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1.

An action research study in an Icelandic preschool: Developing consensus about values and values education
Einarsdottir, Johanna, August, 2016
International Journal of Early Childhood, 48(2), 161-177

Values education is embedded in the curricula of all the Nordic countries. However, values education remains a neglected area for research and practice in early childhood education and care. This article reports on the aspects of an action research project conducted in a preschool in Iceland, across a period of 18 months. The study focused on the nature of the values that the preschool teachers deemed as important to communicate to children and how they saw their own role in values education. Habermas' theory of communicative action is the theoretical framework of the study. Data for this study were gathered in collaboration with the seven preschool teachers who participated in the study. The preschool teachers chose three values to focus on during the action research project: care, respect, and discipline. The data consisted of audio recordings from meetings, interviews, and journal writings. Thematic analysis was used to find themes and patterns in the data. Five themes were identified concerning the preschool teachers' role in values education: being a good role model, use of language, discussion, guidance, and direction. The findings showed that the participating preschool teachers emphasized children's participation and development of social skills. While these data were collected in just one Icelandic preschool, it appeared that the preschool teachers strongly valued mutual understanding and meaningful interactions with the children. (author abstract)

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2.

Children's perspectives on the role of preschool teachers
Einarsdottir, Johanna, December, 2014
European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 22(5), 679-697

The aim of the study was to examine critically the roles and pedaogogy of preschool teachers from the perspectives of five- to six-year-old children who had extensive experience of being full day preschool children from the age of two. The participants were 32 children in the oldest preschool group in two preschools in Reykjavik. Data was gathered through photo supported interviews with the children. Photos that the children took themselves were used as a motivation and basis for conversations. The theoretical foundations of the study were the ideology of childhood studies in which childhood is viewed as an important period, contingent on culture, time, and context. The findings of the study show that according to children's conversations about the photos they took in their preschools, their views on the roles of preschool teachers can be divided into; on one hand their interaction with the children, such as: (1) interacting with the children; (2) watching them; (3) supporting; (4) teaching; and (5) helping them. On the other hand, other duties (involving interactions with others) were mentioned. When the children were asked what they liked and did not like about their preschool teachers many of them talked about things that they did or did not do in terms of activities. Some children mentioned also their behaviors or personal traits. (author abstract)

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3.

Editorial: Special Issue: Listening to young children's voices in research: Changing perspectives/changing relationships
Schiller, Wendy, February 2009
Early Child Development and Care, 179(2), 125-130

An introduction to a special issue of the journal Early Child Development and Care, focusing on the act of listening to children as a data collection method in child development and education research

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4.

Icelandic children's early education transition experiences
Einarsdottir, Johanna, September, 2011
Early Education and Development, 22(5), 737-756

A qualitative study of children's perceptions of differences between their early childhood setting and their primary school setting and what children found useful from playschool when they started primary school, based on interviews with 40 children in their first year in primary schools in Reykjavik, Iceland and from the observations of their early care and education teachers

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5.

Icelandic parents' views on the national policy on early childhood education
Einarsdottir, Johanna, October 2010
Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 30(3), 229-242

A study of parental perceptions of the role and purpose of preschool and their correspondence to Icelandic national preschool curriculum goals, based on focus group interviews with 43 parents of 5- and 6-year-old children in three Icelandic preschools

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6.

Individual and collective rights expressed in educator and child interactions in Nordic preschools
Johansson, Eva, August, 2016
International Journal of Early Childhood, 48(2), 209-224

This study focuses on rights and gender in educator and child interactions in Nordic preschools. The research questions are as follows: What kinds of rights are communicated in the interactions and how? What kind of gender patterns can be identified? Rights refer to entitlements related to the early childhood education context, given or claimed by educators or children. The research material consists of 25 video observations of conflicts in educator and child interactions in Nordic preschools. Jurgen Habermas' concepts of strategic and communicative actions informed the interpretation of the communication of rights, and Bronwyn Davies's idea of duality between femininity and masculinity informed the analyses of gender. The analyses revealed two kinds of rights: individual and collective rights. The individual rights were connected to the integrity of the person and, alternatively, to the institution. Collective rights were related to shared institutional rights. The governing of the children appeared as benevolent. The study displayed how masculinity was given hegemony in interactions on rights and how adaptation was directed toward girls, which required them to compromise and sometimes waive rights. (author abstract)

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7.

Interpreting values in the daily practices of Nordic preschools: A cross-cultural analysis
Puroila, Anna-Maija, August, 2016
International Journal of Early Childhood, 48(2), 141-159

This study explored how practitioners interpreted educational practices from the perspective of values in Nordic preschools. Drawing data from group interviews in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), practitioners reflected on an observational episode about children dressing for outdoor play in a Swedish preschool. The research material consisted of extracts from group interviews in ten preschools (two from each Nordic country). The research questions included: How do values emerge in practitioners' interpretations? What is the interpretive process like, especially in the context of cross-cultural research? The research material was analysed nationally and cross-nationally. Using Gadamer's concept of horizons, the study examined how practitioners made sense of the dressing episode, including the horizons of the text that attracted the practitioners' attention and the co-construction of interpretations in the group dialogues. The practitioners employed indirect means more often than direct means to express their values. The group interviews contained themes that were connected to caring, disciplinary, competence and democratic values. The study provided evidence that practitioners shared some core pedagogical ideas and values across Nordic preschools. Differences were apparent between individual practitioners and preschools rather than between the Nordic countries. (author abstract)

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8.

