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Approaches to learning and Hispanic children's math scores: The moderating role of English proficiency
Bumgarner, Erin, May, 2013
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 35(2), 241-259

Accumulating evidence suggests that children's approaches to learning (ATL) at kindergarten entry predict their academic achievement years later. However, the gains associated with ATL may be diminished for Hispanic immigrant children, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). We tested whether ATL predicted math scores in a sample of first- and second generation Hispanic immigrants drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten cohort. We further tested whether English proficiency moderated this association. Separate models by study wave (kindergarten, first grade, and third grade) were run to examine whether associations among English proficiency, ATL, and math changed over time. Results indicated that ATL, measured at the previous wave, predicted math scores in first and third grade, but not kindergarten. Moreover, in third grade, ATL predicted math only for children who were proficient in English. The implications for Hispanic immigrant children are discussed. (author abstract)

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Are Head Start effects sustained?: A longitudinal follow-up comparison of disadvantaged children attending Head Start, no preschool, and other preschool programs
Lee, Valerie E., 1990
Child Development, 61(2), 495-507

A study of the sustained effects in kindergarten and first grade of Project Head Start for disadvantaged black children between 1969 and 1970 in two American cities

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Assessing preschoolers' self-regulation in homes and classrooms: Lessons from the field
McCabe, Lisa A., 2000
Behavioral Disorders, 26(1), 53-69

A pilot study of the Games As Measurement for Early Self-Control (GAMES) method for assessing preschool children’s ability to control their attention span and inhibitions, based on a sample of 71 children in a Head Start program

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Associations among family environment, sustained attention, and school readiness for low-income children
Razza, Rachel A., November, 2010
Developmental Psychology, 46(6), 1528-1542

A study of sustained attention as a mediator of the relationship between family environment and school readiness, based on data from 1,046 low income children, with family environment data collected at 3-years-old and both attention and school readiness data collected at 5-years of age

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Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

An interim report of the random assignment, impact evaluation of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, analyzing child and family outcomes through the first two years of children's lives.

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Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families: Volume I. Technical report
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of Early Head Start programs in improving children's outcomes, based on a national assessment of 3,000 children at 17 sites

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Child care quality in different state policy contexts
Rigby, Dawn Elizabeth, Fall 2007
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 26(4), 887-907

Using data from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we test associations between the quality of child care and state child care policies. These data, which include observations of child care and interviews with care providers and mothers for 777 children across 14 states, allow for comparisons across a broader range of policy regimes and care settings than earlier research on this topic. Using multilevel linear and logistic models, we found that more generous subsidy policies (that is, greater investment, higher income eligibility) were positively associated with the quality of care in nonprofit child care centers, as well as with the use of center care. The stringency of regulations (that is, teacher education requirements, teacher-child ratios/thresholds) was also associated with both quality and type of care, but in more complex ways. Higher teacher training requirements were positively associated with the quality of both family child care and nonprofit centers, while more stringent regulations decreased the number of children attending center care. No links were found between state policies and the quality of for-profit center care. The implications for policy makers, advocates, and policy analysts are discussed. (author abstract)

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Child-care subsidies and school readiness in kindergarten
Johnson, Anna D., September/October 2013
Child Development, 84(5), 1806-1822

The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government?s largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort, this study examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child-care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n = 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. (author abstract)

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Child-care subsidies: Do they impact the quality of care children experience?
Johnson, Anna D., July, 2012
Child Development, 83(4), 1444-1461

The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether subsidy receipt elevates child-care quality. Results indicate that subsidy recipients use higher quality care compared to nonrecipients who use no other publicly funded care, but lower quality care compared to nonrecipients who instead use Head Start or public pre-k. Findings suggest that subsidies may have the potential to enhance care quality but that parents who use subsidies are not accessing the highest quality care available to low-income families. (author abstract)

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Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: A unique research opportunity
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 1991
Developmental Psychology, 27(6), 918-931

A description of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data set and its importance and relevance to future studies in multiple disciplines

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Contracts, vouchers, and child care subsidy stability: A preliminary look at associations between subsidy payment mechanism and stability of subsidy receipt
Holod, Aleksandra, August, 2012
Child & Youth Care Forum, 41(4), 343-356

Background: The federal child care subsidy program, funded through the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), is the nation?s largest public investment in early child care. However, little is known about whether and how subsidy payment mechanisms relate to the stability of subsidy receipt or the stability of children?s care arrangements. Objective: This study is the first to explore whether subsidized care administered through contracts paid directly to providers is associated with greater stability of subsidy receipt than subsidized care administered through vouchers. Hypotheses predicted that contracts would confer stability in subsidy receipt, especially among families whose children received care in family child care homes. Methods: Data were drawn from administrative files on subsidy recipients in New York City and merged with data from a phone survey of a small subsample. The analytic sample consisted of subsidy recipients who had a history of participating in the TANF cash assistance program (weighted n = 9,087; unweighted n = 311). Results: Results indicate that subsidy payment mechanism was not associated with the number of interruptions in subsidy receipt. This finding held true of children in both family- and center-based care arrangements. (author abstract)

