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Approaches to learning and Hispanic children's math scores: The moderating role of English proficiency
Bumgarner, Erin, May, 2013
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 35(2), 241-259

Accumulating evidence suggests that children's approaches to learning (ATL) at kindergarten entry predict their academic achievement years later. However, the gains associated with ATL may be diminished for Hispanic immigrant children, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). We tested whether ATL predicted math scores in a sample of first- and second generation Hispanic immigrants drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten cohort. We further tested whether English proficiency moderated this association. Separate models by study wave (kindergarten, first grade, and third grade) were run to examine whether associations among English proficiency, ATL, and math changed over time. Results indicated that ATL, measured at the previous wave, predicted math scores in first and third grade, but not kindergarten. Moreover, in third grade, ATL predicted math only for children who were proficient in English. The implications for Hispanic immigrant children are discussed. (author abstract)

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Are Head Start effects sustained?: A longitudinal follow-up comparison of disadvantaged children attending Head Start, no preschool, and other preschool programs
Lee, Valerie E., 1990
Child Development, 61(2), 495-507

A study of the sustained effects in kindergarten and first grade of Project Head Start for disadvantaged black children between 1969 and 1970 in two American cities

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Associations among family environment, sustained attention, and school readiness for low-income children
Razza, Rachel A., November, 2010
Developmental Psychology, 46(6), 1528-1542

A study of sustained attention as a mediator of the relationship between family environment and school readiness, based on data from 1,046 low income children, with family environment data collected at 3-years-old and both attention and school readiness data collected at 5-years of age

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Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

An interim report of the random assignment, impact evaluation of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project, analyzing child and family outcomes through the first two years of children's lives.

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Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families: Summary report
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

A summary of findings from the interim report of the random assignment, impact evaluation of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project.

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Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families: Volume II. Technical report appendixes
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

A compendium of studies on the influence of participation in an Early Head Start program on children’s outcomes

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Building their futures: How Early Head Start programs are enhancing the lives of infants and toddlers in low-income families: Volume I. Technical report
United States. Administration for Children and Families, 2001
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of Early Head Start programs in improving children's outcomes, based on a national assessment of 3,000 children at 17 sites

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CAP Family Life Study: Year 2 report: September 30, 2011-September 29, 2012
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 01 April, 2013
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

The present evaluation of CareerAdvance represents a strong collaboration between university research partners and CAP. The research partnership began in 2008 when nationally-recognized leaders in workforce program and policy development worked with CAP to design CareerAdvance, which was launched in 2009. In early 2010, national experts in developmental science broadened the research scope of the study to focus on children's development and family functioning in addition to parents' education, training, and financial well-being. CAP and its research partners then sought to expand the program and secure funding to examine the short-term synergistic effects of two-generation programs on parents and children. In September 2010, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) at Health and Human Services (HHS) funded a 5-year scale-up of CareerAdvance and a two-part evaluation study through the Health Profession Opportunity Grant (HPOG) Program. The research component of this first HPOG award included: (1) a short-term small-scale outcomes study; and (2) an implementation study. The initial short-term outcomes study has a one-year focus and examines several areas: program participation and advancement; career credentialing; job readiness; earnings; and a small set of child and family outcomes. The implementation study examines the systems-level influences on the structure and implementation of CareerAdvance, focusing on the degree to which the various training pathways are successfully offered, coordinated, and integrated. Recognizing the need to examine the longer-term influences of CareerAdvance, the research team secured funding from Health and Human Services (HHS) Health Profession Opportunity Grant (HPOG) University Partnership in September 2011 to conduct a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study of all CareerAdvance participants and a matched comparison group. The goals of the second award are to examine: (1) possible long-term family, parent, and child outcomes as influenced by participation in CareerAdvance; as well as (2) variations in program participation and their potential links to differential patterns of educational attainment, employment, and family health and well-being. The full research project is now referred to as the CAP Family Life Study. A key goal of Year 2 was to build on and strengthen the organizational capacity to support the ambitious research agenda. During Year 2, the researchers have focused on (1) expanding the research team, developing partnerships, and facilitating team communication; (2) designing measures as informed by our theory of change; (3) collecting data from parents, children, teachers, and staff from both CareerAdvance and CAP using quantitative and qualitative methods; and (4) processing data from multiple sources and preparing it for analysis. (author abstract)

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CAP Family Life Study: Year 2 report: September 30, 2011-September 29, 2012 [Executive summary]
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 01 April, 2013
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

