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Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention: Extending validity and relevance across multiple perspectives
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca, 2004
Psychology in the Schools, 41(7), 725-736

Two studies evaluating the behavioral and emotional difficulties of Head Start preschool children, and assessing the reliability and concurrent validity of the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention (ASPI)

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Assessment of preschool early literacy skills: Linking children's educational needs with empirically supported instructional activities
Lonigan, Christopher J., May, 2011
Psychology in the Schools, 48(5), 488-501

The importance of the preschool period in becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at risk of later reading difficulties to acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings require the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this article, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment. (author abstract)

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Attachment relationships as predictors of language skills for at-risk bilingual preschool children
Oades-Sese, Geraldine V., August, 2011
Psychology in the Schools, 48(7), 707-722

A study of the association between both English and Spanish language competence and the type of attachment relationship between preschool children and both their teachers and parents, and an examination of differences by child gender and level of parental acculturation, based on data collected from a sample of 468 Hispanic American children attending 7 urban child care or early childhood centers

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Behavior management in preschool classrooms: Insights revealed through systematic observation and interview
Ritz, Mariah, February, 2014
Psychology in the Schools, 51(2), 181-197

This mixed methods study examined behavior management strategies used by preschool teachers to address student noncompliance in the classroom. Specifically, the study aimed to (1) examine the methods that preschool teachers are currently using to respond to noncompliant behavior in their classrooms, (2) measure the frequency with which each strategy is used or attempted, and (3) examine the reasons that teachers have chosen to use particular strategies. Observations and teacher interviews were conducted in five classrooms across two preschools located in a Midwest state. Results revealed that teachers use a variety of strategies to address noncompliance, many of which were also preventative in nature and designed to increase students' self-regulation. In addition, behavior management techniques that are currently recommended by research (e.g., guided compliance and proximity praise) were generally practiced by teachers in the participating schools. However, students were reinforced for appropriate behavior following noncompliance less than one-third of the time. These results suggest that teachers are using a broad range of recommended strategies, but the results also serve as a reminder of the importance of providing positive reinforcement for appropriate behavior following an episode of noncompliance. Additional implications for school practitioners and future research are provided. (author abstract)

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BEST in CLASS: A classroom-based model for ameliorating problem behavior in early childhood settings
Vo, Abigail K., May, 2012
Psychology in the Schools, 49(5), 402-415

A description of the Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Training: Competent Learners Achieving School Success (BEST in CLASS) classroom-based intervention designed to help early childhood teachers master instructional strategies for preventing and ameliorating problem behavior in at risk young children, and a pilot study to examine teachers' ability to implement the program as well as its influence on children's problem behaviors, social competence, and teacher-child relationships, based on data from 10 early childhood teachers and 19 3- to 5-year-old children

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Boarding of upper middle class toddlers in China
Brassard, Marla R., 2005
Psychology in the Schools, 42(3), 297-304

A discussion of the recent trend of Chinese, upper middle class families boarding toddlers, based on anecdotal observations of three Chinese boarding schools

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Child and informant influences on behavioral ratings of preschool children
Phillips, Beth M., April 2010
Psychology in the Schools, 47(4), 374-390

An investigation of relationships among teacher, parent, and observer behavioral ratings of 3- and 4-year-old children within and across children from middle-and low-income backgrounds from 166 preschool children across 2 years of data collection

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Children's affective orientations in preschool and their initial adjustment to kindergarten
Daniels, Denise, March, 2014
Psychology in the Schools, 51(3), 256-272

Children's prior attitudes toward school may be an important entry factor to consider in their initial adjustment to kindergarten. This short-term longitudinal study examined children's affective orientations and other school-related perceptions and approaches to learning in late preschool and then 1 to 2 months after entry into kindergarten. Child, parent, and teacher reports were obtained, and classroom practices were observed. Findings showed that children who anticipated liking school demonstrated more positive approaches and adjustment in kindergarten than did less enthusiastic children. Children's approaches to learning in the classroom, reported by teachers and parents, were similar across the transition from preschool to kindergarten, despite notable differences in practices. Recommendations for practice include attending to children's affective orientations, involving multiple informants in school readiness assessments, and fostering communication among teachers in school transition activities. (author abstract)