Making meaning: Children’s perspectives expressed through drawing
Einarsdottir, Johanna, February 2009
Early Child Development and Care, 179(2), 217-232

A study of children’s narratives about their transitions to school, their memories of preschool, their first year of school, and their future expectations for school, collected through a drawing exercise with small numbers of children in Iceland and Australia

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9.

New developments in Iceland
Einarsdottir, Johanna, September 2008
European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 16(3), 385-394

An overview of the changing role of the playschool in the culture of Iceland, and a discussion of the workforce-related challenges faced by the country's child care and early education sector

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10.

Nordic childhoods and early education: Philosophy, research, policy and practice in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden
Einarsdottir, Johanna, 2006
Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing

A review of an examination of the Nordic conception of childhood and its influence on policy and practice through a comparison of the provision and curriculum in education and care being developed for children from birth to six years of age in many other countries

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11.

Playschool in pictures: Children's photographs as a research method
Einarsdottir, Johanna, 2005
Early Child Development and Care, 175(6), 523-541

Descriptions of research approaches using a digital camera and disposable cameras for studying ways in which young children think about their early educational settings, and for developing methods of listening to children’s perspectives

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12.

Principles underlying the work of Icelandic preschool teachers
Einarsdottir, Johanna, 2003
European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 11(1), 39-54

An investigation of the early childhood education beliefs, program goals, and teaching methods of two preschool teachers in Iceland

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13.

Reconstructing playschool experiences
Einarsdottir, Johanna, September, 2011
European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 19(3), 387-402

An examination of children's recollections and reconstructions in first grade of their preschool experiences, based on data from children in two primary schools in Reykjavik and their preschool teachers' views on their encounters with those children

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14.

Research with children: Methodological and ethical challenges
Einarsdottir, Johanna, June, 2007
European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 15(2), 197-211

Methodological and ethical challenges that researchers face when they conduct research with children are the focus of this article. The discussion is based on a study conducted with 2-6-year-old children in Iceland, where the purpose was to shed light on children's perspectives on their early childhood settings. The study is built on the conviction that children, just like adults, are citizens who hold their own views and perspectives, they have competencies and the right to be heard, and they are able to speak for themselves if the appropriate methods are used. The article reflects on methodological dilemmas and challenges as well as ethical issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, protection and interactions. (author abstract)

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15.

The role of preschools and preschool teachers: Icelandic preschool educators' discourses
Einarsdottir, Johanna, 2003
Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 23(2), 103-116

A study on the views of early childhood educators on their field and their professionalism, using data obtained through focus group interviews with twenty preschool teachers, directors, consultants, and educators

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16.

Special issue: Listening to young children's voices in research: Changing perspectives/changing relationships
Schiller, Wendy, February 2009
Early Child Development and Care, 179(2)

A special issue of the journal Early Child Development and Care, focusing on the act of listening to children as a data collection method in child development and education research

Other

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17.

Teaching children with ADHD: Icelandic early childhood teachers’ perspectives
Einarsdottir, Johanna, May 2008
Early Child Development and Care, 178(4), 375-397

A study of the experiences and perspectives of early childhood teachers who have taught children exhibiting Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-related behavior, based on interviews with 16 teachers in Reykjavik, Iceland

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18.

Transition to school practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia
Einarsdottir, Johanna, March 2008
Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 28(1), 47-60

A comparison of the use and usefulness of eleven practices that preschool and primary school teachers use in the preparation of children for school in Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia and Reykjavik, Iceland

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19.

We can decide what to play!: Children's perception of quality in an Icelandic playschool
Einarsdottir, Johanna, 2005
Early Education and Development, 16(4), 469-488

A study of children's perceptions and opinions of their experiences at a playschool--an early education program for children under age 6--in Reykjavik, Iceland, using interviews, drawings, photographs, and a questionnaire

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20.

Young children's views of the role of preschool educators
Palmadottir, Hronn, September, 2015
Early Child Development and Care, 185(9), 1480-1494

This article aims to explore young children's (from one to three years old) perspectives of the role and pedagogy of educators in play in an Icelandic preschool. The intention is to explore the meaning that children put into involving educators in their play and whether the children experience educators' actions as a resource for their play. The study is based on a phenomenological approach. Data consist of video recordings and field notes of 46 children, from one to three years old, as well as eight educators. Four main categories that illustrate children's perspectives on the role of the educators emerged: (a) assistance connected to play situations and play material, (b) confirmation of competence, (c) support connected to children's social interactions, and (d) participation in play and playful actions. The findings reveal that children's perspectives and experiences in their own life-worlds in play can be considered an important dimension that contributes to changes in the pedagogical practices that are emphasised in curriculum. (author abstract)

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