The present evaluation of CareerAdvance represents a strong collaboration between university research partners and CAP. The research partnership began in 2008 when nationally-recognized leaders in workforce program and policy development worked with CAP to design CareerAdvance, which was launched in 2009. In early 2010, national experts in developmental science broadened the research scope of the study to focus on children's development and family functioning in addition to parents' education, training, and financial well-being. CAP and its research partners then sought to expand the program and secure funding to examine the short-term synergistic effects of two-generation programs on parents and children. In September 2010, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) at Health and Human Services (HHS) funded a 5-year scale-up of CareerAdvance and a two-part evaluation study through the Health Profession Opportunity Grant (HPOG) Program. The research component of this first HPOG award included: (1) a short-term small-scale outcomes study; and (2) an implementation study. The initial short-term outcomes study has a one-year focus and examines several areas: program participation and advancement; career credentialing; job readiness; earnings; and a small set of child and family outcomes. The implementation study examines the systems-level influences on the structure and implementation of CareerAdvance, focusing on the degree to which the various training pathways are successfully offered, coordinated, and integrated. Recognizing the need to examine the longer-term influences of CareerAdvance, the research team secured funding from Health and Human Services (HHS) Health Profession Opportunity Grant (HPOG) University Partnership in September 2011 to conduct a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study of all CareerAdvance participants and a matched comparison group. The goals of the second award are to examine: (1) possible long-term family, parent, and child outcomes as influenced by participation in CareerAdvance; as well as (2) variations in program participation and their potential links to differential patterns of educational attainment, employment, and family health and well-being. The full research project is now referred to as the CAP Family Life Study. A key goal of Year 2 was to build on and strengthen the organizational capacity to support the ambitious research agenda. During Year 2, the researchers have focused on (1) expanding the research team, developing partnerships, and facilitating team communication; (2) designing measures as informed by our theory of change; (3) collecting data from parents, children, teachers, and staff from both CareerAdvance and CAP using quantitative and qualitative methods; and (4) processing data from multiple sources and preparing it for analysis. (author abstract)

Executive Summary


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CAP Family Life Study: Year 3 report: September, 2012-December, 2013
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 01 April, 2014
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

CareerAdvance--administered by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP Tulsa)--combines Head Start services with education and stackable training in the healthcare sector. The program draws on the best innovations from the adult education literature by offering a sequence of programs in partnership with community colleges so that participants can make concrete progress, exit at various points with certificates, and then return for further advancement. CareerAdvance also provides a number of key supportive components, including career coaches, financial incentives, and peer group meetings, to prepare parents for high-demand jobs in the healthcare sector. CareerAdvance is one of the only fully-operating, two-generation, human capital programs in the country. The CAP Family Life Study is a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods, multi-level study of CareerAdvance, in which we examine the short-term and longer-term effects of the program on family, parent, and child outcomes. The research team for the CAP Family Life Study includes P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Teresa Eckrich Sommer, and Terri Sabol from Northwestern University, Christopher King from the University of Texas at Austin, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn at Columbia University, and Hirokazu Yoshikawa at New York University. The current study investigates how variation in program participation is linked to different subgroup patterns of educational attainment, employment, and family health and well-being. The CAP Family Life Study includes a combination of primary quantitative and qualitative data collection and secondary data. For primary data collection, we conduct an array of parent, child, and teacher assessments and surveys. We are implementing a qualitative study that includes intensive individual interviews and focus groups with parents and CAP staff. We also collect and integrate existing data resources to enhance our primary data collection, including data from CAP Tulsa and Oklahoma administrative data. Collectively, the primary and secondary data provide an unprecedented opportunity to address the effects of a dual-generation workforce development program on low-income parents' and children's well-being. This report presents our progress in Year 3 of the CAP Family Life Study. This year we advanced the development and implementation of our two-generation evaluation design and conducted our first study on program persistence and educational success for CareerAdvance parents. We expanded our data collection to include Wave 3 data collection for Cohort 4, Wave 2 data collection for Cohorts 5 and 6, and baseline data collection for Cohorts 7 and 8. We also selected the matched comparison group for Cohorts 7 and 8, using the same advanced statistical matching technique used for previous cohorts to select parents who closely match CareerAdvance participants. We continue to find that the matched comparison and CareerAdvance groups have similar baseline characteristics, which is central to the success of the study (see Section 2). In addition, a key goal of Year 3 was to better understand how participants progress through CareerAdvance, and how this program compares to similar workforce training and education programs for low-income students. We made important progress in defining and coding participants' progress in CareerAdvance to understand educational persistence, advancement, and achievement. We also conducted a literature review on existing workforce development programs and find that persistence in CareerAdvance after one year is equal to and some cases surpasses that of similar programs. (author abstract)