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Concurrent and predictive validity of the Phelps Kindergarten Readiness Scale-II
Duncan, Jennifer, 2005
Psychology in the Schools, 42(4), 355-359

A study of the concurrent and predictive validity of the Phelps Kindergarten Readiness Scale, Second Edition (PKRS-II) in a sample of 74 kindergarten students as a screening tool for possible learning difficulties

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Curriculum and assessment considerations for young children from culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse backgrounds
Espinosa, Linda M., 2005
Psychology in the Schools, 42(8), 837-853

A review of research on effective teaching and assessment practices for young children from diverse backgrounds, including recommendations for school personnel in managing cultural and linguistic discrepancies between students and teachers

Literature Review


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Development and validation of the preschool learning behaviors scale
McDermott, Paul, 2002
Psychology in the Schools, 39(4), 353-365

A discussion of the validation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS) for use with children aged 3 to 5- ˝ years, three samples were used; a normative sample used for use in scale development and calibration; a national validation sample for assessing construct invariance and divergent validity; and a local Head Start sample used for retest and interobserver reliability and validity

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Effects of a multifocused prevention program on preschool children's competencies and behavior problems
Stefan, Catrinel A., April, 2013
Psychology in the Schools, 50(4), 382-402

This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a multifocused (child-, teacher- and parent-focused) prevention program for Romanian preschoolers, targeting social-emotional competence development, as well as reduction of behavior problems. Fourteen classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. Subsequent hierarchical linear analyses indicated that intervention-group children performed better on experimental tasks measuring emotion knowledge and social problem-solving strategies, and received higher assessments by their teachers and parents on measures of social-emotional competencies and externalizing problems. These results indicate that a prevention program combining intervention strategies for both high- and low-risk children is effective across a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. Moreover, a short four-session parent group training employed to attract parent participation elicited an acceptable overall attendance rate (54%), indicating the sustainability of parent intervention in the context of community-based interventions. (author abstract)

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Empirically valid strategies to improve social and emotional competence of preschool children
McCabe, Paul C., May, 2011
Psychology in the Schools, 48(5), 513-540

Research over the past few decades has highlighted the importance of social and emotional competence in preschool children on later academic, social, and psychological outcomes. Children who are socially and emotionally competent have increased socialization opportunities with peers, develop more friends, have better relationships with their parents and teachers, and enjoy more academic and social successes. Children who lack social and emotional competence are at risk for reduced socialization opportunities, rejection, withdrawal, behavioral disturbance, and achievement problems. Intervention programs that target social-emotional development in preschool are ideally situated to bolster these skills before the problems exacerbate. In this paper, research on the importance of social and emotional competence in young children is reviewed as it relates to immediate and long-term outcomes. Assessments of social and emotional development and behavioral adjustment are briefly reviewed, followed by a review of intervention programs with demonstrated empirical efficacy. Although preliminary evidence supports the utility of these intervention programs, additional research on short- and long-term efficacy is recommended, and more programs designed specifically for early childhood are needed. (author abstract)

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Evaluating beginning reading software for at-risk learners
Bishop, M.J., 2006
Psychology in the Schools, 43(1), 57-70

A framework based on early reading education and instructional technology to evaluate the design and content of instructional software for improving early reading skills

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An examination of the contributions of interactive peer play to salient classroom competencies for urban Head Start children
Fantuzzo, John W., 2004
Psychology in the Schools, 41(3), 323-36

A journal article on the relationship of urban Head Start children's peer play competence to emotional regulation, autonomy, receptive language skill, and later cognitive, social, and motor outcomes

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How teachers respond to concerns about misbehavior in their classroom
Martin, Andrew J., 1999
Psychology in the Schools, 36(4), 347-358

