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"Academic redshirting" in kindergarten: Prevalence, patterns, and implications
Bassok, Daphna, September, 2013
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 35(3), 283-297

We use two nationally representative data sets to estimate the prevalence of kindergarten "redshirting"-- the decision to delay a child's school entry. We find that between 4% and 5.5% of children delay kindergarten, a lower number than typically reported in popular and academic accounts. Male, White, and high-SES children are most likely to delay kindergarten, and schools serving larger proportions of White and high-income children have far higher rates of delayed entry. We find no evidence that children with lower cognitive or social abilities at age 4 are more likely to redshirt, suggesting parents' decisions to delay entry may be driven by concerns about children's relative position within a kindergarten cohort. Implications for policy are discussed. (author abstract)

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Age 21 cost-benefit analysis of the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers
Reynolds, Arthur J., 2002
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 24(4), 267-303

A cost benefit analysis of the federally funded Chicago Child-Parent Center program using data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study from a cohort of children born in 1980

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Benefit-cost analysis of the Perry Preschool Program and its policy implications
Barnett, W. Steven, 1985
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 7(4), 333-342

A benefit-cost analysis of the Perry Preschool project, a discussion of its net value, and implications for future policy decisions

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Can government raise child-care quality?: The influence of family demand, poverty, and policy
Fuller, Bruce, 1993
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 15(3), 255-278

A national survey of the influence of state standards, subsidies, tax credits and vouchers on preschool quality based on three contexts of family demands: statewide levels of wealth, maternal employment, and poverty rates

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The child-care and preschool workforce: Demographics, earnings, and unequal distribution
Fuller, Bruce, 2001
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 23(1), 37-55

A discussion using the 2000 census data to assess inequalities in the supply and quality of early education organizations and their staff

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Can research design explain variation in Head Start research results?: A meta-analysis of cognitive and achievement outcomes
Shager, Hilary, March, 2013
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 35(1), 76-95

This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and attrition. Across program evaluations, the average program-level effect size was 0.27 standard deviations. About 41% of the variation in estimates across evaluations can be explained by research design features, including the extent to which the control group experienced other forms of early care or education, and 11% of the variation within programs can be explained by the quality and type of the outcome measures. (author abstract)

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Does the age that children start kindergarten matter?: Evidence of long-term educational and social outcomes
Lincove, Jane A., 2006
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 28(2), 153-179

An investigation using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 to examine the effects of kindergarten entry age on long-term outcomes, including dropping out of high school, teen pregnancy, eighth-grade achievement scores, and college entry

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Early education policy alternatives: Comparing quality and outcomes of Head Start and state prekindergarten
Henry, Gary T., 2006
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 28(1), 77-99

A study comparing the impact of state prekindergarten and Head Start programs on young children's developmental outcomes by assessing their academic, social and emotional skills as well as program quality

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The effect of early childhood intervention and subsequent special education services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers
Conyers, Liza M., 2003
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95

An examination of the impact of participating in the Chicago Child-Parent Centers on the likelihood of urban, low income, African American children receiving special education services in elementary school

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Effects of class size and instruction on kindergarten achievement
Milesi, Carolina, Winter 2006
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 28(4), 287-313

An analysis of the effects of class size on achievement in kindergarten, using hierarchical linear models, and data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-99

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Effects of different curricula in early childhood intervention
Weikart, David P., 1981
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 3(6), 25-35

A study of the effects of different curricula in early intervention programs on aptitude tests administered to children in the first five years of elementary school and eighth grade

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Effects of kindergarten retention policy on children's cognitive growth in reading and mathematics
Hong, Guanglei, 2005
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 27(3), 205-224

An inquiry into the impact of the grade retention policy on kindergarteners, based on a subsample of 11,843 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K)

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The efficacy of public preschool programs and the relationship of program quality to efficacy
Barnett, W. Steven, 1988
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 10(1), 37-49

A longitudinal study of the quality of new public preschool programs using the High/Scope curriculum and its effects on the school readiness of disadvantaged children in South Carolina

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Evaluating preschool programs: A meta-analytic approach
Goldring, Ellen B., 1986
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 8(2), 179-188

An analysis of the effectiveness of preschool intervention programs

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Longitudinal achievement effects of multiyear summer school: Evidence from the Teach Baltimore randomized field trial
Borman, Geoffrey D., Spring 2006
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 28(1), 25-48

An evaluation of the impact of a Teach Baltimore, multiyear summer school program, on the academic achievements of students from high-poverty schools

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Market failure?: Estimating inequality in preschool availability
Fuller, Bruce, 1996
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 18(1), 31-49

A journal article presenting two studies, one using a nationwide sample of counties and the other using all zip codes in Massachusetts to analyze the geographic distribution of the supply of child care centers

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An old and a new question on the effects of early education for children from low income families
Hebbeler, Kathleen, 1985
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 7(3), 207-216

An evaluation of the long term effects and performance of children enrolled in a Head Start Program in Montgomery County

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Preschool mainstreaming: A policy and implementation analysis
Turnbull, Ann, 1982
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 4(3), 281-291

An analysis of the intended and unintended consequences of mainstreaming handicapped preschool children

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Teaching students what they already know?: The (mis)alignment between mathematics instructional content and student knowledge in kindergarten
Engel, Mimi, June, 2013
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 35(2), 157-178

Kindergarten mathematics skills are important for subsequent achievement, yet mathematics is underemphasized in kindergarten classrooms. Using nationally representative data, this study explored the relationship between students' school-entry math skills, classroom content coverage, and end-of-kindergarten math achievement. Although the vast majority of children entered kindergarten having mastered basic counting and able to recognize simple geometric shapes, their teachers reported spending the most mathematics time-typically about 13 days per month-on this content. On average, exposure to this basic mathematics content was negatively associated with math achievement across kindergarten. Importantly, children with the lowest levels of math skills benefited from exposure to this basic mathematics content whereas other children benefited from exposure to more advanced content. (author abstract)

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Updating the economic impacts of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program
Nores, Milagros, 2005
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 27(3), 245-261

A determination of the long-term costs and benefits of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program on participants, based on data from a follow-up survey of 119 participants at age 40

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When elementary school stay open late: Results from the national evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers program
James-Burdumy, Susanne, December 2007
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 29(4), 296-318

A study of the impact of participation in the 21st Century Community Learning Centers after school program on students' supervision, after-school activities, homework and tutoring activities, academic outcomes, behavioral outcomes, safety, developmental outcomes, and parent involvement, with subgroup analyses by grade level, reading level at baseline, behavior problems at baseline, student race and ethnicity, student gender, and household type, based data from 2,308 elementary students in 12 school districts and 26 afterschool centers

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Where do Head Start attendees end up?: One reason why preschool effects fade out
Lee, Valerie E., 1995
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 17(1), 62-82

A study of the relationship between Head Start experience and the quality of schools subsequently attended by eighth graders

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Who benefits from kindergarten?: Evidence from the introduction of state subsidization
Dhuey, Elizabeth, March, 2011
Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 33(1), 3-22

An estimation of short-term and long-term changes to the academic and labor market outcomes of children entering kindergarten after the introduction of state-subsidized universal kindergarten in the United States

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Research Connections is supported by grant #90YE0104 from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents are solely the responsibility of the National Center for Children in Poverty and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, the Administration for Children and Families, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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