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CAP Family Life Study: Year 3 report: September, 2012-December, 2013 [Executive summary]
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 01 April, 2014
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

CareerAdvance--administered by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP Tulsa)--combines Head Start services with education and stackable training in the healthcare sector. The program draws on the best innovations from the adult education literature by offering a sequence of programs in partnership with community colleges so that participants can make concrete progress, exit at various points with certificates, and then return for further advancement. CareerAdvance also provides a number of key supportive components, including career coaches, financial incentives, and peer group meetings, to prepare parents for high-demand jobs in the healthcare sector. CareerAdvance is one of the only fully-operating, two-generation, human capital programs in the country. The CAP Family Life Study is a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods, multi-level study of CareerAdvance, in which we examine the short-term and longer-term effects of the program on family, parent, and child outcomes. The research team for the CAP Family Life Study includes P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Teresa Eckrich Sommer, and Terri Sabol from Northwestern University, Christopher King from the University of Texas at Austin, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn at Columbia University, and Hirokazu Yoshikawa at New York University. The current study investigates how variation in program participation is linked to different subgroup patterns of educational attainment, employment, and family health and well-being. The CAP Family Life Study includes a combination of primary quantitative and qualitative data collection and secondary data. For primary data collection, we conduct an array of parent, child, and teacher assessments and surveys. We are implementing a qualitative study that includes intensive individual interviews and focus groups with parents and CAP staff. We also collect and integrate existing data resources to enhance our primary data collection, including data from CAP Tulsa and Oklahoma administrative data. Collectively, the primary and secondary data provide an unprecedented opportunity to address the effects of a dual-generation workforce development program on low-income parents' and children's well-being. This report presents our progress in Year 3 of the CAP Family Life Study. This year we advanced the development and implementation of our two-generation evaluation design and conducted our first study on program persistence and educational success for CareerAdvance parents. We expanded our data collection to include Wave 3 data collection for Cohort 4, Wave 2 data collection for Cohorts 5 and 6, and baseline data collection for Cohorts 7 and 8. We also selected the matched comparison group for Cohorts 7 and 8, using the same advanced statistical matching technique used for previous cohorts to select parents who closely match CareerAdvance participants. We continue to find that the matched comparison and CareerAdvance groups have similar baseline characteristics, which is central to the success of the study (see Section 2). In addition, a key goal of Year 3 was to better understand how participants progress through CareerAdvance, and how this program compares to similar workforce training and education programs for low-income students. We made important progress in defining and coding participants' progress in CareerAdvance to understand educational persistence, advancement, and achievement. We also conducted a literature review on existing workforce development programs and find that persistence in CareerAdvance after one year is equal to and some cases surpasses that of similar programs. (author abstract)

Executive Summary


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CareerAdvance Outcomes Study: Year 1 report: September 30, 2010-September 29, 2011
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 09 February, 2012
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

The CAP Family Life Study has demonstrated a promising start in supporting the ambitious research agenda. Thus far, the university partners have developed the design and infrastructure across multiple institutions and agencies. These include: (1) creating the organizational capacity of the research team; (2) designing the quasi-experimental design of the study; (3) developing data systems; (4) designing the parent survey; and (5) selecting and recruiting families into the study. Although CAP enrolled 3 cohorts of participants between 2009 and 2011, the Family Life Study, as funded by ACF, begins with Cohort 4. Cohort 1-3 includes 35 parents in the nursing track. The health information technology (HIT) was added for Cohort 4, and so Cohort 4 includes 14 parents in the nursing track, and 15 parents in HIT. (A detailed description of Cohorts 1-3 can be found in the Implementation Report; see Section 1 Appendix). A key goal of Year 1 was also to develop a theory of change (presented in Section 3 of this report) and design a study that examines the influence of CareerAdvance on children and parents. In terms of testing possible change in parents and children over time, ideally we would have employed a randomized control trial to examine the causal effects of CareerAdvance on short- and long-term outcomes. However, the program is relatively new, and CAP's immediate goal is to expand CareerAdvance to all of its early childhood education centers with a seven-fold increase in participants over five years (from 29 participants in 2011 to approximately 210 participants in 2015). A randomized trial from a waitlist will be feasible only when the program is oversubscribed. In order to account for the potentially non-random selection of participants in CareerAdvance, we employed propensity score matching to identify pairs of families who are statistically indistinguishable on observable characteristics and behaviors except for the fact that one parent is enrolled in CareerAdvance and one is not. Propensity score matching used CAP's data set that was drawn from families' enrollment forms and meetings with support staff. As of January 2012, the CAP Family Life Study included all 29 Cohort 4 CareerAdvance participants and 30 matched-comparison families. Overall, our results indicate that the comparison group is relatively well-matched to Cohort 4 CareerAdvance participants across a number of demographic and psychological characteristics. Of note is that independent data from our individual interviews with parents confirm the strong equivalence of the matched-comparison group to the CareerAdvance participants. Focus group data collected in December 2011 with 25 of the 29 CareerAdvance Cohort 4 Nursing and Health Information Track participants indicate that CareerAdvance is highly valued by parents and may have important dual-generation influences. Parents seem to gain, for example, from increased confidence in returning to school, intensive peer and staff support, and enrolling in an all-expense paid training program. Children and parents appear to benefit from the learning and role modeling that occurs when their parents return to school. We find support for the peer cohort model of the program, especially its potential influence on educational persistence. Moreover, we have initial indications of important changes in parent-child interactions in the home that may influence positively children's development and academic achievement, as well as improve parenting practices. Bi-annual focus groups and longitudinal interview data will test further these hypotheses and provide important insights into the most effective elements of the CareerAdvance training program and its potential for longer term impact on the academic, career, and financial success of parents and children. This report reflects the development of a dual-generation evaluation design and initial baseline characteristics of the first cohort under study. (author abstract)

