, on December 10, 2014, U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services Sylvia Burwell and U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan released a joint policy statement on preventing expulsions and suspensions in early learning settings. The statement notes the high prevalence of preschool expulsions and their association with negative child outcomes, and also offers recommendations to programs and states on strategies and practices to reduce expulsions, including early childhood mental health consultation. This Topic of Interest examines reports and journal articles from the Research Connections collection on the prevalence of preschool expulsions. It also highlights evidence on one approach that has shown promise in reducing preschool expulsion: early childhood mental health consultation. (author abstract)

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20.

Quality rating and improvement system state evaluations and research
Ferguson, Daniel, October, 2017
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

A quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) is a method used by states and local jurisdictions to assess the level of quality of child care and early education programs, improve quality, and convey quality ratings to parents and other consumers. A typical QRIS incorporates the following components: quality standards for participating providers; a system for measuring and monitoring provider quality; resources for providers to support quality improvement; financial incentives for providers who meet quality standards; and education and outreach to families about the ratings and how to choose a quality program for their children. In 2010, Assessing States' Child Care Quality Rating Systems (QRS), a project funded by the U.S. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, produced a compendium that documented features of QRISs in 25 states that had them at the time. An updated online version of the compendium was released in 2014, which included information on 38 states with QRISs. Many jurisdictions with QRISs, as well as other interested organizations and individuals, have undertaken research and evaluation efforts to improve their understanding of QRIS implementation, validity, results, and impacts. This Topic of Interest provides a comprehensive list of state QRIS evaluations and research in the Research Connections collection. (author abstract)

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21.

Research and policy resources in support of Child Care and Development Block Grant Reauthorization
Ferguson, Daniel, January, 2017
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

President Obama signed the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014 into law on November 19, 2014, reauthorizing the federal child care program for the first time since 1996. The law has important implications for child care policy across the United States, in areas including provider health and safety requirements, consumer education, subsidy redetermination, quality improvement, and tribal child care. The full statute and a plain language summary are available on the Office of Child Care website, along with continually-updated resources on the reauthorization. The following resources, which can be found in the Research Connections collection, are related to or support the implementation of the reauthorized Child Care and Development Block Grant. They have been grouped in the following categories: official guidance from the U.S. Office of Child Care; Child Care and Development Fund state plans; state policy and administrative data; and state policy options and technical assistance resources, which have been further categorized by policy topics. (author abstract)

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22.

State preschool program evaluations and research: Research-to-policy resources
Ferguson, Daniel, October, 2017
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

Many states with preschool programs, as well as other interested organizations and individuals, have undertaken research and evaluation efforts to improve their understanding of state preschool program implementation, results, and impacts. A 2004 review by Gilliam and Zigler examined state efforts to evaluate preschool programs from 1997 to 2003. Their definition of an evaluation required that it "focus on a state-funded prekindergarten system...[and] provide data by which program impacts on child outcomes can be reasonably estimated (even if the methods are weak), and evaluate a statewide sample" (p. 6). This Research-to-Policy Resource List provides a comprehensive list of evaluations and research in the Research Connections collection on state preschool programs identified in the 2016 NIEER state preschool yearbook. The criteria used to compile this list are broader than those used by Gilliam and Zigler; this list also includes publications that examine program quality, workforce and provider characteristics, estimates of program economic returns, and features of program service delivery. Additionally, for a publication to be included, its findings must identify which state the program is in. (author abstract)

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23.

Transition to kindergarten and child outcomes
Ferguson, Daniel, September, 2015
New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections

August and September mark the start of the school year for America's children, and for the more than 3.7 million children who the U.S. Department of Education estimates will enroll in public kindergarten this fall, this time represents a critical period of transition. Child care and early education programs and schools undertake a variety of research-based practices and approaches to facilitate children's adjustment to kindergarten. Particular attention has been paid to the transitions of children with special needs; the U.S. Department of Education funded the National Early Childhood Transition Center to examine factors that promote successful transitions for young children with disabilities and their families. However, for typically developing children, there has been less research examining the practices and programs that support their kindergarten transitions. This Topic of Interest identifies the reports and journal articles in the Research Connections collection that offer research findings on the relationship of transition practices and programs to the developmental and school outcomes of typically developing children. (author abstract)

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