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Differential effects of high-quality child care
Hill, Jennifer, 2002
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 21(4), 601-627

An analysis of data collected from the Infant Health and Development Program examining the differential causal effects of access to high quality child care for at risk children who would otherwise have participated in one of three child care options: no non-maternal care, home-based non-maternal care, and center-based care

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Differential exposure to early childhood education services and mother-toddler interaction
Klebanov, Pamela Kato, Q2 2008
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(2), 213-232

A study of the effect of early childhood education services on toddler task persistence and enthusiasm, as well as maternal authoritarian behavior and support stimulation, among a sample of 880 families participating in the Infant Health and Development Program in eight states

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Does Head Start work?: A 1-year follow-up comparison of disadvantaged children attending Head Start, no preschool, and other preschool programs
Lee, Valerie E., 1988
Developmental Psychology, 24(2), 210-222

A comparison of cognitive outcomes among Head Start children, children without any preschool experience, and children enrolled in other preschool programs

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Does the neighborhood context alter the link between youth's after-school time activities and developmental outcomes? A multilevel analysis
Fauth, Rebecca, May, 2007
Developmental Psychology, 43(3), 760-777

A longitudinal analysis of the links between neighborhood characteristics and participation in after school activities, and anxiety/depression, delinquency, and substance use among a sample of 9- and 12-year-old youths, using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN)

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Early enrichment opportunities: Participation and cognitive benefits in kindergarten
Malone, Lizabeth M.,
New York: Columbia University, National Center for Children and Families.

Children's out-of-school time in elementary school can include after-school programs, informal child care, extracurricular activities, and experiences and activities with family in the home and community. This paper focuses on kindergartners' extracurricular activities and use of community resources and impact of participation on spring achievement. (author abstract)

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Early intervention in low birth weight premature infants: Results at 18 years of age for the Infant Health and Development Program
McCormick, Marie C., 2006
Pediatrics, 117(3), 771-780

Findings from a follow-up study on the persistence of cognitive and behavioral benefits from early childhood program participation in 18-year-olds who were born with low birth weight and participated in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP)

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The EC-HOME across five national data sets in the 3rd to 5th year of life
Leventhal, Tama, 2004
Parenting: Science and Practice, 4(2-3), 161-188

An analysis of the reliability and validity of newly developed subscales of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Early Childhood (EC) HOME using data from five large scale national studies

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Economic deprivation and early childhood development
Duncan, Greg, 1994
Child Development, 65(2), 296-318

A study of the impact of poverty and poverty correlates such as ethnicity, maternal education, neighborhood conditions and single parenthood on child cognitive and behavioral development, using longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development program

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The effectiveness of Early Head Start for 3-year-old children and their parents: Lessons for policy and programs
Love, John M., 2005
Developmental Psychology, 41(6), 885-901

A summary of the evaluated impacts of Early Head Start on child and parent outcomes near the end of program participation

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Effect of early educational intervention on younger siblings: The Infant Health and Development Program
McCormick, Marie C., October, 2012
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166(10), 891-896

A study of the relationship between participation of an older sibling in an early intervention program and the younger sibling's measures of intelligence, youth behavioral problems, and expectations of the future, based on data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), an eight-site randomized trial of three years of early education for premature low-birth-weight infants who were followed up through age 18, and 229 siblings of participating children born within 5 years of the IHDP study participants

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Effects of child care on psychological development: Issues and future directions for research
Friedman, Sarah, December 1994
Pediatrics, 94(6), 1069-1070

An overview of the opportunities for researching the effects of childcare on children's psychological development, highlighting the need for new methodologies to examine the complex relationships among quality of child care, the individual child's personality, and family variables

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The effects of early education intervention on maternal employment, public assistance, and health insurance: The Infant Health and Development Program
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, June, 1994
American Journal of Public Health, 84(6), 924-931

An investigation of 985 mothers and infants involved in an early childhood intervention, studying the maternal outcomes for employment, education, fertility, and receipt of public assistance and health insurance, based on interviews during pediatric visits

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The effects of early maternal employment on child cognitive development
Waldfogel, Jane, 2002
Demography, 39(2), 369-392

A study of the effects on child cognitive development at age seven or eight of maternal labor force reentry during the first three years of life, controlling for factors such as child care use, based on mothers and their children in the nationally representative National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979

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The effects of early maternal employment on later cognitive and behavioral outcomes
Han, Wen-Jui, 2001
Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63(2), 336-354

A longitudinal study controlling for factors such as child care use to determine if the effects on child cognitive development of maternal labor force reentry during the first three years of life persisted through ages seven or eight, using data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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