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CareerAdvance Outcomes Study: Year 1 report: September 30, 2010-September 29, 2011 [Executive summary]
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 09 February, 2012
Tulsa, OK: Community Action Project of Tulsa County.

The CAP Family Life Study has demonstrated a promising start in supporting the ambitious research agenda. Thus far, the university partners have developed the design and infrastructure across multiple institutions and agencies. These include: (1) creating the organizational capacity of the research team; (2) designing the quasi-experimental design of the study; (3) developing data systems; (4) designing the parent survey; and (5) selecting and recruiting families into the study. Although CAP enrolled 3 cohorts of participants between 2009 and 2011, the Family Life Study, as funded by ACF, begins with Cohort 4. Cohort 1-3 includes 35 parents in the nursing track. The health information technology (HIT) was added for Cohort 4, and so Cohort 4 includes 14 parents in the nursing track, and 15 parents in HIT. (A detailed description of Cohorts 1-3 can be found in the Implementation Report; see Section 1 Appendix). A key goal of Year 1 was also to develop a theory of change (presented in Section 3 of this report) and design a study that examines the influence of CareerAdvance on children and parents. In terms of testing possible change in parents and children over time, ideally we would have employed a randomized control trial to examine the causal effects of CareerAdvance on short- and long-term outcomes. However, the program is relatively new, and CAP's immediate goal is to expand CareerAdvance to all of its early childhood education centers with a seven-fold increase in participants over five years (from 29 participants in 2011 to approximately 210 participants in 2015). A randomized trial from a waitlist will be feasible only when the program is oversubscribed. In order to account for the potentially non-random selection of participants in CareerAdvance, we employed propensity score matching to identify pairs of families who are statistically indistinguishable on observable characteristics and behaviors except for the fact that one parent is enrolled in CareerAdvance and one is not. Propensity score matching used CAP's data set that was drawn from families' enrollment forms and meetings with support staff. As of January 2012, the CAP Family Life Study included all 29 Cohort 4 CareerAdvance participants and 30 matched-comparison families. Overall, our results indicate that the comparison group is relatively well-matched to Cohort 4 CareerAdvance participants across a number of demographic and psychological characteristics. Of note is that independent data from our individual interviews with parents confirm the strong equivalence of the matched-comparison group to the CareerAdvance participants. Focus group data collected in December 2011 with 25 of the 29 CareerAdvance Cohort 4 Nursing and Health Information Track participants indicate that CareerAdvance is highly valued by parents and may have important dual-generation influences. Parents seem to gain, for example, from increased confidence in returning to school, intensive peer and staff support, and enrolling in an all-expense paid training program. Children and parents appear to benefit from the learning and role modeling that occurs when their parents return to school. We find support for the peer cohort model of the program, especially its potential influence on educational persistence. Moreover, we have initial indications of important changes in parent-child interactions in the home that may influence positively children's development and academic achievement, as well as improve parenting practices. Bi-annual focus groups and longitudinal interview data will test further these hypotheses and provide important insights into the most effective elements of the CareerAdvance training program and its potential for longer term impact on the academic, career, and financial success of parents and children. This report reflects the development of a dual-generation evaluation design and initial baseline characteristics of the first cohort under study. (author abstract)

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Child care preferences and satisfaction: An examination of New York City subsidy recipients
Holod, Aleksandra, January 2010
New York: Columbia University, National Center for Children and Families.

