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Child care structure, process, outcome: Direct and indirect effects of child care quality on young children's development
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2002
Psychological Science, 13(3), 199-206

A study exploring whether process measures of child care quality mediate the relationship between structural features of child care quality and child outcomes, based on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

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Different patterns, but equivalent predictors, of growth in reading in consistent and inconsistent orthographies
Caravolas, Marketa, August, 2013
Psychological Science, 24(8), 1398-1407

All alphabetic orthographies use letters in printed words to represent the phonemes in spoken words, but they differ in the consistency of the relationship between letters and phonemes. English appears to be the least consistent alphabetic orthography phonologically, and, consequently, children learn to read more slowly in English than in languages with more consistent orthographies. In this article, we report the first longitudinal evidence that the growth of reading skills is slower and follows a different trajectory in English than in two much more consistent orthographies (Spanish and Czech). Nevertheless, phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge, and rapid automatized naming measured at the onset of literacy instruction did not differ in importance as predictors of variations in reading development among the three languages. These findings suggest that although children may learn to read more rapidly in more consistent than in less consistent orthographies, there may nevertheless be universal cognitive prerequisites for learning to read in all alphabetic orthographies. (author abstract)

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Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk
Izard, Carroll, 2001
Psychological Science, 12(1), 18-23

A longitudinal study examining the correlation between a child’s ability to recognize and label emotion expressions and positive and negative social behavior and academic competence in economically disadvantaged children

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Predicting literacy at age 7 from preliteracy at age 4
Oliver, Bonamy R., 2005
Psychological Science, 16(11), 861-865

An examination of how young children's preliteracy knowledge and early literacy experiences affect their literacy skills at age seven

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Preschools reduce early academic-achievement gaps: A longitudinal twin approach
Tucker-Drob, Elliot Max, March, 2012
Psychological Science, 23(3), 310-319

A longitudinal study of the influences of preschool attendance, early mental ability, race, socioeconomic status, parental interactions, genetics, and shared environments on early reading and math scores in a sample of 600 twin pairs

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Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function
Moreno, Sylvain, November, 2011
Psychological Science, 22(11), 1425-1433

A longitudinal comparison of the vocabulary, spatial ability, and executive function of children participating in one of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children--one for music and the other for visual art, based on data from 64 4- and 6-year-olds from various neighborhoods in a large city in Canada

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Teaching young children a theory of nutrition: Conceptual change and the potential for increased vegetable consumption
Gripshover, Sarah J., August, 2013
Psychological Science, 24(8), 1541-1553

In two experiments, we used a novel approach to educating young children about nutrition. Instead of teaching simple facts, we provided a rich conceptual framework that helped children understand the need to eat a variety of healthy foods. Using the insight that children's knowledge can be organized into coherent belief systems, or intuitive theories, we (a) analyzed the incipient knowledge that guides young children's reasoning about the food-body relationship, (b) identified the prerequisites that children need to conceptualize food as a source of nutrition, and (c) devised a strategy for teaching young children a coherent theory of food as a source of diverse nutrients. In these two experiments, we showed that children can learn and generalize this conceptual framework. Moreover, this learning led children to eat more vegetables at snack time. Our findings demonstrate that young children can benefit from an intervention that capitalizes on their developing intuitive theories about nutrition. (author abstract)

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Visual environment, attention allocation, and learning in young children: When too much of a good thing may be bad
Fisher, Anna V., 2014
Psychological Science, (), 1-9

A large body of evidence supports the importance of focused attention for encoding and task performance. Yet young children with immature regulation of focused attention are often placed in elementary-school classrooms containing many displays that are not relevant to ongoing instruction. We investigated whether such displays can affect children's ability to maintain focused attention during instruction and to learn the lesson content. We placed kindergarten children in a laboratory classroom for six introductory science lessons, and we experimentally manipulated the visual environment in the classroom. Children were more distracted by the visual environment, spent more time off task, and demonstrated smaller learning gains when the walls were highly decorated than when the decorations were removed. (author abstract)

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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