A discussion of teacher response to misbehavior in the classroom, and how that response relates to teacher confidence

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Identifying and promoting social competence with African American preschool children: Developmental and contextual considerations
Mendez, Julia, 2002
Psychology in the Schools, 39(1), 111-123

A study assessing temperament, language, self-regulation, and peer play, in a sample of 139 low-income African American children attending Head Start

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Intervention Rating Profile
Witt, Joseph C., 1983
Psychology in the Schools, 20, 510-517

Instruments


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Introduction to the special issue: Preschool assessment and intervention
Ward, Kimberly E., May, 2011
Psychology in the Schools, 48(5), 427-429

An introduction to a special issue of the journal Psychology in the Schools, focusing on assessment practices, screening activities, and related interventions that address many domains of young children's development

Other


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Introduction to the special issue: Preschool assessment and intervention
Ward, Kimberly E., May, 2011
Psychology in the Schools, 48(5), 427-429

An introduction to a special issue of the journal Psychology in the Schools, focusing on assessment practices, screening activities, and related interventions that address many domains of young children's development

Other


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Joint confirmatory factor analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Third Edition, and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition, with a preschool population
Chang, Mei, January, 2014
Psychology in the Schools, 51(1), 32-57

This study examined the underlying constructs measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Third Edition (WJ-III COG) and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5), based on the Cattell-Horn-Carrol (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities. This study reports the results of the first joint confirmatory factor analysis of the WJ-III COG and SB5 with an independently collected preschool-aged sample. The WJ-III COG and SB5 were administered to 200 preschool-aged children of 4 to 5 with no known disorders or disabilities. Confirmatory factor analyses using maximum likelihood estimation were conducted to evaluate three models of increasing complexity and two alternative models to determine which model best describe the underlying constructs measured by the WJ-III COG and the SB5. Though none of the models displayed a good fit to the data, results showed that the underlying construct of the two tests was best represented by a Three-Stratum alternative CHC model in which the Gf factor and subtests were omitted. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to provide further insights into the actual latent structure underlying the data. Implications of findings to guide school-based practitioners in using cross-battery assessment with preschool children were addressed. (author abstract)

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Making visible teacher reports of their teaching experiences: The Early Childhood Teacher Experiences Scale
Fantuzzo, John W., February, 2012
Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 194-205

An account of the development and testing of the Early Childhood Teacher Experiences Scale (ECTES)--a multidimensional measure of early childhood teacher experiences for use by preschool, kindergarten, and first grade teachers--as well as an examination of both the relationship between ECTES factors and teacher practices, and differences in teacher experience by program and degree, based on a survey of 584 early childhood educators

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A multivariate examination of parent involvement and the school and academic competencies of urban kindergarten children
McWayne, Christine M., 2004
Psychology in the Schools, 41(3), 363-377

An examination of the relationship between parental involvement and kindergarten children's academic and behavioral functioning, using the Parent Involvement in Children's Education Scale (PICES)

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Neighborhood socioeconomic well-being, home literacy, and early literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers
Froiland, John Mark, September, 2013
Psychology in the Schools, 50(8), 755-769

In response to growing research and policy interest in the developmental contexts of early literacy, this study examined relations between neighborhood socioeconomic well-being, home literacy (parent-child shared reading and number of books at home), and directly assessed early literacy outcomes among 551 Head Start students in the fall of preschool. In Structural Equation Models, neighborhood socioeconomic well-being predicted home literacy, which in turn predicted early literacy (a latent variable derived from receptive vocabulary, letter-word identification, and concepts about print). Implications for future research concerning parent involvement at home in the context of neighborhoods and the early literacy of at-risk preschoolers is discussed. (author abstract)

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Observations and ratings of preschool children's social behavior: Issues of representativeness and validity
McKevitt, Brian C., 2004
Psychology in the Schools, 42(1), 13-26

An examination of children’s social behavior in a child care setting, based on observations of two children enrolled, assessed using the Social Skills Rating System-Teacher Version (SSRS-T)

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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