Highlights of an exploration of the selection of and satisfaction with child care arrangements by New York City parents who receive child care subsidies

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Child care quality in different state policy contexts
Rigby, Dawn Elizabeth, Fall 2007
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 26(4), 887-907

Using data from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we test associations between the quality of child care and state child care policies. These data, which include observations of child care and interviews with care providers and mothers for 777 children across 14 states, allow for comparisons across a broader range of policy regimes and care settings than earlier research on this topic. Using multilevel linear and logistic models, we found that more generous subsidy policies (that is, greater investment, higher income eligibility) were positively associated with the quality of care in nonprofit child care centers, as well as with the use of center care. The stringency of regulations (that is, teacher education requirements, teacher-child ratios/thresholds) was also associated with both quality and type of care, but in more complex ways. Higher teacher training requirements were positively associated with the quality of both family child care and nonprofit centers, while more stringent regulations decreased the number of children attending center care. No links were found between state policies and the quality of for-profit center care. The implications for policy makers, advocates, and policy analysts are discussed. (author abstract)

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Child care quality matters: How conclusions may vary with context
Love, John M., 2003
Child Development, 74(4), 1021-1033

An analysis of three national studies on child care quality and the impact of quality on child development

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Child-care subsidies and school readiness in kindergarten
Johnson, Anna D., September/October 2013
Child Development, 84(5), 1806-1822

The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort, this study examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child-care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n = 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. (author abstract)

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Child-care subsidies: Do they impact the quality of care children experience?
Johnson, Anna D., July, 2012
Child Development, 83(4), 1444-1461

The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether subsidy receipt elevates child-care quality. Results indicate that subsidy recipients use higher quality care compared to nonrecipients who use no other publicly funded care, but lower quality care compared to nonrecipients who instead use Head Start or public pre-k. Findings suggest that subsidies may have the potential to enhance care quality but that parents who use subsidies are not accessing the highest quality care available to low-income families. (author abstract)

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Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: A unique research opportunity
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, 1991
Developmental Psychology, 27(6), 918-931

A description of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data set and its importance and relevance to future studies in multiple disciplines

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Conclusions and implications
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, February, 2013
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78(1), 130-143

A summary and discussion of implications from a special issue of the Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development focusing on the impacts of Early Head Start on child and family outcomes, including children's socioemotional and cognitive development and families' well-being and home environments, based on data for 3,001 randomly-assigned low income families

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Contracts, vouchers, and child care subsidy stability: A preliminary look at associations between subsidy payment mechanism and stability of subsidy receipt
Holod, Aleksandra, August, 2012
Child & Youth Care Forum, 41(4), 343-356

Background: The federal child care subsidy program, funded through the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), is the nation?s largest public investment in early child care. However, little is known about whether and how subsidy payment mechanisms relate to the stability of subsidy receipt or the stability of children?s care arrangements. Objective: This study is the first to explore whether subsidized care administered through contracts paid directly to providers is associated with greater stability of subsidy receipt than subsidized care administered through vouchers. Hypotheses predicted that contracts would confer stability in subsidy receipt, especially among families whose children received care in family child care homes. Methods: Data were drawn from administrative files on subsidy recipients in New York City and merged with data from a phone survey of a small subsample. The analytic sample consisted of subsidy recipients who had a history of participating in the TANF cash assistance program (weighted n = 9,087; unweighted n = 311). Results: Results indicate that subsidy payment mechanism was not associated with the number of interruptions in subsidy receipt. This finding held true of children in both family- and center-based care arrangements. (author abstract)

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The contribution of parenting to ethnic and racial gaps in school readiness
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, 2005
The Future of Children, 15(1), 139-168

An overview of the research literature regarding parent characteristics and child outcomes that proposes children's school readiness is influenced by parenting behavior

Other


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Differential effects of high-quality child care
Hill, Jennifer, 2002
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 21(4), 601-627

An analysis of data collected from the Infant Health and Development Program examining the differential causal effects of access to high quality child care for at risk children who would otherwise have participated in one of three child care options: no non-maternal care, home-based non-maternal care, and center-based care

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Differential exposure to early childhood education services and mother-toddler interaction
Klebanov, Pamela Kato, Q2 2008
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(2), 213-232

A study of the effect of early childhood education services on toddler task persistence and enthusiasm, as well as maternal authoritarian behavior and support stimulation, among a sample of 880 families participating in the Infant Health and Development Program in eight states

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Does the amount of participation in afterschool programs relate to developmental outcomes?: A review of the literature
Roth, Jodie L., June 2010
American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(3-4), 310-324

A review of literature on the relationship between participation in after school programs and academic, behavioral, or socioemotional outcomes, based on 35 studies

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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